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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145887/postpartum-infective-endocarditis-with-enterococcus-faecalis-in-japan-a-case-report
#1
Miku Tamura, Mitsutaka Shoji, Ken Fujita, Shohei Nakamura, Yurika Takahashi, Yurika Suzuki, Mika Asakura, Shun Kimizuka, Makiko Sasaki, Katsuya Sugawara
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis include the presence of predisposing cardiac disease, a history of illegal drug use, and high morbidity in the elderly. Only a few cases of the disease after delivery have been reported in the literature. We describe here a first case of enterococcal postpartum infective endocarditis without underlying disease in Japan. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 31-year-old Japanese woman with postpartum infective endocarditis by Enterococcus faecalis...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144909/re-the-effectiveness-of-prophylactic-antibiotics-with-oral-levofloxacin-against-post-shock-wave-lithotripsy-infectious-complications-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142844/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-thyroid-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Anna Fachinetti, Corrado Chiappa, Veronica Arlant, Hoon Yub Kim, Xiaoli Liu, Hui Sun, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Francesca Rovera
Use of antibiotic prophylactic (AP) in clean surgery is still controversial. We reviewed the literature of the last 10 years to identify the best way to approach the use of prophylactic antibiotic in thyroid surgery. In thyroid surgery, it is a highly controversial topic primarily due to the lack of evidence in "support" of or "against" antibiotic use. In this review, the authors analyze the literature on the use of AP in thyroid surgery in order to evaluate if the available data support or contradict this use routinely...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135348/development-of-a-surgical-infection-surveillance-program-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia-lessons-learned-from-two-surveillance-strategies
#4
Jared A Forrester, Luca Koritsanszky, Benjamin D Parsons, Menbere Hailu, Demisew Amenu, Seifu Alemu, Fekadu Jiru, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We developed Clean Cut, a surgical infection prevention program, with two goals: (1) Increase adherence to evidence-based peri-operative infection prevention standards and (2) establish sustainable surgical infection surveillance. Here we describe our infection surveillance strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clean Cut was piloted and evaluated at a 523 bed tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
November 14, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134323/single-stage-treatment-of-infected-tibial-non-unions-and-osteomyelitis-with-bone-marrow-granulocytes-precursors-protecting-bone-graft
#5
Philippe Hernigou, Arnaud Dubory, Yasuhiro Homma, Charles Henri Flouzat Lachaniette, Nathalie Chevallier, Helene Rouard
PURPOSE: Infected non-unions present a clinical challenge, especially with risk of recurrent infection. Bone marrow contains granulocyte precursors identified in vitro as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) have a prophylactic action against infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors added to a standard bone graft could decrease the risk of recurrence of infection when single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions is performed with bone graft...
November 13, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131269/clinical-analysis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-patients-undergoing-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate
#6
Y-H Li, G-Q Li, S-M Guo, Y-N Che, X Wang, F-T Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the related influencing factors of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to this hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, were selected and treated by TURP. Patients were divided into infection group and non-infection group according to the occurrence of urinary tract infection after operation...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128874/the-initial-prophylactic-antibiotic-usage-and-subsequent-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-high-risk-premature-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Xue Fan, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Chao Chen, Juan Chen, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between the initial prophylactic antibiotic use and the subsequent NEC in high-risk premature infants. METHODS: We performed a literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Web of Science, and nine studies with a total of 5207 infants were selected for inclusion in this study. RESULTS: The pooled estimate for the seven studies combined indicating that prophylactic antibiotic usage was associated with a non-significant trend toward increased incidence of NEC [odds ratio (OR) 0...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124129/subtle-microbiome-manipulation-using-probiotics-reduces-antibiotic-associated-mortality-in-fish
#8
Victor Schmidt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chelsea Roy, Katherine Smith, Linda Amaral-Zettler
Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119726/cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-was-associated-with-enteric-commensal-bacterial-resistance-among-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-botswana
#9
