Read by QxMD icon Read

ejection seat

Eli Raneses, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts to pass rear seat belt laws for adults have been hampered by large gaps in the scientific literature. This study examines driver, vehicle, crash, and passenger characteristics associated with mortality in rear-seated adult passengers. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) 2010 to 2011 was used to examine motor vehicle occupant mortality in rear-seated adult passengers 18 years and older. Side crash vehicle safety ratings were assessed in a subset analysis of vehicles struck on the same side as the rear-seated passenger...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Joyce C Pressley, Hajere J Gatollari, Chang Liu
BACKGROUND: There is widespread belief that after childhood rear-seated motor vehicle occupants do not need to wear-seat seatbelts to travel safely. This belief is reflected in the fact that, in many states, teen passengers can ride legally unbelted in the rear seat of a passenger vehicle. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2010-2011 was used to examine factors associated with teen use of rear-seat seatbelts (n = 3,655) and with injury outcomes of belted and unbelted rear-seated teen passengers traveling in a passenger vehicle on a US roadway...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Katharine D Currie, Christopher R West, Andrei V Krassioukov
Following a spinal cord injury, there are changes in resting stroke volume (SV) and its response to exercise. The purpose of the following study was to characterize resting left ventricular structure, function, and mechanics in Paralympic athletes with tetraplegia (TETRA) and paraplegia (PARA) in an attempt to understand whether the alterations in SV are attributable to inherent dysfunction in the left ventricle. This retrospective study compared Paralympic athletes with a traumatic, chronic (>1 year post-injury), motor-complete spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-B)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau
PURPOSE: This study investigated the change in the fatality and severe injury risks in rear impacts with vehicle model years (MY) grouped prior to, during the phase-in and after the revision to FMVSS 301. METHODS: FARS and NASS-CDS data were used to determine the injury risks of non-ejected occupants in light vehicles involving non-rollover, rear impacts. The data were analyzed by MY groups: 1996-2001, 2002-2007 and 2008+ to represent the years prior to, during the phase-in and post-revision phase-in of FMVSS 301...
April 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mir Sohail Fazeli, Mir-Masoud Pourrahmat, Mailan Liu, Ling Guan, Jean-Paul Collet
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a single 10-minute session of Chinese head massage on the activity of the cardiac autonomic nervous system via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). DESIGN: In this pilot randomized crossover trial, each participant received both head massage and the control intervention in a randomized fashion. SETTINGS/LOCATION: The study was conducted at Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia between June and November 2014...
January 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Tomasz Drozdz, Grzegorz Bilo, Dorota Debicka-Dabrowska, Marek Klocek, Gabriella Malfatto, Grzegorz Kielbasa, Katarzyna Styczkiewicz, Agnieszka Bednarek, Danuta Czarnecka, Gianfranco Parati, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz
BACKGROUND: Slow breathing training (SBT) has been proposed as a new non-pharmacological treatment able to induce favorable effects in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, no information is available regarding its effects on orthostatic blood pressure (BP) changes in these patients, an issue of practical relevance given the reported BP-lowering effect of SBT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of SBT on BP and whether SBT induces orthostatic hypotension (OH) or changes in quality of life (QoL) in CHF patients...
2016: Blood Pressure
Kirk Kee, Christopher Stuart-Andrews, Kris Nilsen, Jeremy P Wrobel, Bruce R Thompson, Matthew T Naughton
In the healthy lung, ventilation is distributed heterogeneously due to factors such as anatomical asymmetry and gravity. This ventilation heterogeneity increases pathologically in conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. In chronic heart failure, lung biopsy demonstrates evidence of peripheral lung fibrosis and small airways narrowing and distortion. We hypothesized that this would lead to increased ventilation heterogeneity. Furthermore, we proposed that rostral fluid shifts when seated patients lie supine would further increase ventilation heterogeneity...
October 2015: Physiological Reports
John E Miles
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this investigation was to identify factors associated with Air Force aviators delaying ejection during in-flight emergencies. METHODS: The investigator reviewed all reports within the Air Force Safety Automated System describing mishaps that resulted in the destruction of Air Force ejection-seat equipped aircraft between 1993 and 2013. Crewmembers were classified as either timely or delayed ejectors based on altitude at onset of emergency, altitude at ejection, and a determination regarding whether or not the aircraft was controlled during the mishap sequence...
September 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Ayman El-Menyar, Rafael Consunji, Mohammad Asim, Husham Abdelrahman, Ahmad Zarour, Ashok Parchani, Ruben Peralta, Hassan Al-Thani
INTRODUCTION: Restraint systems (seat belts and airbags) are important tools that improve vehicle occupant safety during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). We aimed to identify the pattern and impact of the utilization of passenger restraint systems on the outcomes of MVC victims in Qatar. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted for all admitted patients who sustained MVC-related injuries between March 2011 and March 2014 inclusive. RESULTS: Out of 2,730 road traffic injury cases, 1,830 (67%) sustained MVC-related injuries, of whom 88% were young males, 70% were expatriates, and 53% were drivers...
2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
M Butlin, A Alqahtani, A Qasem, M Turner, A P Avolio
OBJECTIVE: For ease of measurement, and the utility of ambulatory central aortic blood pressure measurement, there has been a move toward brachial cuff-based devices for non-invasive computation of central aortic blood pressure quantities based on waveform features. However, waveforms detected by volumetric cuff displacement techniques are inherently more damped than signals obtained by applanation tonometry, potentially impacting on parameters reliant on higher frequency components of the pulse waveform...
