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prophylactic antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920515/effect-of-elom-080-on-exacerbations-and-symptoms-in-copd-patients-with-a-chronic-bronchitis-phenotype-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Kai-Michael Beeh, Jutta Beier, Henning Candler, Thomas Wittig
BACKGROUND: Treating symptoms and preventing exacerbations are key components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) long-term management. Recently, a more tailored treatment approach has been proposed, in particular for two well-established clinical phenotypes, frequent exacerbators and chronic bronchitis-dominant COPD. ELOM-080 has demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating symptoms and preventing exacerbations in subjects with chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the potential effects of ELOM-080 in COPD patients...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919578/is-the-commercial-antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement-useful-in-prophylactic-and-cost-saving-after-knee-and-hip-joint-arthroplasty-the-transatlantic-paradox
#2
Pablo Sanz-Ruiz, Jose Antonio Matas-Diez, Mar Sanchez-Somolinos, Manuel Villanueva-Martinez, Javier Vaquero-Martín
BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) has proven to be effective in preventing periprosthetic infection (PPI) after total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the economic benefit of using ALBC routinely remains controversial. METHODS: A total of 2518 patients subjected to THA, partial hip arthroplasty, and TKA between 2009 and 2012 were identified in our prospectively collected registry. Two groups were defined: before (2009-2010) and after the introduction of ALBC (2011-2012)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917667/prophylactic-antibiotics-in-acute-pancreatitis-endless-debate
#3
M M Mourad, Rpt Evans, V Kalidindi, R Navaratnam, L Dvorkin, S R Bramhall
INTRODUCTION The development of pancreatic infection is associated with the development of a deteriorating disease with subsequent high morbidity and mortality. There is agreement that in mild pancreatitis there is no need to use antibiotics; in severe pancreatitis it would appear to be a logical choice to use antibiotics to prevent secondary pancreatic infection and decrease associated mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A non-systematic review of current evidence, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials was conducted to assess the role of prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis and whether it might improve morbidity and mortality in pancreatitis...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912036/failure-to-redose-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-long-surgery-increases-risk-of-surgical-site-infection
#4
Nongyao Kasatpibal, Joanne D Whitney, E Patchen Dellinger, Bala G Nair, Kenneth C Pike
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis is a key component of the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). Failure to manage antibiotic prophylaxis effectively may increase the risk of SSI. This study aimed to examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on SSI risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients having general surgery between May 2012 and June 2015 at the University of Washington Medical Center. Peri-operative data extracted from hospital databases included patient and operation characteristics, intra-operative medication and fluid administration, and survival outcome...
December 2, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911458/spondylodiscitis-a-rare-complication-following-percutaneous-nephrostomy
#5
Francesco Chiancone, Maurizio Fedelini, Clemente Meccariello, Luigi Pucci, Marco Fabiano, Paolo Fedelini
Spondylodiscitis is an inflammation of the intervertebral disc and the adjacent vertebral bodies. The spondylodiscitis can not only be a complication of medical interventions such as an operation near spinal column but also urogenital and vascular interventions and intravenous catheter use. A 71-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with fever and severe abdominal pain. Antibiotic therapy had been performed with intravenous administration of 2 g of ceftriaxone and the patient underwent the placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy according to Seldinger technique...
November 28, 2016: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906606/influence-of-a-shorter-duration-of-post-operative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-on-infectious-complications-in-patients-undergoing-elective-liver-resection
#6
Masahiko Sakoda, Satoshi Iino, Yuko Mataki, Yota Kawasaki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Kosei Maemura, Shinichi Ueno, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis has been recommended to reduce post-operative infectious complications. Discontinuation of post-operative antibiotic administration within 24 hours of operation is currently recommended. Many surgeons, however, conventionally tend to extend the duration of prophylactic antibiotic use. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis to assess the efficacy of extended post-operative antibiotic use in patients who underwent elective liver resection...
