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Body schema

Alison Cieslak, Gary Elkins, Tanima Banerjee, Jessica Marsack, Kimberly Hickman, Alisa Johnson, Norah Henry, Debra Barton
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the content, feasibility, and best outcome of a mind-body intervention involving self-directed hypnotic relaxation to target body image.
. DESIGN: A five-week, uncontrolled, unblinded feasibility intervention study.
. SETTING: Behavioral therapy offices in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Waco, Texas.
. SAMPLE: 10 female breast cancer survivors and 1 breast and gynecologic cancer survivor...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Patryk Łakuta, Kamil Marcinkiewicz, Beata Bergler-Czop, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
This study examined the relationship between psoriasis and depression, proposing a multiple mediation model to analyse the relationship. A total of 193 patients with psoriasis aged 20-67 years completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Stigmatization Scale, the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, and the Body Emotions Scale. The Body Surface Area index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. Serial multiple mediation analysis revealed that experiences of stigmatization, maladaptive beliefs about appearance and its salience to one's self-evaluation, and negative emotional attitudes towards the body, jointly, sequentially mediated the relationship between the presence of skin lesions of psoriasis and depressive symptoms...
September 27, 2016: Body Image
Tim C van de Grift, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Lian Elfering, Müjde Özer, Mark-Bram Bouman, Marlon E Buncamper, Jan Maerten Smit, Margriet G Mullender
INTRODUCTION: Transmen are generally dissatisfied with their breasts and often opt for mastectomy. However, little is known about the specific effects of this procedure on this group's body image. AIM: To prospectively assess the effect of mastectomy on the body image of transmen, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. METHODS: During a 10-month period, all transmen applying for mastectomy were invited to participate in this study...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Kathryn L Loftis, Janet P Price, Patrick J Gillich, Kathy J Cookman, Amy L Brammer, Trish St Germain, Jo Barnes, Vickie Graymire, Donna A Nayduch, Christine Read-Allsopp, Katherine Baus, Patsye A Stanley, Maureen Brennan
OBJECTIVE: This article describes how maps were developed from the clinical modifications of the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 Update 2008 (AIS08). The development of the mapping methodology is described, with discussion of the major assumptions used in the process to map ICD codes to AIS severities. There were many intricacies to developing the maps, because the 2 coding systems, ICD and AIS, were developed for different purposes and contain unique classification structures to meet these purposes...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
David A Edmondson, Erin E Karski, Ayano Kohlgruber, Harsha Koneru, Katherine K Matthay, Shelly Allen, Christine L Hartmann, Leif E Peterson, Steven G DuBois, Matthew A Coleman
Calculating internal dose from therapeutic radionuclides currently relies on estimates made from multiple radiation exposure measurements, converted to absorbed dose in specific organs using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. As an alternative biodosimetric approach, we utilized gene expression analysis of whole blood from patients receiving targeted radiotherapy. Collected blood from patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma who received (131)I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-mIBG) at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) was used to compare calculated internal dose with the modulation of chosen gene expression...
September 2016: Radiation Research
J Mehlan, J Steinberg, L Traber, T Katz, S J Linke
PURPOSE: To evaluate the objective and subjective outcome after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) on recurrent corneal erosions (Hamburg protocol). METHODS: For the standardized PTK according to Hamburg protocol a manual abrasio corneae performed with 20 % alcohol is followed by an excimer ablation depth of ≥15 μm (group1 15 μm; group 2 > 15 μm ablation depth) and 7 mm optical zone. All patients (N = 48) were invited for follow-up examinations and the evaluation of changes concerning subjective symptoms...
October 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Miguel F Gago, Darya Yelshyna, Estela Bicho, Hélder David Silva, Luís Rocha, Maria Lurdes Rodrigues, Nuno Sousa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have an impaired ability to quickly reweight central sensory dependence in response to unexpected body perturbations. Herein, we aim to study provoked compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) in a conflicting sensory paradigm with unpredictable visual displacements using virtual reality goggles. METHODS: We used kinematic time-frequency analyses of two frequency bands: a low-frequency band (LB; 0.3-1.5 Hz; mechanical strategy) and a high-frequency band (HB; 1...
May 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Richard M Ransohoff
Microglial research has entered a fertile, dynamic phase characterized by novel technologies including two-photon imaging, whole-genome transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis with complementary bioinformatics, unbiased proteomics, cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF; Fluidigm) cytometry, and complex high-content experimental models including slice culture and zebrafish. Against this vivid background of newly emerging data, investigators will encounter in the microglial research literature a body of published work using the terminology of macrophage polarization, most commonly into the M1 and M2 phenotypes...
July 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Line Lindhardt Egsgaard, Trine Søby Christensen, Ida Munk Petersen, Dorthe Scavenius Brønnum, Shellie Ann Boudreau
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is more prevalent among women; however, the majority of standardized pain drawings are often collected using male-like androgynous body representations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender-specific and high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) body charts facilitate the communication of pain for women. METHODS: Using mixed-methods and a cross-over design, female patients with chronic pain were asked to provide detailed drawings of their current pain on masculine and feminine two-dimensional (2D) body schemas (N=41, Part I) or on female 2D and 3D high-resolution body schemas (N=41, Part II) on a computer tablet...
