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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903215/identification-of-novel-agents-for-the-treatment-of-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer
#1
Vinay Kumar Venishetty, Werner J Geldenhuys, Tori B Terell-Hall, Jessica I G Griffith, Gregory R Sondag, Fayez F Safadi, Paul R Lockman
BACKGROUND: Brain cancer from metastasized breast cancer has a high mortality rate in women. The treatment of lesions is hampered in large part by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which prevents adequate distribution of anti-cancer compounds to brain metastases. METHOD: In this study we used a novel screening method to identify candidate molecules that are well-suited to utilizing the BBB choline transporter for distribution into the brain parenchyma. RESULTS: From our screen we identified two compounds, Ch-1 and Ch-2 that were able to reduce the brain tumor burden in a murine mouse model of brain metastasis of breast cancer...
November 21, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858363/orthotopic-model-of-ovarian-cancer
#2
Alessandra Decio, Raffaella Giavazzi
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth commonest cancer-related cause of female death in the developed world. In spite of current surgical and chemotherapeutic options the vast majority of patients have widely metastatic disease and the survival rate has not much changed over the last years. The anti-angiogenic drugs are driving the field of agents targeting the tumor microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Preclinical models that accurately reproduce the molecular and biological features of ovarian cancer patients are a valuable means of producing reliable data on personalized medicine and predicting the therapeutic response in clinical trials...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853672/novel-antibody-therapeutics-targeting-mesothelin-in-solid-tumors
#3
Xiao-Yan Zhao, Babu Subramanyam, Nenad Sarapa, Sven Golfier, Harald Dinter
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies have become attractive clinical anti-cancer drugs in the last 3 decades due to their targeting specificity and suitable pharmacokinetic properties. Mesothelin is a tumor-associated antigen with limited expression in normal tissues. It is frequently over-expressed on the cell membrane of a number of epithelial malignancies (e.g. mesothelioma, pancreatic, ovarian, lung, triple negative breast and gastric cancers). METHODS: Mesothelin is validated as a suitable antibody target for cancer therapy...
October 2016: Clinical Cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633214/vibrotactile-perception-assessment-for-a-haptic-interface-on-an-antigravity-suit
#4
Sang Min Ko, Kwangil Lee, Daeho Kim, Yong Gu Ji
Haptic technology is used in various fields to transmit information to the user with or without visual and auditory cues. This study aimed to provide preliminary data for use in developing a haptic interface for an antigravity (anti-G) suit. With the structural characteristics of the anti-G suit in mind, we determined five areas on the body (lower back, outer thighs, inner thighs, outer calves, and inner calves) on which to install ten bar-type eccentric rotating mass (ERM) motors as vibration actuators. To determine the design factors of the haptic anti-G suit, we conducted three experiments to find the absolute threshold, moderate intensity, and subjective assessments of vibrotactile stimuli...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621203/modeling-therapeutic-antibody-small-molecule-drug-drug-interactions-using-a-3d-perfusable-human-liver-co-culture-platform
#5
Thomas Joseph Long, Patrick A Cosgrove, Robert T Dunn, Donna B Stolz, Hisham K Hamadeh, Cynthia Afshari, Helen McBride, Linda G Griffith
Traditional in vitro human liver cell culture models lose key hepatic functions such as metabolic activity during short-term culture. Advanced 3D liver co-culture platforms offer the potential for extended hepatocyte functionality, allowing for the study of more complex biological interactions that can improve and refine human drug safety evaluation. Here, we utilize a perfusion flow 3D microreactor platform for the co-culture of cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes and Kupffer cells to study the regulation of CYP3A4 activity by chronic IL-6-mediated inflammation over two weeks...
