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C Y Wang, E Mercer, F Kamranvand, L Williams, A Kolios, A Parker, S Tyrrel, E Cartmell, E J McAdam
Transformation of the tube-side mass transfer coefficient derived in hollow fibre membrane contactors (HFMC) of different characteristic length scales (equivalent diameter and fibre length) has been studied when operated in the low Graetz range (Gz<10). Within the low Gz range, mass transfer is generally described by the Graetz problem (Sh=3.67) which assumes that the concentration profile comprises a constant shape over the fibre radius. In this study, it is experimentally evidenced that this assumption over predicts mass transfer within the low Graetz range...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Membrane Science
Lin Li, Arghya Chakravorty, Emil Alexov
Long-range electrostatic forces play an important role in molecular biology, particularly in macromolecular interactions. However, calculating the electrostatic forces for irregularly shaped molecules immersed in water is a difficult task. Here, we report a new tool, DelPhiForce, which is a tool in the DelPhi package that calculates and visualizes the electrostatic forces in biomolecular systems. In parallel, the DelPhi algorithm for modeling electrostatic potential at user-defined positions has been enhanced to include triquadratic and tricubic interpolation methods...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Tuomas Honkanen, Juha Oksa, Matti J Mäntysaari, Heikki Kyröläinen, Janne Avela
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to compare differences in electromyography (EMG) activation of the neck and shoulder muscles between groups of inexperienced and experienced pilots during controlled +Gz exposure in a centrifuge. METHODS: The subjects were volunteer cadets (inexperienced group) and lieutenants (experienced group) undergoing their first centrifuge training. The first group did not have any high performance aircraft (HPA) experience, while the latter one had a 1-yr experience of intense flying of HPA...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Sandra S Eaton, Kirby Huber, Hanan Elajaili, Joseph McPeak, Gareth R Eaton, Lauren E Longobardi, Douglas W Stephan
Preparation of the stable boron-containing heterocyclic phenanthrenedione radical, (C6F5)2B(O2C14H8), by frustrated Lewis pair chemistry has been reported recently. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of this radical were made at X-band in toluene:dichloromethane (9:1) from 10 to 293K, in toluene from 180 to 293K and at Q-band at 80K. In well-deoxygenated 0.1mM toluene solution at room temperature hyperfine splittings from (11)B, four pairs of (1)H, and 5 pairs of (19)F contribute to an EPR spectrum with many resolved lines...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Justin R Nickell, Kiran B Siripurapu, David B Horton, Guangrong Zheng, Peter A Crooks, Linda P Dwoskin
Lobeline and lobelane inhibit the behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine via an interaction with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). However, lobeline has high affinity for nicotinic receptors, and tolerance develops to the behavioral effects of lobelane. A water-soluble analog of lobelane, R-N-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-2,6-cis-di-(4-methoxyphenethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-793A), also interacts selectively with VMAT2 to inhibit the effects of methamphetamine, but does not produce behavioral tolerance...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yue Cong, Limei Wang, Renjun Peng, Yang Zhao, Fan Bai, Chao Yang, Xiaolan Liu, Daqian Wang, Baiping Ma, Yuwen Cong
The thromboxane (Tx) A2 pathway is a major contributor to the amplification of initial platelet activation and is therefore a key drug target. To identify potent small-molecule inhibitors of the thromboxane prostaglandin (TP) receptor, we screened a small steroidal saponin library using U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation assays. Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) was identified as a potent inhibitor of U46619-induced rat platelet aggregation and exhibited superior selectivity for the TP receptor versus other G protein-coupled receptors and a PKC activator...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guang-Hui Zhang, Li Li, Changfu Hao, Jing-Chao Ren, Hongyi Zhang, Jie Jiao, Liyun Gao, Shibin Ding, Sanqiao Yao, Wu Yao, Weidong Wu
OBJECTIVES: To construct a phage display human antibody library (PDHAL) against pneumoconiosis for the diagnosis and treatment of coal worker pneumoconiosis (CWP). METHODS: The PDHAL was established via CWP blood and six positive antibodies were discovered. 867 coal workers (558 CWP and 309 without CWP) and 393 controls were recruited to validate the results. RESULTS: A PDHAL against CWP was established, from which six strong positive clones were selected, sequenced and identified as VEGF, interleukin-18, HSP70, HER3, Gz-B and RF...
December 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sang Gil Lee, Hong Min Wu, Chan Gyu Lee, Choong Sik Oh, So Won Chung, Sang Geon Kim
BACKGROUND: Binge alcohol consumption elicits mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes. An understanding of the effect of ethanol (EtOH) exposure after hypergravity stress on liver function may assist in the implementation of pathophysiological countermeasures for aerospace missions. This study investigated whether a combination of hypergravity stress and binge alcohol intake has a detrimental effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other molecules necessary for hepatocyte survival...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Minako Yoshihara, Tetsuya Sato, Daisuke Saito, Osamu Ohara, Takashi Kuramoto, Mikita Suyama
We report sequence data obtained by our recently devised target capture method TargetEC applied to 20 inbred rat strains. This method encompasses not only all annotated exons but also highly conserved non-coding sequences shared among vertebrates. The total length of the target regions covers 146.8 Mb. On an average, we obtained 31.7 × depth of target coverage and identified 154,330 SNVs and 24,368 INDELs for each strain. This corresponds to 470,037 unique SNVs and 68,652 unique INDELs among the 20 strains...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Yi Xu, Shuzhi Ma, Limeng Zhu, Zhiqiu Huang, Liyun Chen, Yuhua Xu, Haibin Yin, Tao Peng, Yi Wang
The Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 is prevalent in China. EV-A71 causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and may lead to severe neurological diseases. The development of antiviral and protective vaccines against EV-A71 is significantly hindered by the lack of suitable animal models to recapitulate human neurological symptoms. In this study, GZ-CII, a highly virulent EV-A71 subgenogroup C4 strain, was isolated from hospitalized children with HFMD. Intraperitoneal infections of GZ-CII resulted in progressive neurological disease in mice as old as 14 days...
