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prophylactic antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917651/bacteriophages-as-an-alternative-to-conventional-antibiotic-use-for-the-prevention-or-treatment-of-paenibacillus-larvae-in-honeybee-hives
#1
T Scott Brady, Bryan D Merrill, Jared A Hilton, Ashley M Payne, Michael B Stephenson, Sandra Hope
American Foulbrood (AFB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae. P. larvae phages were isolated and tested to determine each phages' host range amongst 59 field isolate strains of P. larvae. Three phages were selected to create a phage cocktail for the treatment of AFB infections according to the combined phages' ability to lyse all tested strains of bacteria. Studies were performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the phage cocktail treatment as a replacement for traditional antibiotics for the prevention of AFB and the treatment of active infections...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913721/intraperitoneal-antibiotic-administration-for-prevention-of-postoperative-peritoneal-catheter-related-infections
#2
Margarita Kunin, Dganit Dinour, Danny Rosin
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that systemic prophylactic antibiotics be given immediately prior to peritoneal catheter insertion. This administration requires intravenous access and could be inconvenient in dynamic and unpredictable operation room schedule. Intraperitoneal antibiotics could be an alternative simple way for prevention of postoperative peritoneal catheter infections. METHODS: Medical records from 109 patients undergoing permanent PD catheter placement procedures were reviewed retrospectively...
September 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911062/tpf-plus-cetuximab-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-biochemoradiation-with-weekly-cetuximab-plus-weekly-cisplatin-or-carboplatin-a-randomized-phase-ii-eortc-trial
#3
P M Specenier, E Remenar, J Buter, D L Schrijvers, C Bergamini, L F Licitra, A Awada, P M Clement, C Fortpied, J Menis, J B Vermorken
Background: Our aim was to test the safety of cetuximab added to chemoradiation with either cisplatin or carboplatin after prior induction chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with stage III/IV unresectable, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received up to four cycles of TPF-E (cisplatin and docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 1 followed by 5-FU 750 mg/m2/day as a continuous infusion on days 1-5 plus cetuximab at a loading dose of 400 mg/m2 followed by a weekly dose of 250 mg/m2), with prophylactic antibiotics but no growth factors...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904688/cellulitis-in-aged-persons-a-neglected-infection-in-the-literature
#4
Anis Mzabi, Wafa Marrakchi, Zeineb Alaya, Fatma Ben Fredj, Amel Rezgui, Elyès Bouajina, Chedia Laouani Kechrid
Cellulitis is a frequent soft tissue and skin infection. The lower limbs are affected in 70 to 80% of cases. Cellulitis in aged persons is not yet well described in literature. A retrospective descriptive study conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of Sahloul hospital in Sousse in Tunisia. It included patients whose age was up to 65 years old admitted into hospital for cellulitis of the legs, the arms or the face. One hundred fifty eight patients with a mean age of 73 years old (range: 65 to 94 years old) were included...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890429/exploring-the-umbilical-and-vaginal-port-during-minimally-invasive-surgery
#5
Andrea Tinelli, Daniel A Tsin, Antonello Forgione, Ricardo Zorron, Giovanni Dapri, Antonio Malvasi, Tahar Benhidjeb, Radmila Sparic, Farr Nezhat
This article focuses on the anatomy, literature, and our own experiences in an effort to assist in the decision-making process of choosing between an umbilical or vaginal port. Umbilical access is more familiar to general surgeons; it is thicker than the transvaginal entry, and has more nerve endings and sensory innervations. This combination increases tissue damage and pain in the umbilical port site. The vaginal route requires prophylactic antibiotics, a Foley catheter, and a period of postoperative sexual abstinence...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889761/safety-issues-associated-with-using-medication-to-treat-overactive-bladder
#6
George Araklitis, Linda Cardozo
The mainstay of overactive bladder treatment is the use of anticholinergic medication with its common side effects well known. This review focused on three less well-known safety issues when treating OAB. Areas covered: Patients with increased anticholinergic load are at risk of cognitive decline, dementia or even death. The elderly are particularly at risk due to polypharmacy. Botulinum toxin carries the risk of high urinary residuals, urinary tract infection and need to self catheterise. The use of vaginal oestrogens may improve OAB symptoms, but there is concern in those with a history of breast cancer...
