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Body schema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282089/evaluation-of-a-software-module-for-adaptive-treatment-planning-and-re-irradiation
#1
Anne Richter, Stefan Weick, Thomas Krieger, Florian Exner, Sonja Kellner, Bülent Polat, Michael Flentje
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work is to validate the Dynamic Planning Module in terms of usability and acceptance in the treatment planning workflow. METHODS: The Dynamic Planning Module was used for decision making whether a plan adaptation was necessary within one course of radiation therapy. The Module was also used for patients scheduled for re-irradiation to estimate the dose in the pretreated region and calculate the accumulated dose to critical organs at risk...
December 28, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272995/primary-care-challenges-of-an-obscure-case-of-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-severe-malaria-in-a-resource-constrained-setting-a-case-report
#2
Benjamin Momo Kadia, Cyril Jabea Ekabe, Ettamba Agborndip
BACKGROUND: "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neurological abnormality characterized by distortions of visual perceptions, body schema and experience of time. AIWS has been reported in patients with various infections such as infectious mononucleosis, H1N1 influenza, Cytomegalovirus encephalitis, and typhoid encephalopathy. However, AIWS occurring in a patient with severe malaria is less familiar and could pose serious primary care challenges in a low-income context. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old male of black African ethnicity was brought by his parents to our primary care hospital because for 2 days he had been experiencing intermittent sudden perceptions of his parents' heads and objects around him either "shrinking" or "expanding"...
December 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226463/which-limb-is-it-responses-to-vibrotactile-stimulation-in-early-infancy
#3
Eszter Somogyi, Lisa Jacquey, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Jeffrey J Lockman, Lionel Granjon, Jacqueline Fagard, J Kevin O'Regan
This study focuses on how the body schema develops during the first months of life, by investigating infants' motor responses to localized vibrotactile stimulation on their limbs. Vibrotactile stimulation was provided by small buzzers that were attached to the infants' four limbs one at a time. Four age groups were compared cross-sectionally (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month-olds). We show that before they actually reach for the buzzer, which, according to previous studies, occurs around 7-8 months of age, infants demonstrate emerging knowledge about their body's configuration by producing specific movement patterns associated with the stimulated body area...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201910/body-schema-illusions-a-study-of-the-link-between-the-rubber-hand-and-kinesthetic-mirror-illusions-through-individual-differences
#4
Morgane Metral, Corentin Gonthier, Marion Luyat, Michel Guerraz
Background: The well-known rubber hand paradigm induces an illusion by having participants feel the touch applied to a fake hand. In parallel, the kinesthetic mirror illusion elicits illusions of movement by moving the reflection of a participant's arm. Experimental manipulation of sensory inputs leads to emergence of these multisensory illusions. There are strong conceptual similarities between these two illusions, suggesting that they rely on the same neurophysiological mechanisms, but this relationship has never been investigated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153332/sensorimotor-performance-and-function-in-people-with-osteoarthritis-of-the-hand-a-case-control-comparison
#5
Nicoló Edoardo Magni, Peter John McNair, David Andrew Rice
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether hand left/right judgements, tactile acuity, and body perception are impaired in people with hand OA. To examine the relationships between left right judgements, tactile acuity and hand pain. To explore the relationships between sensorimotor measures (left/right judgements and tactile acuity) and measures of hand function in people with hand OA. METHODS: Twenty patients with symptomatic hand OA and 19 healthy pain-free controls undertook a hand left/right judgment task, a control left/right judgement task, two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold testing (assessing tactile acuity), a neglect-like symptoms questionnaire (assessing body perception) and several established measures of hand function...