June 2015: Journal of Hypertension
Abdul Qadir Javaid, Andrew D Wiens, Nathaniel Forrest Fesmire, Mary Ann Weitnauer, Omer T Inan
Ballistocardiography is a noninvasive measurement of the mechanical movement of the body caused by cardiac ejection of blood. Recent studies have demonstrated that ballistocardiogram (BCG) signals can be measured using a modified home weighing scale and used to track changes in myocardial contractility and cardiac output. With this approach, the BCG can potentially be used both for preventive screening and for chronic disease management applications. However, for achieving high signal quality, subjects are required to stand still on the scale in an upright position for the measurement; the effects of intentional (for user comfort) or unintentional (due to user error) modifications in the position or posture of the subject during the measurement have not been investigated in the existing literature...
September 2015: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Edward Spurrier, James A G Singleton, Spyros Masouros, Iain Gibb, Jon Clasper
BACKGROUND: Improvised explosive devices are a common feature of recent asymmetric conflicts and there is a persistent landmine threat to military and humanitarian personnel. Assessment of injury risk to the spine in vehicles subjected to explosions was conducted using a standardized model, the Dynamic Response Index (DRI). However, the DRI was intended for evaluating aircraft ejection seats and has not been validated in blast conditions. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked whether the injury patterns seen in blast are similar to those in aircraft ejection and therefore whether a single injury prediction model can be used for both situations...
September 2015: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Narayan Yoganandan, Mike W J Arun, Dale E Halloway, Frank A Pintar, Dennis J Maiman, Aniko Szabo, Rodney W Rudd
OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to determine the association between vehicle-, crash-, and demographic-related factors and injuries to front seat far-side occupants in modern environments. METHODS: Field data were obtained from the NASS-CDS database for the years 2009-2012. Inclusion factors included the following: adult restrained front outboard-seated occupants, no ejection or rollovers, and vehicle model years less than 10 years old at the time of crash. Far-side crashes were determined by using collision deformation classification...
2014: Traffic Injury Prevention
I T Weber, A J G Melo, M A M Lucena, E F Consoli, M O Rodrigues, G F de Sá, A O Maldaner, M Talhavini, S Alves
Chemical evaluation of gunshot residues (GSR) produced by non-toxic lead-free ammunition (NTA) has been a challenge to forensic analyses. Our group developed some luminescent markers specific to the detection of GSR. Here, we evaluated the performance of selected markers in experiments that mimic forensic context and/or routines in which luminescent characteristics would be very useful. We evaluated the influence of markers' addition on the bullet's speed, the rate of shot failure (i.e., when the cartridge case is not fully ejected and/or a new ammunition is not automatically replaced in the gun chamber) as a function of marker percentage, the possibility of collecting luminescent gunshot residue (LGSR) in unconventional locations (e...
November 2014: Forensic Science International
Jeffrey C Parr, Michael E Miller, Christine M Schubert Kabban, Joseph A Pellettiere, Chris E Perry
BACKGROUND: Ejection neck safety remains a concern in military aviation with the growing use of helmet mounted displays (HMDs) worn for entire mission durations. The original USAF tensile neck injury criterion proposed by Carter et al. (4) is updated and an injury protection limit for tensile loading is presented to evaluate escape system and HMD safety. METHODS: An existent tensile neck injury criterion was updated through the addition of newer post mortem human subject (PMHS) tensile loading and injury data and the application of Survival Analysis to account for censoring in this data...
October 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Miroslav Pavlović, Janko Pejović, Jovan Mladenović, Radovan Cekanac, Dalibor Jovanović, Radovan Karkalić, Danijela Randjelović, Slavisa Djurdjević
BACKGROUND/AIM: Ejection injuries are the problem for air forces. The present risk for injuries is still too high, approximately 30-50%. The aim of this study was to determine factors responsible for and contributing to injuries in the Serbian Air Force (SAF) in the last two decades. METHODS: All ejection cases in the SAF between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The collected data were: aircraft type, ejection seat generation, pilots" age and experience, causes of ejection, aeronautical parameters, the condition of aircraft control and types of injuries...
June 2014: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
Chengfei Du, Zhongjun Mo, Shan Tian, Lizhen Wang, Jie Fan, Songyang Liu, Yubo Fan
The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic response of a multi-segment model of the thoracolumbar spine and determine how the sitting posture affects the response under the impact of ejection. A nonlinear finite element model of the thoracolumbar-pelvis complex (T9-S1) was developed and validated. A multi-body dynamic model of a pilot was also constructed so an ejection seat restraint system could be incorporated into the finite element model. The distribution of trunk mass on each vertebra was also considered in the model...
November 2014: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Michael D Freeman, Anders Eriksson, Wendy Leith
Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries...
September 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Olivier Manen, Julian Clément, Sébastien Bisconte, Eric Perrier
BACKGROUND: During an aircraft ejection, the pilot is exposed to accelerations to the point of human tolerance, which may cause spinal injuries. Many nations have reported a spinal trauma rate of about 20-30%, with plain radiography as the first-line exam. Insofar as ejection seats and diagnostic imaging have improved, the objectives of this study are to describe the spine injuries among recently ejected French aircrew, to analyze the spinal imaging used, and, if necessary, to propose a better standardized radiological procedure...
January 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Jeffrey C Parr, Michael E Miller, Joseph A Pellettiere, Roger A Erich
BACKGROUND: Helmet mounted displays provide increased pilot capability, but can also increase the risk of injury during ejection. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's (NHTSA's) neck injury criteria (Nij) metric is evaluated for understanding the impact of helmet mass on the risk of injury and modified risk curves are developed which are compatible with the needs of the aviation community. METHODS: Existent human subject data collected under various accelerative and head loading conditions were applied to understand the sensitivity of the Nij construct to changes in acceleration and helmet mass, as well as its stability with respect to gender, body mass, neck circumference, and sitting height...
December 2013: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"