September 12, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611245/biodistribution-of-antibody-ms2-viral-capsid-conjugates-in-breast-cancer-models
#6
Ioana Laura Aanei, Adel M ElSohly, Michelle E Farkas, Chawita Netirojjanakul, Melanie Regan, Stephanie Taylor Murphy, James P O'Neil, Youngho Seo, Matthew B Francis
A variety of nanoscale scaffolds, including virus-like particles (VLPs), are being developed for biomedical applications; however, little information is available about their in vivo behavior. Targeted nanoparticles are particularly valuable as diagnostic and therapeutic carriers because they can increase the signal-to-background ratio of imaging agents, improve the efficacy of drugs, and reduce adverse effects by concentrating the therapeutic molecule in the region of interest. The genome-free capsid of bacteriophage MS2 has several features that make it well-suited for use in delivery applications, such as facile production and modification, the ability to display multiple copies of targeting ligands, and the capacity to deliver large payloads...
September 9, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552163/evaluation-of-amgen-clone-9g8a-anti-epo-antibody-for-application-in-doping-control
#7
Christian Reichel, Wolfgang Benetka, Barbara Lorenc, Mario Thevis
The two mouse monoclonal anti-erythropoietin (EPO) antibodies clone AE7A5 (generated by using a 26 amino acid N-terminal EPO-peptide) and 9G8A (developed by immunizing mice with full length human EPO) are both directed against linear epitopes at the N-terminus of EPO. While AE7A5 has been commercially available for many years, 9G8A was made for Amgen's internal research purposes. In the past, the commercial antibody was shown to cross-react with several proteins unrelated to EPO (e.g. E. coli thioredoxin reductase, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, S...
August 23, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450516/uncommon-structural-motifs-dominate-the-antigen-binding-site-in-human-autoantibodies-reactive-with-basement-membrane-collagen
#8
Mary H Foster, Elizabeth S Buckley, Benny J Chen, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Amy G Clark
Autoantibodies mediate organ destruction in multiple autoimmune diseases, yet their origins in patients remain poorly understood. To probe the genetic origins and structure of disease-associated autoantibodies, we engrafted immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and immunized with the non-collagenous-1 (NC1) domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen. This antigen is expressed in lungs and kidneys and is targeted by autoantibodies in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis and Goodpasture syndrome (GPS), prototypic human organ-specific autoimmune diseases...
August 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320185/alterations-in-gene-expression-during-fasting-induced-atresia-of-early-secondary-ovarian-follicles-of-coho-salmon-oncorhynchus-kisutch
#9
Yoji Yamamoto, J Adam Luckenbach, Graham Young, Penny Swanson
Molecular processes that either regulate ovarian atresia or are consequences of atresia are poorly understood in teleost fishes. We hypothesized that feed restriction that perturbs normal ovarian growth and induces follicular atresia would alter ovarian gene expression patterns. Previtellogenic, two-year old coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were subjected to prolonged fasting to induce atresia or maintained on a normal feeding schedule that would promote continued ovarian development. To identify genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated during oocyte growth in healthy, growing fish compared to fasted fish, reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries were generated using ovaries from fed and fasted animals...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293508/utilization-of-an-anti-gravity-treadmill-in-a-physical-activity-program-with-female-breast-cancer-survivors-a-pilot-study
#10
Ciaran M Fairman, Kristina L Kendall, Brandonn S Harris, Kenneth J Crandall, Jim McMillan
Breast Cancer survivors can experience a myriad of physical and psychological benefits as a result of regular exercise. This study aimed to build on previous research using lower impact exercise programs by using an antigravity (Alter-G(®)) treadmill to administer cardiovascular training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness a physical activity program, including an Alter-G(®) treadmill, for improving physiological and psychosocial measures in female breast cancer survivors. A 14-week intervention using an AB-AB study design was employed...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262847/effects-and-biological-limitations-of-gz-acceleration-on-the-autonomic-functions-related-circulation-in-rats
#11
Yasuhiro Nishida, Satoshi Maruyama, Ichiro Shouji, Takehito Kemuriyama, Akimasa Tashiro, Hiroyuki Ohta, Kohsue Hagisawa, Megumi Hiruma, Hidetake Yokoe