January 2017: Antiviral Research
Xiuzhen Hu, Kai Wang, Qiwen Dong
BACKGROUND: Prediction of ligand binding sites is important to elucidate protein functions and is helpful for drug design. Although much progress has been made, many challenges still need to be addressed. Prediction methods need to be carefully developed to account for chemical and structural differences between ligands. RESULTS: In this study, we present ligand-specific methods to predict the binding sites of protein-ligand interactions. First, a sequence-based method is proposed that only extracts features from protein sequence information, including evolutionary conservation scores and predicted structure properties...
November 17, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Terry W McMahon, David G Newman
INTRODUCTION: Military helicopters are increasingly agile and capable of producing significant G forces experienced in the longitudinal (z) axis of the body in a head-to-foot direction (+Gz). Dehydration and fatigue can adversely affect a pilot's +Gz tolerance, leading to +Gz-induced symptomatology occurring at lower +Gz levels than expected. The potential for adverse consequences of +Gz exposure to affect flight safety in military helicopter operations needs to be recognized. This case report describes a helicopter pilot who experienced +Gz-induced visual impairment during low-level flight...
November 2016: Military Medicine
Ola Eiken, Michail E Keramidas, Nigel A S Taylor, Mikael Grönkvist
PURPOSE: Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Dooshaye Moonshiram, Yuliana Pineda-Galvan, Darren Erdman, Mark Palenik, Ruifa Zong, Randolph Thummel, Yulia Pushkar
The realization of artificial photosynthesis carries the promise of cheap and abundant energy, however, significant advances in the rational design of water oxidation catalysts are required. Detailed information on the structure of the catalyst under reaction conditions and mechanisms of O-O bond formation should be obtained. Here, we used a combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), stopped flow freeze quench on a millisecond-second time scale, X-ray absorption (XAS), resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) to follow the dynamics of the Ru-based single site catalyst, [Ru(II)(NPM)(4-pic)2(H2O)](2+) (NPM = 4-t-butyl-2,6-di(1',8'-naphthyrid-2'-yl)pyridine, pic = 4-picoline), under the water oxidation conditions...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ferhat Alkan, Cesim Erten
MOTIVATION: Analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks provides invaluable insight into several systems biology problems. High-throughput experimental techniques together with computational methods provide large-scale PPI networks. However, a major issue with these networks is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false-positives/-negatives as correctly as possible...
October 22, 2016: Bioinformatics
Magnus Wallquist Pousette, Riccardo Lo Martire, Jan Linder, Mats Kristoffersson, Björn O Äng
INTRODUCTION: Flight-induced neck pain is common in high performance jet pilots, with incidents frequently attributed to high Gz flight maneuvers. The additional load of helmet-mounted night vision goggles (NVG) is believed to increase the risk, possibly from neck muscle strain in counteracting muscles. Hence, the aim was to investigate the effect of NVG on neck muscle strain as well as on the activity level distribution through a simulated flight session in air force pilots. METHODS: In this post hoc randomized crossover trial, four senior air force pilots each completed two identical 1...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Yue Zhao, Jun Yao, Zhimin Yuan, Tianqi Wang, Yiyue Zhang, Fei Wang
Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an emerging and promising bioremediation technology to restore the environment polluted by heavy metals. Carbonate-biomineralization microbe can immobilize heavy metals from mobile species into stable crystals. In the present manuscript, laboratory batch studies were conducted to evaluate the Cd removal ability based on biosorption and MICP, using carbonate-biomineralization microbe GZ-22 isolated from a mine soil. This strain was identified as a Bacillus sp...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liang Xiao, Hai-Min He, Li-Li Huang, Ting Geng, Shu Fu, Fang-Sen Xue
Life-history traits from four geographical populations (tropical Ledong population [LD], subtropical Guangzhou [GZ] and Yongxiu populations, and temperate Langfang population [LF]) of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis were investigated at a wide range of temperatures (20-32°C). The larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature, and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in O. furnacalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR); all populations exhibited the highest pupal and adult weights at high temperatures or intermediate temperatures...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Arikin Abdeyrim, Liang Tang, Arzugl Muhamat, Kelimu Abudeyrim, YongPing Zhang, NanFang Li, Yinchun Wang, Minghua Zhao
BACKGROUND: Inability to maintain upper-airway patency during sleep is a cause of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its sequelae. The associated syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese populations, currently, nocturnal polysomnography is the gold standard for diagnosing this conditions, but the diagnostic procedures are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, identification of new markers of OSAS would be useful. This study aims to examine the receiver operating characteristics of impulse oscillometry (IOS) parameters for the prediction of OSAS in preobese and obese snoring patients...
August 22, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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