September 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888717/role-of-biomarkers-in-acute-traumatic-lung-injury
#7
REVIEW
Philipp Störmann, Thomas Lustenberger, Borna Relja, Ingo Marzi, Sebastian Wutzler
In severely injured patients severe thoracic trauma is common and can significantly influence the outcome of these critically ill patients by increased rates of mainly pulmonary complications. Furthermore, patients who sustained thoracic trauma are at increased risk for Acute Lung Injury (ALI) or Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Therapeutic options are limited, basically consisting of prophylactic antibiotic therapy and changing patient's positions. It is known, that ALI and ARDS differ clinically and pathobiologically from ALI/ARDS caused by other reasons, but the exact pathology remains elusive...
August 24, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886683/neisseria-gonorrhoeae-drug-resistance-mouse-models-and-vaccine-development
#8
Peter A Rice, William M Shafer, Sanjay Ram, Ann E Jerse
Gonorrhea, an obligate human infection, is on the rise worldwide and gonococcal strains resistant to many antibiotics are emerging. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment and prevention, including effective vaccines, are urgently needed. To guide investigation, an experimental model of genital tract infection has been developed in female mice to study mechanisms by which Neisseria gonorrhoeae evades host-derived antimicrobial factors and to identify protective and immunosuppressive pathways. Refinements of the animal model have also improved its use as a surrogate host of human infection and accelerated the testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic compounds against gonococcal infection...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884946/risk-factors-for-postoperative-infectionin-chinese-lung-cancer-patients-ameta-analysis
#9
Jie Zhang, Taiqiang Zhao, Shanshan Long, Xin Liu, Hua Yu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative infectionin Chinese lung cancer patients. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, EMbase, CNKI and WanFang Data databases to identify studies investigating risk factors for postoperative infectionin Chinese lung cancer patients. Meta-analysis was performed by using Revman 5.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 12studies were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that old age, male gender, diabetes, cigarette smoking, squamous cell carcinoma, pulmonary diseases, longer of mechanical ventilation, longer time of surgery procedure were associated with increased risk of postoperative infection...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881107/saddle-nose-deformity-and-septal-perforation-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#10
Annekatrin Coordes, Sonja Maike Loose, Veit M Hofmann, Grant S Hamilton, Frank Riedel, Dirk Jan Menger, Andreas E Albers
BACKGROUND: Patients who have granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, syn. M. Wegener) often develop an external nose deformity which may have devastating psychological effects. Therefore, reconstruction of nasal deformities by rhinoplasty may become necessary to achieve a normal appearance. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of surgical reconstruction in external nasal deformities and septal perforation in GPA patients...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874194/prophylactic-antibiotic-use-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-urinary-tract-catheterization-a-survey-of-members-of-the-society-for-pediatric-urology
#11
Alexander P Glaser, Ilina Rosoklija, Emilie K Johnson, Elizabeth B Yerkes
BACKGROUND: Current organizational guidelines regarding use of antibiotics during urinary tract catheterization are based on limited evidence and are not directly applicable to the pediatric urology population. We seek to improve understanding of this population by first evaluating current practices. This study aims to investigate practice patterns and attitudes of pediatric urologists regarding the use of antibiotics in the setting of urinary tract catheterization. METHODS: An online survey was sent to members of the Society for Pediatric Urology...
September 6, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865816/bacteremia-associated-with-oral-surgery-a%C3%A2-review
#12
REVIEW
Beatriz González Navarro, Enric Jané Salas, Albert Estrugo Devesa, José López López, Miguel Viñas
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial (infective) endocarditis, a microbial infection of the endocardium surfaces after bacteremia, causes significant morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiologic studies have reported a prevalence of 2-8 cases per 100,000 individuals per year, with the highest incidence in those aged 70-80 years and those living in developed countries. We systematically reviewed the literature on several critical aspects regarding the development of bacteremia after oral surgery. The purpose of this work is to assess the controversy regarding antibiotic prophylaxis before oral surgery...
September 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865815/evaluation-of-the-need-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-during-routine-intra-alveolar-dental-extractions-in-healthy-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#13
Sunil Sidana, Yusuf Mistry, Adil Gandevivala, Nitesh Motwani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized double-blind controlled trial was to evaluate the role of antibiotics in the perioperative period of dental extractions in healthy patients. METHODS: The study population included patients visiting the outpatient department of our institute. Four hundred patients were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups and underwent routine dental extraction. In group A, patients were prescribed only anti-inflammatory drugs in the postoperative period...