Kathleen M Powis, Sajini Souda, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Michael D Hughes, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Haruna B Jibril, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Despite declining risk of vertical HIV transmission, prophylactic cotrimoxazole (CTX) remains widely used to reduce morbidity and mortality in the event of HIV infection among exposed infants, with an inherent risk of conferring commensal antimicrobial resistance. Using data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infant CTX prophylaxis, we sought to quantify emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: HIV-exposed uninfected infants enrolled in the Botswana Mpepu study were randomized to prophylactic CTX or placebo between 14 and 34 days of life and continued through 15 months...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114962/annual-report-of-the-perinatology-committee-japan-society-of-obstetrics-and-gynecology-2016-overall-report-on-a-comprehensive-retrospective-study-of-obstetric-management-of-preterm-labor-and-preterm-premature-rupture-of-the-membranes
#10
Hiroshi Sameshima, Shigeru Saito, Yoshio Matsuda, Masato Kamitomo, Shintaro Makino, Masanao Ohashi, Emi Kino, Naohiro Kanayama, Satoru Takeda
We conducted a questionnaire survey on the current obstetric management of preterm labor (PL) and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM). The questionnaire covered approximately a third of all preterm deliveries and nearly half of the preterm deliveries before 32 gestational weeks. The diagnostic criterion for PL was either painful uterine contractions or cervical dilatation. Tocolytic agents were primarily used as long-term maintenance therapy. Intrauterine infection was clinically diagnosed at most responding institutions...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107269/how-to-biopsy-transperineal-versus-transrectal-saturation-versus-targeted-what-s-the-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Jeremy Grummet
Until recently, prostate biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer has been performed transrectally and in an untargeted sampling fashion. Consequently, the procedure has suffered a small but significant risk of severe morbidity through infection, and low diagnostic accuracy, with undergrading and missed diagnosis being common. MRI is revolutionizing prostate cancer diagnosis by improving detection accuracy via targeted biopsy. Transperineal biopsy is eradicating sepsis as a risk of prostate biopsy, while avoiding the need for broad-spectrum or combination prophylactic antibiotics...
November 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106917/variation-in-prophylactic-antibiotic-use-for-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-need-for-better-stewardship-in-pediatric-surgery
#12
Kibileri Williams, Lauren Baumann, Fizan Abdullah, Shawn D St Peter, Tolulope A Oyetunji
PURPOSE: The role of prophylactic antibiotics for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been questioned over the last decade. Although gradually being discontinued in the adult population, the practice among pediatric surgeons remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the use of perioperative antibiotics in children undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for symptomatic cholelithiasis and biliary dyskinesia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database for 2015 and selected all patients 18years old or younger who underwent LC for cholelithiasis (without cholecystitis) or biliary dyskinesia...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105799/-microdialysis-as-a-tool-to-determine-the-local-tissue-concentration-of-dicloxacillin-in-man
#13
K K Hansen, F Nielsen, T B Stage, U Jørgensen, O Skov, L E Rasmussen
AIM: The most common pathogen in Denmark, to cause postoperative infections, is Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (1). Despite using prophylactic antibiotics, infections are still seen. Whether the tissue concentration is above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the pathogen is unknown. Thus, the concentration of dicloxacillin in muscle and adipose tissue was measured after intravenous administration, in healthy men. METHODS: MIC for dicloxacillin against S...
November 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100903/value-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-percutaneous-gastrostomy-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#14
Christopher R Ingraham, Guy E Johnson, Emily L Albrecht, Siddharth A Padia, Eric J Monroe, Brandon C Perry, Ethan M Dobrow, Daniel S Hippe, Karim Valji
PURPOSE: To compare peristomal infection rates following percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) after a single dose of prophylactic antibiotics versus placebo and evaluate rates of peristomal infection in patients receiving concurrent antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, randomized trial (2012-2016) enrolled 122 patients referred for image-guided PG; all enrolled patients completed the study. Of enrolled patients, 68 were randomly assigned to receive either antibiotics (n = 34) or placebo (n = 34) before PG placement...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100225/acute-pancreatitis-etiology-pathology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Shirin Majidi, Adam Golembioski, Stephen L Wilson, Errington C Thompson
Acute pancreatitis is a fascinating disease. In the United States, the two most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and excessive alcohol consumption. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made with a combination of history, physical examination, computed tomography scan, and laboratory evaluation. Differentiating patients who will have a benign course of their pancreatitis from patients who will have severe pancreatitis is challenging to the clinician. C-reactive protein, pro-calcitonin, and the Bedside Index for Severity of Acute Pancreatitis appeared to be the best tools for the early and accurate diagnosis of severe pancreatitis...
