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Taewoo Kim
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients...
October 21, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Sayani Mitra, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Janna M Gottwald, Sheila Achermann, Carin Marciszko, Marcus Lindskog, Gustaf Gredebäck
The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks-involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition-and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks...
October 7, 2016: Psychological Science
Nicolina E Savvaidou, Lazaros C Triarhou
Professor Emil Redlich (1866-1930) of the University of Vienna was born 150 years ago. Raised in a humble environment, he became an eminent researcher and neurology scholar, and succeeded in laying some of the key foundations of neuroanatomy and neuropathology. His name is linked to medical eponyms that define the dorsal root entry zone into the spinal cord, epidemic disseminated encephalomyelitis, narcolepsy, senile plaques and dementia. As its first director, he managed to organize the Maria-Theresien-Schlössel into a first-class neuropsychiatric hospital...
October 21, 2016: European Neurology
Gisella Orsini
This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Jessica Sevos, Anne Grosselin, Denis Brouillet, Jacques Pellet, Catherine Massoubre
The simple perception of an object can potentiate an associated action. This affordance effect depends heavily on the action context in which the object is presented. In recent years, psychologists, psychiatrists, and phenomenologists have agreed that subjects with schizophrenia may not perceive the affordances of people or objects that could lead to a loss of ease in their actions. We examined whether the addition of contextually congruent elements, during the perception of everyday objects, could promote the emergence of object-affordance effects in subjects with schizophrenia and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Hui Zhou, Xin Zhao Deng, Ai Hua Zhang, Ren Xiang Tan
An isocyanide insertion reaction promoted by the combination of an amide and a photoredox is now presented. By using visible light, 6-amidophenanthridine derivatives can be prepared in good chemical yields under mild and eco-friendly reaction conditions. The reaction was shown to proceed through an electron transfer sequence by mechanistic experiments, and thus enabled the efficient production of 24 compounds, each with one new intramolecular aromatic ring obtained. The synthesized compounds were tested to embody good antitumor, antimicrobial and neuraminidase inhibitory activities...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sha Chen, Jiaxing Zhang, Junbeum Kim
China is the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide, and it is also one of the largest fluorescent lamp consuming and producing country in the world. However, there are few studies evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of fluorescent lamps in China. This analysis compared GHG emissions of compact fluorescent lamps with linear fluorescent lamps using life cycle assessment method in China's national conditions. The GHG emissions of fluorescent lamps from their manufacture to the final disposal phase on the national level of China were also quantified...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jin Zhou, Wenjuan Fang, Qingliang Cao, Linyan Yang, Victor W-C Chang, William W Nazaroff
Utilizing the ultraviolet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) measurement technique as embodied in the Waveband-Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4A), we evaluated the fluorescent particle emissions associated with human shedding while walking in a chamber. The mean emission rates of supermicron (1-10 μm) fluorescent particles was in the range 6.8-7.5 million particles per person-h (~ 0.3 mg per person-h) across three participants, for conditions when the relative humidity was 60-70% and no moisturizer was applied after showering...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
M Raj, S W Choi, J Platt
Informed consent (IC) struggles to meet the ethical principles it strives to embody in the context of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients often participate in multiple clinical trials making it difficult to effectively inform the participants and fulfill complex regulations. The recent Notice of Proposed Rule Making would make major changes to federal requirements, providing a timely opportunity to evaluate existing practice. Twenty health care professionals within a Midwest Academic Medical Center involved in obtaining IC in the HCT clinic or involved in patient care during or after the IC process were interviewed to understand: (1) how they approached the IC process; (2) how they described a 'successful' IC process; and (3) opportunities for innovation...
October 17, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Kevin J Boudreau, Eva C Guinan, Karim R Lakhani, Christoph Riedl
Selecting among alternative projects is a core management task in all innovating organizations. In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of frontier scientific research projects. We argue that the "intellectual distance" between the knowledge embodied in research proposals and an evaluator's own expertise systematically relates to the evaluations given. To estimate relationships, we designed and executed a grant proposal process at a leading research university in which we randomized the assignment of evaluators and proposals to generate 2,130 evaluator-proposal pairs...
October 2016: Management Science
Petra Jansen, Sandra Kaltner, Daniel Memmert
In this study, we investigated if the enactment of an approaching or avoiding behavior influences the mental rotation performance. Thirty-five females and thirty males completed a chronometric mental rotation task either in an approaching or in an avoiding condition while manipulating their arm position. The results showed a significant influence of this embodied behavior dependent on gender and task difficulty. The approaching condition caused no gender difference in reaction times and a reduced gender difference in accuracy for the most difficult tasks, while the avoidance condition produced the well-known gender differences in mental rotation for both reaction time and accuracy...
October 15, 2016: Psychological Research
Kate Churruca, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz
Bulimia, an eating disorder that affects more women than men, involves binging and compensatory behaviors. Given the importance of food in experiences of these behaviors, in this article, we examine constructions of food in accounts of bulimic behavior: how these constructions relate to cultural discourses, and their implications for subjectivity. Fifteen women who engaged in bulimic behaviors were interviewed. Through a thematic decomposition of their accounts, we identified six discursive constructions of food: "good/healthy" or "bad/unhealthy," "contaminating body and soul," "collapsed into fat," "pleasurable reward," "comfort," and "fuel for the body...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Michael B Lewis, Emily Dunn
People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sibylla Wolter, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
This study explored differences between pianists and non-musicians during reading of sentences describing high- or low-pitched auditory events. Based on the embodied model of language comprehension, it was hypothesized that the experience of playing the piano encourages a corresponding association between high-pitched sounds and the right and low-pitched sounds and the left. This pitch-space association is assumed to become elicited during understanding of sentences describing either a high- or low-pitched auditory event...
October 12, 2016: Psychological Research
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman
Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shaun Gallagher, Dylan Trigg
We review the distinction between sense of agency and sense of ownership, and then explore these concepts, and their reflective attributions, in schizophrenic symptoms and agoraphobia. We show how the underlying dynamics of these experiences are different across these disorders. We argue that these concepts are complex and cannot be reduced to neural mechanisms, but involve embodied and situated processes that include the physical and social environments. We conclude by arguing that the subjective and intersubjective dimensions of agency and ownership cannot be considered in isolation from one another, but instead form an interdependent pairing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dominique C Hill
What are the hesitations, dangers, and potentialities to inviting students to peruse my body? What possibilities arise from centering and leading with the body in the teaching/learning process? What risks and possibilities does this enactment pose to a Black lesbian educator? This auto/ethnography journeys through and reflects upon my experience enacting what I have coined "embodied vulnerability" as a pedagogical practice. Within this essay, I explore the interrelationship of race, gender, and embodiment (or, the performance of self)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Kaila Adia Story
Although a Black femme identity has been defined and embodied by many as an identity with Black feminist roots and revolutionary potentials, Black femmes are still rendered hypervisible and invisible through racist and heteronormative politics. Similarly, embodying a Black femme identity as a professor in academia often engenders these same pretenses of hypervisibility and invisibility. This essay explores what this existential conundrum has been for me as both a Black femme and professor of Black queer and feminist studies, while illuminating the mix of forces within academia that have attempted to stifle my chosen sexual identity and gendered performance...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Julie Vaughan-Graham, Cheryl Cott
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical reasoning is an essential aspect of clinical practice, however is largely ignored in the current rehabilitation sciences evidence base. Literature related to clinical reasoning and clinical expertise has evolved concurrently although rehabilitation reasoning frameworks remain relatively generic. The purpose of this study was to explicate the clinical reasoning process of Bobath instructors of a widely used neuro-rehabilitation approach, the Bobath concept...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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