September 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861072/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-upec-infections-virulence-factors-bladder-responses-antibiotic-and-non-antibiotic-antimicrobial-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Maria E Terlizzi, Giorgio Gribaudo, Massimo E Maffei
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common pathological conditions in both community and hospital settings. It has been estimated that about 150 million people worldwide develop UTI each year, with high social costs in terms of hospitalizations and medical expenses. Among the common uropathogens associated to UTIs development, UroPathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause. UPEC strains possess a plethora of both structural (as fimbriae, pili, curli, flagella) and secreted (toxins, iron-acquisition systems) virulence factors that contribute to their capacity to cause disease, although the ability to adhere to host epithelial cells in the urinary tract represents the most important determinant of pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859613/clinical-care-given-to-victims-of-sexual-assault-at-kadoma-general-hospital-zimbabwe-a-secondary-data-analysis-2016
#15
Stanley Tapesana, Daniel Chirundu, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Tshimanga Mufuta
BACKGROUND: Despite the guidelines for managing sexual assault being in place, victims of sexual assault attended to at Kadoma General Hospital consistently raised complaints related to the quality of care offered. Medicolegal data for sexual assault has been collected at the hospital since 2012. However, no analysis had been done regardless of complaints having been raised. We analysed the dataset to determine the quality of clinical care offered to sexual assault victims. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study based on secondary data was conducted...
August 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856119/characterization-of-chicken-igy-specific-to-clostridium-difficile-r20291-spores-and-the-effect-of-oral-administration-in-mouse-models-of-initiation-and-recurrent-disease
#16
Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo, Fernando Díaz-González, Manuel Álvarez-Lobos, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are the leading cause of world-wide nosocomial acquired diarrhea. The current main clinical challenge in CDI is the elevated rate of infection recurrence that may reach up to 30% of the patients, which has been associated to the formation of dormant spores during the infection. We sought to characterize the effects of oral administration of specific anti-spore IgY in mouse models of CDI and recurrent CDI. The specificity of anti-spore IgY was evaluated in vitro. In both, initiation mouse model and recurrence mouse model, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of anti-spore IgY, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855003/a-review-of-candidate-therapies-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-from-a-molecular-perspective
#17
Ali A Rabaan, Shamsah H Alahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Hatem M Alhani
There have been 2040 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 27 countries, with a mortality rate of 34.9 %. There is no specific therapy. The current therapies have mainly been adapted from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) treatments, including broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, interferons, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir or mycophenolate mofetil, and have not been subject to well-organized clinical trials. The development of specific therapies and vaccines is therefore urgently required...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852600/a-review-on-antibiotic-resistance-alarm-bells-are-ringing
#18
REVIEW
Sojib Bin Zaman, Muhammed Awlad Hussain, Rachel Nye, Varshil Mehta, Kazi Taib Mamun, Naznin Hossain
Antibiotics are the 'wonder drugs' to combat microbes. For decades, multiple varieties of antibiotics have not only been used for therapeutic purposes but practiced prophylactically across other industries such as agriculture and animal husbandry. Uncertainty has arisen, as microbes have become resistant to common antibiotics while the host remains unaware that antibiotic resistance has emerged. The aim of this review is to explore the origin, development, and the current state of antibiotic resistance, regulation, and challenges by examining available literature...
June 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851249/bacterial-pneumonia-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-with-or-without-hiv-co-infection-a-possible-definition-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-associated-pneumonia-apap
#19
Gianluca Cuomo, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Gianfranca Stornaiuolo, Daniela Manno, Giuseppe L Gaeta, Cristina Mussini, Massimo Puoti, Giovanni B Gaeta
Introducion: Bacterial infections frequently complicate liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and clinical impact of bacterial pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial infection prevalence study: consecutive patients with cirrhosis were enroled over a six-month period in 13 Italian centres. Pneumonia and other infections were diagnosed by standard methods. Pneumonia study: cirrhotic patients with pneumonia were enroled for an additional six-month period and HIV-positive patients were included...
August 29, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846153/international-survey-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-cardiologists-regarding-prevention-and-management-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-infections
#20
Daniel C DeSimone, Anwar A Chahal, Christopher V DeSimone, Samuel J Asirvatham, Paul A Friedman, Larry M Baddour, M Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) can be life-saving. However, complications from CIED infection can be life-threatening often requiring device removal. Despite publication of CIED infection management guidelines there remains marked variation in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To better understand and quantify these differences, we conducted a multi-national survey of practitioners of CIED management. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to Heart Rhythm Society members, spanning 70 countries across six continents...
August 28, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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