The effects of gravitational loading (G load) on humans have been studied ever since the early 20th century. After the dangers of G load in the vertical head-to-leg direction (+Gz load) became evident, many animal experiments were performed between 1920 and 1945 in an effort to identify the origins of high G-force-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), which led to development of the anti-G suit. The establishment of norms and training for G-LOC prevention resulted in a gradual decline in reports of animal experiments on G load, a decline that steepened with the establishment of anti-G techniques in humans, such as special breathing methods and skeletal muscle contraction, called an anti-G straining maneuver, which are voluntary physiological functions...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245889/analysis-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-derived-n-acylethanolamines-in-biological-matrices
#12
Renger F Witkamp, Michiel G J Balvers
The adequate quantification of endocannabinoids can be complex due to their low endogenous levels and structural diversity. Therefore, advanced analytical approaches, such as LC-MS, are used to measure endocannabinoids in plasma, tissues, and other matrices. Recent work has shown that endocannabinoids that are synthesized from n-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoylethanolamide (EPEA), have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties and stimulate synapse formation in neurites...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126072/hepatosteatosis-and-estrogen-increase-apolipoprotein-o-production-in-the-chicken
#13
Barbara Schmidinger, Anna M Weijler, Wolfgang J Schneider, Marcela Hermann
Apolipoprotein O (ApoO) is a recently discovered plasma apolipoprotein that may also play a role in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Possibly due to this complexity, its physiological functions have not been elucidated yet. To gain insight from a non-mammalian experimental system, we have investigated the regulation of ApoO levels in an alternative, well-suited model for studies on lipid metabolism, the chicken. qPCR using specific primer pairs and Western blot analysis with our rabbit anti-chicken ApoO antiserum demonstrated ApoO in the liver of chickens fed a control or a fat-enriched diet, as well as in 2 chicken hepatoma cell lines, LMH cells and the estrogen-responsive LMH-2A cells, under conditions of lipid loading by incubation with BSA-complexed oleic acid...
August 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058352/development-of-synthetic-light-chain-antibodies-as-novel-and-potent-hiv-fusion-inhibitors
#14
Catarina Cunha-Santos, Tiago N Figueira, Pedro Borrego, Soraia S Oliveira, Cheila Rocha, Andreia Couto, Cátia Cantante, Quirina Santos-Costa, José M Azevedo-Pereira, Carlos M G A Fontes, Nuno Taveira, Frederico Aires-Da-Silva, Miguel A R B Castanho, Ana Salomé Veiga, Joao Goncalves
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel and potent fusion inhibitor of HIV infection based on a rational strategy for synthetic antibody library construction. DESIGN: The reduced molecular weight of single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) allows targeting of cryptic epitopes, the most conserved and critical ones in the context of HIV entry. Heavy-chain sdAbs from camelids are particularly suited for this type of epitope recognition because of the presence of long and flexible antigen-binding regions [complementary-determining regions (CDRs)]...
July 17, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017570/optimisation-by-response-surface-methodology-of-microextraction-by-packed-sorbent-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-analysis-of-dialyzed-samples
#15
Angelo Antonio D'Archivio, Maria Anna Maggi, Fabrizio Ruggieri, Maura Carlucci, Vincenzo Ferrone, Giuseppe Carlucci
A procedure based on microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detection has been developed for the analysis of seven selected non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human dialysates. The influence on MEPS efficiency of pH of the sample, pH of the washing solvent and methanol content in the hydro-alcoholic elution mixture has been investigated by response surface methodology based on a Box-Behnken design of experiments...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940768/molecular-imaging-and-quantitation-of-epha2-expression-in-xenograft-models-with-89zr-ds-8895a
#16
Ingrid J G Burvenich, Sagun Parakh, Hui K Gan, Fook-Thean Lee, Nancy Guo, Angela Rigopoulos, Sze-Ting Lee, Sylvia Gong, Graeme J O'Keefe, Henri Tochon-Danguy, Masakatsu Kotsuma, Jun Hasegawa, Giorgio Senaldi, Andrew M Scott
UNLABELLED: Subtype A2 of the erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular tyrosine kinase (EphA2) cell surface receptor is expressed in a range of epithelial cancers. This study evaluated the molecular imaging of EphA2 expression in vivo in mouse tumor models using SPECT/MR and PET/MR and a humanized anti-EphA2 antibody, DS-8895a. METHODS: DS-8895a was labeled with (111)In, (125)I, and (89)Zr and assessed for radiochemical purity, immunoreactivity (Lindmo analysis), antigen-binding affinity (Scatchard analysis), and serum stability in vitro...