December 1, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905650/-aseptic-techniques-for-minor-surgical-procedures
#7
Marcela Concha-Rogazy, Catalina Andrighetti-Ferrada, Maximiliano Curi-Tuma
Aseptic techniques are those practices designed to reduce the risk of surgical site infection (SSI), defined as such, all those that occur within the first 30 days of the procedure. While the patient’s risk of developing an SSI in dermatologic surgery is low since many of the procedures are considered sterile, there are different factors associated with an increased or decreased risk of developing SSI. The characteristics of the surgical wound (such as involving infected or inflamed tissue or when breaks in the aseptic technique occur), patient characteristics (such as age, comorbidities, medication use and smoking) and procedure factors (such as setting, surgical technique, type of procedure, duration and body region involved)...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903852/topical-honey-in-the-management-of-pediatric-peritoneal-dialysis-exit-sites
#8
Thomas A Forbes, Loren Shaw, Catherine Quinlan
International guidelines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) advocate for regular application of topical mupirocin in chronic PD exit-site care. A strong evidence base links this treatment to reduced rates of exit-site infections and peritonitis. However, emerging reports of increasing mupirocin resistance and gram-negative infections are threatening the long-term viability of topical antibiotic ointments as a prophylactic treatment. Medical grade honey has multiple proven antibacterial and wound healing properties...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903479/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-use-of-a-prophylactic-antibiotic-for-patients-undergoing-lower-limb-amputation-due-to-diabetes-or-vascular-illness-in-colombia
#9
REVIEW
Mateo Ceballos, Luis Esteban Orozco, Carlos Oliver Valderrama, Diana Isabel Londoño, Luz Helena Lugo
BACKGROUND: The use of a prophylactic antibiotic in an amputation surgery is a key element for the successful recovery of the patient. We aim to determine, from the perspective of the Colombian health system, the cost-effectiveness of administering a prophylactic antibiotic among patients undergoing lower limb amputation due to diabetes or vascular illness in Colombia. METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to compare the use and non-use of a prophylactic antibiotic...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902647/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#10
David F Butler, Brian Lee, Erica Molitor-Kirsch, Jason G Newland
This was a case-control study of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cases spanning five years. Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 12/207 subjects, with Candida sp.-4, Pseudomonas sp.-2, and Staphylococcal sp.-2 being predominant. No risk factors for BSI were identified. Exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics was common in both BSI and control patients. Prophylactic antimicrobials did not decrease risk for BSI.
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899322/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-prophylactic-antibiotics-in-the-prevention-of-electrocoagulation-syndrome-after-colorectal-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection
#11
Sang Pyo Lee, In-Kyung Sung, Jeong Hwan Kim, Sun-Young Lee, Hyung Seok Park, Chan Sup Shim, Hyun Kyun Ki
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently commonly performed, but colorectal ESD has a substantial risk of adverse events, including post-ESD electrocoagulation syndrome (PEECS). We investigated whether the use of prophylactic antibiotics can reduce the occurrence of PEECS. METHODS: Patients who underwent colorectal ESD were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment regimens. Ampicillin/sulbactam mixed with normal saline solution was administered 1 hour before ESD in group I, and then additionally injected every 8 hours twice more...
November 26, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896194/osteomyelitis-following-domestic-animal-bites-to-the-hand-two-case-reports-and-practical-guidelines
#12
Jung Soo Lim, Jin Hwan Byun, Kyung Hee Min, Hye Kyung Lee, Yun Sun Choi
Recently, the number of cases of animal bite wounds has increased significantly in concordance with an increase in the pet population around the world. The authors report two rare cases of osteomyelitis of the phalanx following cat and dog bites. On initial physical examination, signs of a severe infection were observed. Radiographs of both patients showed the presence of osteomyelitis, and in one of the patients, the diagnosis was confirmed with a bone biopsy. After use of empirical antibiotics, intravenous antibiotic therapy that matched the identified bacterium's sensitivity was initiated, and at the same time, secure dressing including debridement was performed to induce secondary healing...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894763/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-bacteria-urinary-tract-infections-and-complex-pediatric-urology
#13
Ruth Wragg, Anna Harris, Mitul Patel, Andrew Robb, Harish Chandran, Liam McCarthy
AIM OF THE STUDY: Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. This resistance is plasmid-borne and can spread between species. Management of ESBL is challenging in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complex urological abnormalities. We aim to quantify the risk in children and specifically in urological patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of a microbiology database (April 2014 to November 2015)...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893834/selective-pressure-promotes-tetracycline-resistance-of-chlamydia-suis-in-fattening-pigs
#14
Sabrina Wanninger, Manuela Donati, Antonietta Di Francesco, Michael Hässig, Karolin Hoffmann, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Hanna Marti, Nicole Borel
In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885778/single-dose-versus-multiple-dose-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
R Pinto-Lopes, B Sousa-Pinto, L F Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotics are traditionally given as a single dose for caesarean section. However, inconsistent application of recommendations and recent evidence prompted a literature review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the optimal regimen for antibiotic prophylaxis in caesarean section by comparing single versus multiple doses of the same intervention. SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, CENTRAL and ongoing trials databases were searched...