November 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096053/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-episiotomy-repair-following-vaginal-birth
#16
REVIEW
Mercedes Bonet, Erika Ota, Chioma E Chibueze, Olufemi T Oladapo
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections occurring during labour, childbirth, and the puerperium may be associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic prophylaxis might reduce wound infection incidence after an episiotomy, particularly in situations associated with a higher risk of postpartum perineal infection, such as midline episiotomy, extension of the incision, or in settings where the baseline risk of infection after vaginal birth is high. However, available evidence is unclear concerning the role of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing infections after an episiotomy...
November 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094328/incidence-of-endophthalmitis-and-the-perioperative-practices-of-cataract-surgery-in-japan-japanese-prospective-multicenter-study-for-postoperative-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery
#17
Tomoyuki Inoue, Toshihiko Uno, Norio Usui, Shinichiro Kobayakawa, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Yuichi Ohashi
PURPOSE: To prospectively survey the incidence of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery and investigate the current perioperative practices in Japan. METHODS: Patients who underwent cataract surgery from January 2012 to December 2013 were included. Information on perioperative practices were recorded prospectively. Clinical characteristics were examined in cases with endophthalmitis. RESULTS: A total of 63,244 patients who underwent cataract surgery in 205 facilities were enrolled...
November 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089731/to-compare-the-effectiveness-of-short-term-three-dose-perioperative-antibiotic-coverage-during-decisive-period-with-conventional-prolonged-postoperative-antibiotic-usage-in-clean-elective-surgical-cases-an-indian-perspective
#18
Sudhir Khichy, Baldev Singh, Manpreet Singh, Sukha Singh
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are the most common postoperative complications and frequently cause morbidity and mortality. Different antibiotic regimens were evaluated as prophylaxis in wound infection following elective surgical procedures. Prophylactic antibiotics should be given to cover the "decisive period" which is a period after incision to mobilization of host defenses thus preventing an infection from developing. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to study the effectiveness of short-term antibiotic coverage during decisive period in the prevention of postoperative wound sepsis in clean surgical cases...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083525/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-clean-contaminated-head-and-neck-cases-with-microvascular-free-flap-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Yarah M Haidar, Prem B Tripathi, Tjoson Tjoa, Sartaaj Walia, Lishi Zhang, Yanjun Chen, Danh V Nguyen, Hossein Mahboubi, William B Armstrong, Julie A Goddard
BACKGROUND: Optimal antibiotic prophylaxis duration in head and neck clean-contaminated free-flap cases is unknown. METHODS: A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web-of-Science, and Scopus databases. RESULTS: Of the 3755 searched articles, 5 articles were included for a total of 861 patients. The recipient surgical site infection risk was significantly higher in patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics for ≤24 hours compared to >24 hours (relative risk [RR] 1...
October 30, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083473/intracavity-lavage-and-wound-irrigation-for-prevention-of-surgical-site-infection
#20
REVIEW
Gill Norman, Ross A Atkinson, Tanya A Smith, Ceri Rowlands, Amber D Rithalia, Emma J Crosbie, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are wound infections that occur after an operative procedure. A preventable complication, they are costly and associated with poorer patient outcomes, increased mortality, morbidity and reoperation rates. Surgical wound irrigation is an intraoperative technique, which may reduce the rate of SSIs through removal of dead or damaged tissue, metabolic waste, and wound exudate. Irrigation can be undertaken prior to wound closure or postoperatively...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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