September 25, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117023/legal-evidence-of-subjective-states-a-brain-based-model-of-chronic-pain-increases-accuracy-and-fairness-in-law
#6
Amanda C Pustilnik
Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging offer new ways to conceptualize chronic pain disorders and to prevent, diagnose, and treat chronic pain. Advances in pain science, though, do not entail changes in the concepts of chronic pain in law and culture. Authoritative legal and cultural conceptions of chronic pain continue to promote abstruse theories, characterizing these disorders as arising out of everything from a person's unmet need for love to resistance to "patriarchy." These constructs have consequences, impeding treatment and affecting whether individuals with chronic pain can obtain legal redress...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091967/motor-based-bodily-self-is-selectively-impaired-in-eating-disorders
#7
Giovanna Cristina Campione, Gianluigi Mansi, Alessandra Fumagalli, Beatrice Fumagalli, Simona Sottocornola, Massimo Molteni, Nadia Micali
BACKGROUND: Body representation disturbances in body schema (i.e. unconscious sensorimotor body representations for action) have been frequently reported in eating disorders. Recently, it has been proposed that body schema relies on adequate functioning of the motor system, which is strongly implicated in discriminating between one's own and someone else's body. The present study aimed to investigate the motor-based bodily self in eating disorders and controls, in order to examine the role of the motor system in body representation disturbances at the body schema level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064827/mental-body-transformation-deficits-in-patients-with-chronic-balance-disorders
#8
J H J Allum, W Langewitz, M Sleptsova, A Welge-Luessen, F Honegger, T H Schatz, C L Biner, C Maguire, D A Schmid
BACKGROUND: Movements may be generated consistent with imagining one's own body transformed or "disembodied" to a new position. Based on this concept we hypothesized that patients with objective balance deficits (obj-BD) would have altered neural transformation processes executing own body transformation (OBT) with functional consequences on balance control. Also we examined whether feeling unstable due to dizziness only (DO), without an obj-BD, also lead to an impaired OBT. METHODS: 32 patients with chronic dizziness were tested: 16 patients with obj-BD as determined by balance control during a sequence of stance and gait tasks, 16 patients with dizziness only (DO)...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040934/calibration-to-tool-use-during-visually-guided-reaching
#9
Brian Day, Elham Ebrahimi, Leah S Hartman, Christopher C Pagano, Sabarish V Babu
In studying human perception and performance researchers must understand how the body schema is modified to accurately represent one's capabilities when tools are used, as humans use tools that alter their capabilities frequently. The present work tested the idea that calibration is responsible for modifying an embodied action schema during tool use. We investigated calibration in the context of manual activity in near space through a behavioral measure. Participants made blind reaches to various visual distances in pre- and post-test phases using a short tool that did not extend their reach...
October 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992582/fat-or-fiction-effects-of-body-size-eating-pathology-and-sex-upon-the-body-schema-of-an-undergraduate-population
#10
Sophie J Wignall, Nicole A Thomas, Michael E R Nicholls
Although there is a growing consensus that women with anorexia nervosa have a distorted body schema, the origins of this disturbance remain uncertain. The present investigation examined the effects of body size, eating pathology, and sex upon the body schema of an at-risk, undergraduate population. In Study 1, 98 participants mentally simulated their passage through apertures. When aperture width was manipulated, narrow and broad women over- and under-estimated their spatial requirements for passage, respectively...
December 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967775/maternal-conception-of-gestational-weight-gain-among-latinas-a-qualitative-study
#11
Grace E Fletcher, Leah Teeters, David Schlundt, Kemberlee Bonnet, William J Heerman
OBJECTIVE: Interventions to support healthy gestational weight gain are often ineffective. The objective was to develop a model of how pregnant Latinas-who have a higher risk of poor maternal and neonatal weight-related outcomes-conceptualize healthy gestational weight gain, providing guidance for future interventions. METHOD: Ten focus groups with 50 pregnant Latinas were conducted by a native Spanish-speaking female moderator. On the basis of participant responses, we used grounded theory to inductively develop a personal conceptual framework for gestational weight gain...
October 2, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942669/yes-we-can-a-phenomenological-study-of-a-sports-camp-for-young-people-with-cerebral-palsy
#12
Kenneth Aggerholm, Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny
This article contributes to the understanding of embodied practices and experiences within adapted physical activity. It presents a study of a 4-day winter sports camp for young people with cerebral palsy. The experiences of the participants were investigated through qualitative interviews. The findings are analyzed through a phenomenological framework of embodiment and the notions of body schema and body image. By paying special attention to the bodily experience of "I can," this study shows that participants learned new ways of approaching challenges, gained bodily control in challenging situations, expanded their fields of possible actions through practicing, as well as learned to understand and accept themselves...