November 24, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879579/discussion-do-prolonged-prophylactic-antibiotics-reduce-the-incidence-of-surgical-site-infections-in-immediate-prosthetic-breast-reconstruction
#16
Amy S Colwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878620/the-role-of-single-shot-metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-ileostomy-reversal-surgery
#17
Roland Fernandes, Paul Robinson, Karan Rangarajan, Sophie Scott, Laura Angco
PURPOSE: Symptomatic infection with Clostridium difficile is strongly linked to antibiotic use and rates are higher for colorectal surgery. In February 2015, trust policy for antibiotic prophylaxis of ileostomy reversal surgery was changed from three doses of metronidazole plus cefuroxime to single-dose metronidazole, in a bid to reduce rates of Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single, large hospital trust between February 2014 and February 2016, before and after change in antimicrobial policy...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867043/acute-social-stress-induced-immunomodulation-in-pigs-high-and-low-responders-to-acth
#18
Elodie Bacou, Karine Haurogné, Grégoire Mignot, Marie Allard, Laurence De Beaurepaire, Jordan Marchand, Elena Terenina, Yvon Billon, Julien Jacques, Jean-Marie Bach, Pierre Mormède, Julie Hervé, Blandine Lieubeau
Pig husbandry is known as an intensive breeding system, piglets being submitted to multiple stressful events such as early weaning, successive mixing, crowding and shipping. These stressors are thought to impair immune defences and might contribute, at least partly, to the prophylactic use of antibiotics. Robustness was recently defined as the ability of an individual to express a high-production potential in a wide variety of environmental conditions. Increasing robustness thus appears as a valuable option to improve resilience to stressors and could be obtained by selecting piglets upon their adrenocortical activity...
November 17, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857531/application-of-probiotics-for-the-production-of-safe-and-high-quality-poultry-meat
#19
Yong Ha Park, Farizal Hamidon, Chandraprasad Rajangan, Kim Pong Soh, Chee Yuen Gan, Theam Soon Lim, Wan Nadiah Wan Abdullah, Min Tze Liong
Poultry industry has always been a dynamic and integral part of national economies in many countries. Economic losses incur especially in large-scale rearing facilities, often attributed to the deterioration of environmental conditions, poultry exposure to stressors and development of diseases. While antibiotics have been commonly used for prophylactic purposes and as growth stimulants, extensive documentation of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria due to indiscriminate utilization of antibiotic in the industry has led to public and governmental outcries...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852447/a-polyclonal-outbreak-of-bloodstream-infections-by-enterococcus-faecium-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#20
Pamela Alatorre-Fernández, Claudia Mayoral-Terán, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Cecilia Franco-Rodríguez, Karen Flores-Moreno, Miguel Ángel Cevallos, Yolanda López-Vidal, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium causes bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). We studied the clinical features and outcomes of patients with HM with vancomycin-sensitive E faecium (VSE) and vancomycin-resistant E faecium (VRE) BSI and determined the genetic relatedness of isolates and circumstances associated with the upsurge of E faecium BSI. METHODS: Case-control study of patients with HM and E faecium-positive blood culture from January 2008-December 2012; cases were patients with VRE and controls were VSE isolates...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
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