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P Engel, M F Almas, M L De Bruin, K Starzyk, S Blackburn, N A Dreyer
AIM: To describe and characterise the first cohort of Post-Authorisation Safety Study (PASS) protocols reviewed under the recent European Pharmacovigilance Legislation. METHODS: A systematic approach was used to compile all publicly available information on PASS protocols and assessments submitted from July 2012 to July 2015 from Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) minutes, European Medicines Agency (EMA) and European Network of Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology (ENCePP) webpages...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
E E Jedy-Agba, E O Dareng, S N Adebamowo, M Odutola, E A Oga, F Igbinoba, T Otu, E Ezeome, F Bray, R Hassan, C A Adebamowo
INTRODUCTION: HPV attributable cancers are the second most common infection-related cancers worldwide, with much higher burden in less developed regions. There are currently no country-specific estimates of the burden of these cancers in Nigeria just like many other low and middle income countries. METHODS: In this study, we quantified the proportion of the cancer burden in Nigeria that is attributable to HPV infection from 2012 to 2014 using HPV prevalence estimated from previous studies and data from two population based cancer registries (PBCR) in Nigeria...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Hellen J Amuguni, Melissa Mazan, Robert Kibuuka
Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Wendy M Gordon
Midwifery associations are increasing awareness and commitment to racial equity in the profession and in the communities we serve. Moving these commitments from words into action may be facilitated by a racial equity toolkit to help guide midwifery organizations to consider all policies, initiatives, and actions with a racial equity lens. Racial equity impact analyses have been used in recent years by various governmental agencies in the United States and abroad with positive results, and emerging literature indicates that nonprofit organizations are having similarly positive results...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
John Howard
Arrangements between those who perform work and those who provide jobs come in many different forms. Standard work arrangements now exist alongside several nonstandard arrangements: agency work, contract work, and gig work. While standard work arrangements are still the most prevalent types, the rise of nonstandard work arrangements, especially temporary agency, contract, and "gig" arrangements, and the potential effects of these new arrangements on worker health and safety have captured the attention of government, business, labor, and academia...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Radha V Patel, Kristy M Shaeer, Pooja Patel, Aleksey Garmaza, Kornwalee Wiangkham, Rachel B Franks, Olivia Pane, Nicholas W Carris
In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern including West Nile Virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Yoon Soo Park, Matthew Lineberry, Abbas Hyderi, Georges Bordage, Kuan Xing, Rachel Yudkowsky
PURPOSE: Medical schools administer locally developed graduation competency examinations (GCEs) following the structure of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills that combine standardized patient (SP)-based physical examination and the patient note (PN) to create integrated clinical encounter (ICE) scores. This study examines how different subcomponent scoring weights in a locally developed GCE affect composite score reliability and pass-fail decisions for ICE scores, contributing to internal structure and consequential validity evidence...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Margaret J Livingstone, Cornelius B Groenewald, Jennifer A Rabbitts, Tonya M Palermo
BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding the safety of codeine have been raised. Cases of life-threatening respiratory depression and death in children have been attributed to codeine's polymorphic metabolic pathway. International health agencies recommend restricted use of codeine in children. Despite these recommendations, the epidemiology of codeine use among children remains unknown. AIMS: Our objective was to examine patterns of codeine use in the US among children. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of children of age 0-17 years from 1996 to 2013 in the US was performed...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Khaled Abass, Markku Koiranen, Darja Mazej, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Milena Horvat, Jukka Hakkola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Arja Rautio
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort program (NFBC) is the epidemiological and longitudinal prospective general population research program, which was established to promote health and wellbeing of the population in northern Finland. The aim of present study, as a part of the NFBC program, was to analyze the blood levels of arsenic (B-As), cadmium (B-Cd), lead (B-Pb), total mercury (B-Hg) and selenium (B-Se); to compare these levels with threshold limits; to study sociodemographic factors; and to correlate these levels with calcium and haemoglobin...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anthony J Hatswell, Nick Freemantle, Gianluca Baio
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals are usually granted a marketing authorisation on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Occasionally the efficacy of a treatment is assessed without a randomised comparator group (either active or placebo). OBJECTIVE: To identify and develop a taxonomic account of economic modelling approaches for pharmaceuticals licensed without RCT data. METHODS: We searched PubMed, the websites of UK health technology assessment bodies and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Scientific Presentations Database for assessments of treatments granted a marketing authorisation by the US Food and Drug Administration or European Medicines Agency from January 1999 to May 2014 without RCT data (74 indications)...