2016: JMIR Human Factors
Lisa H Domenico, S Strobbe, Karen Farchaus Stein, Bruno J Giordani, Bonnie M Hagerty, Susan J Pressler
Self-schemas have received increased attention as favorable targets for therapeutic intervention because of their central role in self-perception and behavior. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, evaluate, and synthesize existing research pertaining to drinking-related self-schemas. Russell's integrative review strategy guided the search. Sixteen published works were identified, meeting criteria for evaluation (n = 12 data-based publications and n = 4 models). The retrieved data-based publications rated fair-good using Polit and Beck's criteria; the overall body of literature rated "B" using Grimes and Schulz criteria...
July 13, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Lucilla Cardinali, Claudio Brozzoli, Jacques Luauté, Alice C Roy, Alessandro Farnè
The ability of using a large variety of tools is important in our daily life. Behind human tool-use abilities lays the brain capacity to incorporate tools into the body representation for action (Body Schema, BS), thought to rely mainly on proprioceptive information. Here, we tested whether tool incorporation is possible in absence of proprioception by studying a patient with right upper-limb deafferentation. We adopted a paradigm sensitive to changes of the BS and analyzed the kinematics of free-hand movements before and after tool-use, in three sessions over a period of 2 years...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Emilio J Puentedura, Timothy Flynn
Teaching people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) about the neurobiology and neurophysiology of their pain is referred to as pain neuroscience education (PNE). There is growing evidence that when PNE is provided to patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, it can result in decreased pain, pain catastrophization, disability, and improved physical performance. Because the aim of PNE is to shift the patient's focus from the tissues in the low back as the source of their pain to the brain's interpretation of inputs, many clinicians could mistakenly believe that PNE should be a "hands-off," education-only approach...
July 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Jan Dirk Blom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), a disorder characterized by distortions of visual perception, the body schema, and the experience of time. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of 169 published case descriptions, the etiology of AIWS is divided into 8 main groups, with neurologic disorders affecting mostly adults and elderly patients and encephalitides affecting mostly patients aged ≤18 years. Symptoms of AIWS are also experienced in the general population, with up to 30% of adolescents reporting nonclinical symptoms...
June 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Marie Martel, Lucilla Cardinali, Alice C Roy, Alessandro Farnè
Over the last decades, scientists have questioned the origin of the exquisite human mastery of tools. Seminal studies in monkeys, healthy participants and brain-damaged patients have primarily focused on the plastic changes that tool-use induces on spatial representations. More recently, we focused on the modifications tool-use must exert on the sensorimotor system and highlighted plastic changes at the level of the body representation used by the brain to control our movements, i.e., the Body Schema. Evidence is emerging for tool-use to affect also more visually and conceptually based representations of the body, such as the Body Image...
February 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Ewa Wojtyna, Patryk Łakuta, Kamil Marcinkiewicz, Beata Bergler-Czop, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
The aim of this study was to examine the importance of psychosocial factors, such as emotional and instrumental social support, distress, and assumptions about appearance and its salience to one's self-worth, and to relate these factors to depressive symptoms in patients with psoriasis, according to gender. A group of 219 patients with psoriasis, aged 18-70 years completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, the Berlin Social Support Scales, and the Distress Thermometer...
June 15, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Patrícia Lemos Bueno Fontes, Thalita Karla Flores Cruz, Deisiane Oliveira Souto, Ricardo Moura, Vitor Geraldi Haase
Clinical observations indicate that many children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy refrain from using or disregard the affected upper limb. The aim of the present study is to investigate deficits in different body representations (body schema, body structural description, and body image) in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. Three groups of children participated in this study: 42 TD children (aged 5.17-10.91 years), 23 children with right HCP (aged 5...
June 10, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Alfredo Ardila
Some unusual neuropsychological syndromes are rarely reported in the neuropsychological literature. This paper presents a review of four of these unusual clinical syndromes: (1) somatoparaphrenia (delusional belief in which a patient states that the limb contralateral to a brain pathology, does not belong to him/her); (2) akinetopsia (cortical syndrome in which patient losses the ability to perceive visual motion); (3) reduplicative paramnesia (believe that a familiar place, person, object, or body part has been duplicated); and (4) autotopagnosia (disturbance of body schema involving the loss of ability to localize, recognize, or identify the specific parts of one's body)...
August 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Ingunn Botnmark, Steve Tumilty, Ramakrishnan Mani
BACKGROUND: Normative two-point discrimination thresholds (TPDTs) have been reported for different body regions and the relationships between TPDT and body schema integrity and physical performances are previously shown. However, such relationships with shoulder physical performance have not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To quantify TPDT of the shoulders in healthy individuals and investigate whether TPDT and body schema integrity are related to physical performances and to identify the relationship between TPDT and body schema integrity...
June 2016: Manual Therapy
Antonella Di Vita, Maddalena Boccia, Liana Palermo, Cecilia Guariglia
Many studies have attempted to identify the different cognitive components of body representation (BR). Due to methodological issues, the data reported in these studies are often confusing. Here we summarize the fMRI data from previous studies and explore the possibility of a neural segregation between BR supporting actions (body-schema, BS) or not (non-oriented-to-action-body-representation, NA). We performed a general activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 59 fMRI experiments and two individual meta-analyses to identify the neural substrates of different BR...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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