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Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Rafał Podgórski, David Aebisher, Monika Stompor, Dominika Podgórska, Artur Mazur
The aim of this paper is a straightforward presentation of the steroidogenesis process and the most common type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - 21-hydroxylase deficiency - as well as the analytical diagnostic methods that are used to recognize this disease. CAH is a family of common autosomal recessive disorders characterized by impaired adrenal cortisol biosynthesis with associated androgen excess due to a deficiency of one or more enzymes in the steroidogenesis process within the adrenal cortex...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Chen-Yi Liao, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Pauling Chu, Kuang-Yu Wei, Tseng-Min Feng, Fu-Huang Lin, Chang-Huei Tsao, Chia-Chao Wu, Wu-Chien Chien
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the risk of osteoporosis in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) using a nationwide population-based dataset. METHODS: In a cohort study of 986,713 individuals, we selected 2,493 PBC patients who were aged 18 years or older and had been diagnosed with PBC, based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) codes 571.6, during 20002010. The control cohort comprised 9,972 randomly selected, propensity matched patients (by age, gender, and index date), without PBC...
2018: PloS One
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Annalisa Trenti, Serena Tedesco, Carlotta Boscaro, Lucia Trevisi, Chiara Bolego, Andrea Cignarella
Estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular physiology and the immune system by inducing direct effects on multiple cell types including immune and vascular cells. Sex steroid hormones are implicated in cardiovascular protection, including endothelial healing in case of arterial injury and collateral vessel formation in ischemic tissue. Estrogen can exert potent modulation effects at all levels of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Their action is mediated by interaction with classical estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, as well as the more recently identified G-protein coupled receptor 30/G-protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Do-Hwan Lim, Seungjae Lee, Jee Yun Han, Min-Seok Choi, Jae-Sang Hong, Youngmo Seong, Young-Soo Kwon, Young Sik Lee
The steroid hormone ecdysone has a central role in the developmental transitions of insects through its control of responsive protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression. However, the complete regulatory network controlling the expression of these genes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we performed cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing of endogenous Argonaute 1 (Ago1) protein, the core effector of the miRNA pathway, in Drosophila S2 cells. We found that regulatory interactions between miRNAs and their cognate targets were substantially altered by Ago1 in response to ecdysone signaling...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Giuseppe Candilio, Emilia De Luca, Angelo Iannicelli, Guido Sciaudone, Gianluca Pellino, Rosario Sacco, Francesco Selvaggi, Giuseppe Sammarco, Gaetano Gallo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disabilitating growing condition and represent a challenge for every surgeon. It is associated with the activation of the inflammatory pathway and this may have a negative impact on the natural history of some rheumatic diseases. Bariatric surgery, reducing obesity, could bring to a minor activation of the well-known inflammatory pathway with improvement of these diseases. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of weight loss, achieved through bariatric surgery, in rheumatic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Reşat Duman, Ayhan Vurmaz
PURPOSE: The exact etiopathogenesis of steroid-induced cataracts (SIC) is not known. Although oxidative stress is one of the most acceptable hypotheses, the exact molecular events in steroid-induced oxidative events in the lens need to be clarified. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the innate immune system components in SIC formation have not been studied previously. The aim of the present study was to study the oxidative system and the innate immune system components in the cataractous lenses of a developing chick embryo SIC model...
March 15, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Jee Hee Son, Sook Young Park, Yong Se Cho, Bo Young Chung, Hye One Kim, Chun Wook Park
Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agents used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including allergic disease. They are frequently considered the therapy-of-choice for many skin diseases. However, allergic reactions caused by corticosteroids have been reported. Among these, delayed reactions to topical steroids are more common, whereas immediate reactions to systemic steroids are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman with triamcinolone-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction, in which the patient had a positive prick test result with triamcinolone...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
C G Hart, B E Voelz, K E Brockus, C O Lemley
Production from the corpus luteum (CL) and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4, which can alter reproductive performance. Our primary objective was to examine hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, portal blood flow, and luteal blood perfusion at 10 days post-insemination in pregnant versus non-pregnant beef and dairy cows. Twenty early lactation Holstein cows and 20 lactating commercial beef cows were utilized for this study. At day 10 post-insemination, hepatic portal blood flow and CL blood perfusion were measured via Doppler ultrasonography...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Holger Joswig, Armin Neff, Christina Ruppert, Gerhard Hildebrandt, Martin Nikolaus Stienen
BACKGROUND: The predictive value of short-term arm pain relief after 'indirect' cervical epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the 1-month treatment response has been previously demonstrated. It remained to be answered whether the long-term response could be estimated by the early post-interventional pain course as well. METHODS: Prospective observational study, following a cohort of n = 45 patients for a period of 24 months after 'indirect' ESI for radiculopathy secondary to a single-level cervical disk herniation (CDH)...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Hyun-Jung Moon, Hak-Bong Kim, Su-Hoon Lee, So-Eun Jeun, Chi-Dug Kang, Sun-Hee Kim
NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) have potential use as anticancer agents, either alone or in combination with other cancer therapies. We found that NSAIDs including celecoxib (CCB) and ibuprofen (IBU) significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity of Hsp90 inhibitors in human multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells expressing high levels of mutant p53 (mutp53) protein and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and reversed Hsp90 inhibitor resistance caused by activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and by up-regulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and P-gp...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Fan-Cheng Meng, Zheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Qi Yin, Li-Gen Lin, Ruibing Wang, Qing-Wen Zhang
Background: Coptidis rhizoma (CR) is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., C. deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao or C. teeta Wall. (Ranunculaceae) and is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of various diseases including bacillary dysentery, typhoid, tuberculosis, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, empyrosis, pertussis, and other illnesses. Methods: A literature survey was conducted via SciFinder, ScieneDirect, PubMed, Springer, and Wiley databases...
2018: Chinese Medicine
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Roopa Jewel, Jubbin Jagan Jacob
Management of hyperglycaemia is crucial during labour to improve outcomes both in the newborn and in the mother. This is particularly crucial in mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes and in all mothers requiring insulin treatment during pregnancy. The use of antenatal steroids in mothers at risk of preterm delivery complicates management of hyperglycaemia in the immediate antepartum period and requires appropriate dosing adjustments of insulin therapy. Mothers are generally asked to be nil per orum during active labour...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Yasutaka Tajima, Mariko Matsumura, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito
A 27-year-old woman with optic neuritis and cervical myelitis developed hypertrophic demyelinating polyneuropathy. It was hypothesized that the diagnosis was combined central and peripheral demyelination. A hypertrophic nerve was observed subcutaneously, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked hypertrophy of the nerve roots. The patient was negative for anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. Her anti-neurofascin 155 antibody levels was slightly elevated, but it was not definitely positive. Pulsed steroid therapy and the administration of immunoglobulin ameliorated her symptoms...
2018: Internal Medicine
Haruki Katsumata, Izumi Yamamoto, Yo Komatsuzaki, Mayuko Kawabe, Yusuke Okabayashi, Takafumi Yamakawa, Ai Katsuma, Yasuyuki Nakada, Akimitsu Kobayashi, Yudo Tanno, Jun Miki, Hiroki Yamada, Ichiro Ohkido, Nobuo Tsuboi, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Takashi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Both prevention and treatment of recurrent immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) in kidney transplant recipients are important since recurrent IgAN seems to affect long-term graft survival. We present here a case of recurrent IgAN that was successfully treated using steroid pulse therapy plus tonsillectomy 10 years after kidney transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old male was admitted for an episode biopsy with a serum creatinine level of 1...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
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