October 24, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Zain A Sobani, Ashwin Sawant, Mikram Jafri, Amit Keith Correa, Ibrahim Halil Sahin
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency...
October 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Roger Figueroa, Angela Wiley
Childhood obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and physical inactivity is a major contributor. Factors related to physical activity promotion in the family child care context are understudied. A convenience sample of participants in a mid-sized city in the Midwestern U.S. was recruited through the local child care resource and referral agency and were invited through flyers and emails to take part in an online or paper survey. Survey results in a sample of 107 family child care providers indicate that many did not meet physical activity recommendations and are missing the opportunity to enable children's physical activity via important practices and resources...
2016: SpringerPlus
Jeremy Jost, Adeline Raharivelo, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Mandy Nizard, Emilie Auditeau, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in Madagascar (23.5/1000), as is the treatment gap (estimated at 92 %). The health system of the country is underfunded; some AEDs are used, and the national drug policy does not encourage price regulation or the administration of generic agents. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the availability and cost of solid oral AED formulations in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Data were gathered from all officially registered pharmacies (according to the drug agency list, updated in 2015) by means of telephone interviews lasting no more than 10 min and conducted by a native Malagasy speaker...
2016: SpringerPlus
Rebecca J Macy, Sandra L Martin, Ijeoma Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, Cynthia F Rizo
Using survey data, we investigate perspectives of 80 program directors of domestic violence and/or sexual assault agencies regarding whether gathering specific information at intake is helpful in determining survivors' needs for five service areas: legal advocacy, medical advocacy, support group, counseling, and shelter. We explore whether directors' opinions of information-type usefulness differ by type of service agency (single- or dual-focus). Findings show directors perceive the information most helpful to early service provision includes survivors' goals, experiences of violence and trauma, and health status...
October 24, 2016: Violence Against Women
Jeanne Lenzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Tobias Bluhmki, Raphael Simon Peter, Kilian Rapp, Hans-Helmut König, Clemens Becker, Ivonne Lindlbauer, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Jan Beyersmann, Gisela Büchele
OBJECTIVES: Persons with osteoporotic fracture history are subject to an increased risk for subsequent fractures and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the impact of a previous osteoporotic low-impact (fragility) index fracture (eg, forearm, lower leg) on mortality of a subsequent femoral fracture. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENTS: Claims data of a German health insurance agency including >1...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Gamze Ates, Dorien Favyts, Giel Hendriks, Remco Derr, Birgit Mertens, Luc Verschaeve, Vera Rogiers, Tatyana Y Doktorova
To ensure safety for humans, it is essential to characterize the genotoxic potential of new chemical entities, such as pharmaceutical and cosmetic substances. In a first tier, a battery of in vitro tests is recommended by international regulatory agencies. However, these tests suffer from inadequate specificity: compounds may be wrongly categorized as genotoxic, resulting in unnecessary, time-consuming, and expensive in vivo follow-up testing. In the last decade, novel assays (notably, reporter-based assays) have been developed in an attempt to overcome these drawbacks...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
C M Eddy, A E Cavanna, P C Hansen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that adults with Tourette syndrome (TS) can respond unconventionally on tasks involving social cognition. We therefore hypothesized that these patients would exhibit different neural responses to healthy controls in response to emotionally salient expressions of human eyes. METHOD: Twenty-five adults with TS and 25 matched healthy controls were scanned using fMRI during the standard version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task which requires mental state judgements, and a novel comparison version requiring judgements about age...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Teryl K Nuckols, Emmett Keeler, Sally C Morton, Laura Anderson, Brian Doyle, Marika Booth, Roberta Shanman, Jonathan Grein, Paul Shekelle
Importance: Although quality improvement (QI) interventions can reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), their economic value is uncertain. Objective: To systematically review economic evaluations of QI interventions designed to prevent CLABSI and/or CRBSI in acute care hospitals. Evidence Review: A search of Ovid MEDLINE, Econlit, Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, Worldcat, prior systematic reviews (January 2004 to July 2016), and IDWeek conference abstracts (2013-2016), was conducted from 2013 to 2016...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Lisa Groshong, Sonja A Wilhelm Stanis, Andrew T Kaczynski, J Aaron Hipp, Gina M Besenvi
BACKGROUND: Public parks hold promise for promoting population-level PA, but studies show a significant portion of park use is sedentary. Past research has documented the effectiveness of message-based strategies for influencing diverse behaviors in park settings and for increasing PA in non-park contexts. Therefore, to inform message-based interventions (e.g., point-of-decision prompts) to increase park-based PA, the purpose of this study was to elicit insights about key attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency that affect park use and park-based PA in low-income urban neighborhoods...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
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