October 1, 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919394/concomitant-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-with-sbrt-boost-for-unresectable-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-phase-i-study
#13
Kristin A Higgins, Rathi N Pillai, Zhengjia Chen, Sibo Tian, Chao Zhang, Pretesh Patel, Suchita Pakkala, Jay Shelton, Seth D Force, Felix G Fernandez, Conor E Steuer, Taofeek K Owonikoko, Suresh S Ramalingam, Jeffrey D Bradley, Walter J Curran
OBJECTIVES: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is now the standard of care in medically inoperable stage I NSCLC, yielding high rates of local control. It is unknown whether SBRT can be safely utilized in the locally advanced NSCLC setting. This multi-institution phase I study evaluated the safety of 44 Gy of conventionally fractionated thoracic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy plus dose-escalated SBRT boost to both the primary tumor and involved mediastinal lymph nodes...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885964/cervical-joint-position-sense-in-hypobaric-conditions-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#14
Diana Bagaianu, Damien Van Tiggelen, N Duvigneaud, Veerle Stevens, Danny Schroyen, Dirk Vissenaeken, Gino D'Hondt, Laurent Pitance
Well-adapted motor actions require intact and well-integrated information from all of the sensory systems, specifically the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, including proprioception. Proprioception is involved in the sensorimotor control by providing the central nervous system with an updated body schema of the biomechanical and spatial properties of the body parts. With regard to the cervical spine, proprioceptive information from joint and muscle mechanoreceptors is integrated with vestibular and visual feedback to control head position, head orientation, and whole body posture...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852890/body-representation-in-patients-after-vascular-brain-injuries
#15
Magdalena Razmus
Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation...
August 29, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826604/the-neuroscience-of-body-memory-from-the-self-through-the-space-to-the-others
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
Our experience of the body is not direct; rather, it is mediated by perceptual information, influenced by internal information, and recalibrated through stored implicit and explicit body representation (body memory). This paper presents an overview of the current investigations related to body memory by bringing together recent studies from neuropsychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary and cognitive psychology. To do so, in the paper, I explore the origin of representations of human body to elucidate their developmental process and, in particular, their relationship with more explicit concepts of self...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813974/a-cosmetic-prosthetic-digit-with-bioinspired-embedded-touch-feedback
#17
Diego Barone, Marco D'Alonzo, Marco Controzzi, Francesco Clemente, Christian Cipriani
Partial hand amputation is the most frequent amputation level worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of all upper limb amputations. Passive cosmetic prostheses represent one of the possible choices for its treatment, probably the most affordable one. However, these devices restore very limited motor function and subtle sensory feedback. The latter is an important component for restoring the body schema. In this work we present a simple yet potentially effective and low cost cosmetic digital prosthesis that embeds touch feedback; we dubbed this DESC-finger...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780900/results-from-a-clinical-trial-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-real-time-body-surface-visual-feedback-in-reducing-patient-motion-during-lung-cancer-radiotherapy
#18
Gareth J Price, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Julia Stratford, Sheena Chauhan, Michelle Bewley, Laura Clarke, Corinne N Johnson, Christopher J Moore
INTRODUCTION: Optical surface measurement devices are a maturing technology in radiotherapy. The challenge for such devices is to demonstrate how they can improve clinical care. We present results from a phase 1 clinical trial designed to test the hypothesis that if presented with live data from a novel optical measurement device, showing their deviation from an ideal radiotherapy treatment position, patients will be able to better control their motion and increase their geometrical conformance...
August 7, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761663/standardized-screening-for-periodontitis-as-an-integral-part-of-multidisciplinary-management-of-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-an-observational-cross-sectional-study-of-cohorts-in-the-usa-and-uk
#19
Andrew S Pumerantz, Susan M Bissett, Fanglong Dong, Cesar Ochoa, Rebecca R Wassall, Heidi Davila, Melanie Barbee, John Nguyen, Pamela Vila, Philip M Preshaw
OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence and factors predictive of periodontitis by using a standardized assessment model in adults with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed an observational cross-sectional study to determine the burden of periodontitis in adults with type 2 diabetes attending urban, ambulatory referral centers in the USA and UK. Full-mouth probing was performed and periodontitis was diagnosed based on either a low (≥5 mm at ≥1 site) or high pocket probing-depth threshold (≥6 mm at ≥1 site)...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756548/optimized-statistical-parametric-mapping-procedure-for-nirs-data-contaminated-by-motion-artifacts-neurometric-analysis-of-body-schema-extension
#20
Satoshi Suzuki
This study investigated the spatial distribution of brain activity on body schema (BS) modification induced by natural body motion using two versions of a hand-tracing task. In Task 1, participants traced Japanese Hiragana characters using the right forefinger, requiring no BS expansion. In Task 2, participants performed the tracing task with a long stick, requiring BS expansion. Spatial distribution was analyzed using general linear model (GLM)-based statistical parametric mapping of near-infrared spectroscopy data contaminated with motion artifacts caused by the hand-tracing task...
July 29, 2017: Brain Informatics
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