June 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935745/analysis-of-ex-vivo-drug-response-data-of-plasmodium-clinical-isolates-the-pros-and-cons-of-different-computer-programs-and-online-platforms
#17
Grennady Wirjanata, Irene Handayuni, Sophie G Zaloumis, Ferryanto Chalfein, Pak Prayoga, Enny Kenangalem, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Rintis Noviyanti, Julie A Simpson, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt
BACKGROUND: In vitro drug susceptibility testing of malaria parasites remains an important component of surveillance for anti-malarial drug resistance. The half-maximal inhibition of growth (IC50) is the most commonly reported parameter expressing drug susceptibility, derived by a variety of statistical approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. METHODS: In this study, licensed computer programs WinNonlin and GraphPad Prism 6.0, and the open access programs HN-NonLin, Antimalarial ICEstimator (ICE), and In Vitro Analysis and Reporting Tool (IVART) were tested for their ease of use and ability to estimate reliable IC50 values from raw drug response data from 31 Plasmodium falciparum and 29 P...
March 2, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26916310/determination-of-dabigatran-and-rivaroxaban-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-coagulation-assays-after-major-orthopaedic-surgery
#18
M W M Schellings, K Boonen, E M H Schmitz, F Jonkers, D J van den Heuvel, A Besselaar, J G E Hendriks, D van de Kerkhof
Major orthopaedic surgery is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recommended as thromboprophylactic agents after orthopaedic surgery. Although routine monitoring of DOACs in general is not required, measuring DOAC concentration may be necessary in clinical settings. The effects of DOACs on routine coagulation assays in spiked material are studied extensively, however, few data are available on DOAC concentration in patients after major orthopaedic surgery...
March 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910640/immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-evidence-of-functional-organization-along-the-corydoras-paleatus-intestine
#19
Silvia E Plaul, Raquel Pastor, Alcira O Díaz, Claudio G Barbeito
The Neotropical catfish, Corydoras paleatus (Callichthyidae) is a facultative air-breathing teleost that makes use of the caudal portion of the intestine as an accessory air-breathing organ. This portion is highly modified, being well vascularized with capillaries between epithelial cells, which makes it well suited for gas exchange. Instead, the cranial portion is a digestion and absorption site, as it has a typical intestinal epithelium with columnar cells arranged in a single row, villi and less vascularized tunica mucosa...
March 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858738/transient-glyco-engineering-to-produce-recombinant-iga1-with-defined-n-and-o-glycans-in-plants
#20
Martina Dicker, Marc Tschofen, Daniel Maresch, Julia König, Paloma Juarez, Diego Orzaez, Friedrich Altmann, Herta Steinkellner, Richard Strasser
The production of therapeutic antibodies to combat pathogens and treat diseases, such as cancer is of great interest for the biotechnology industry. The recent development of plant-based expression systems has demonstrated that plants are well-suited for the production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies with defined glycosylation. Compared to immunoglobulin G (IgG), less effort has been undertaken to express immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the most prevalent antibody class at mucosal sites and a promising candidate for novel recombinant biopharmaceuticals with enhanced anti-tumor activity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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