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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634841/patient-related-risk-factors-for-postoperative-infection-after-cholecystectomy
#1
Gona Jaafar, Folke Hammarqvist, Lars Enochsson, Gabriel Sandblom
BACKGROUND: The impact of patient-related risk factors on the incidence of postoperative infection after cholecystectomy is relatively unknown. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore potential patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) and septicaemia following cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cholecystectomies registered in the Swedish national population-based register for Gallstone Surgery and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (GallRiks) 2006-2014 were identified...
June 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634688/acute-variceal-bleeding-risk-stratification-and-management-including-tips
#2
REVIEW
Virginia Hernández-Gea, Claudia Berbel, Anna Baiges, Juan C García-Pagán
Acute variceal bleeding should be suspected in all patients with cirrhosis presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Vasoactive drugs and prophylactic antibiotics must be started as soon as possible, even before performing the diagnostic endoscopy. Once the patient is hemodynamically stable, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and provide endoscopic therapy (preferably banding ligation). After this initial approach, the most appropriate therapy to prevent both early and late rebleeding must be instituted following a risk stratification strategy...
June 20, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632255/intake-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-dental-implant-failure
#3
Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic, Jenö Kisch, Tomas Albrektsson, Ann Wennerberg
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the intake of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the risk of dental implant failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study is based on patients consecutively treated between 1980 and 2014 with implant-supported/retained prostheses at one specialist clinic. Modern endosseous dental implants with cylindrical or conical design were included, and only complete cases were considered; ie, only those implants with information available for all variables measured were included in the regression model analysis...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631307/interventions-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-erysipelas-and-cellulitis
#4
REVIEW
Adam Dalal, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Daniel Mimouni, Sujoy Ray, Walford Days, Emmilia Hodak, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629932/systemic-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-burn-patients-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Guillermo Enrique Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To review studies of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in burn patients. METHODS: Human clinical trials during the period 1966-2016 where prophylactic systemic antibiotics were compared with placebo or no intervention were identified in electronic databases. RESULTS: Nineteen trials met the selection criteria. Early post-burn period prophylaxis was assessed in non severe burn patients (6 trials), and in severe burn patients (7 trials)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625021/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-elective-hysterectomy
#6
REVIEW
Reuben Olugbenga Ayeleke, Selma Mourad, Jane Marjoribanks, Karim A Calis, Vanessa Jordan
BACKGROUND: Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic...
June 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624819/a-randomized-trial-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-patients-undergoing-medical-thoracoscopy-apt
#7
Sahajal Dhooria, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Kuruswamy Thurai Prasad, Amanjit Bal, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: There is no data on the role of prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing medical thoracoscopy. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a single dose of intravenous cefazolin in subjects undergoing medical thoracoscopy. METHODS: Subjects undergoing medical thoracoscopy were randomized 1:1 to receive either intravenous cefazolin 2 g (antibiotic group) or intravenous saline (control group). The primary outcome was the incidence of infections (surgical site infections and empyema) in the study groups, while the secondary outcomes were complications related to intravenous antibiotics...
June 17, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623282/a-nationwide-study-of-severe-and-protracted-diarrhoea-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#8
Wen-I Lee, Chien-Chang Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Liang-Shiou Ou, Chuen Hsueh, Jing-Long Huang
Diarrhoea lasting longer than 14 days and failing to respond to conventional management is defined as severe and protracted diarrhoea (SD). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, pathogens and prognosis of SD in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Among 246 patients with predominantly paediatric-onset PIDs from 2003-2015, 21 [Btk (six), IL2RG (four), WASP, CD40L, gp91 (three each), gp47, RAG2 (one each)] and five [CVID (four), SCID (one)] without identified mutations had SD before prophylactic treatment...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622340/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-surgical-site-infections-as-a-risk-factor-for-infection-with-clostridium-difficile
#9
Aubrey Balch, Aaron M Wendelboe, Sara K Vesely, Dale W Bratzler
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the association between 2013 guideline concordant prophylactic antibiotic use prior to surgery and infection with Clostridium difficile. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective case-control study by selecting patients who underwent a surgical procedure between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013. SETTING: Large urban community hospital. PATIENTS: Cases and controls were patients age 18+ years who underwent an eligible surgery (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621112/increased-immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-the-p-aeruginosa-vaccine-in-mice-using-an-alum-and-de-o-acylated-lipooligosaccharide-adjuvant-system
#10
Ji In Ryu, Seo Ri Wui, Ara Ko, Yeon Jeong Lee, Hien Thi Thu Do, Hark Jun Kim, In Moo Rhee, Shin Ae Park, Kwang Sung Kim, Yang Je Cho, Na Gyong Lee
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly causes fatal infections in cystic fibrosis and burn patients as well as in patients who are hospitalized or have impaired immune systems. P. aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat due to the high resistance of the pathogen to conventional antibiotics. Despite several efforts, no effective prophylactic vaccines against P. aeruginosa are currently available. In this study, we investigated the activity of the CIA06 adjuvant system, which is comprised of alum and de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide, on a P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620316/incidence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profiles-of-normal-conjunctiva-bacterial-flora-in-the-central-area-of-china-a-hospital-based-study
#11
Hua Tao, Juan Wang, Lei Li, Hui-Zhi Zhang, Meng-Ping Chen, Le Li
Objective: To study the distribution and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents of normal conjunctival bacteria. Materials and Methods: Conjunctival specimens were collected from 8,224 patients and then cultured, which underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test following standard methods. Patients with infectious symptoms such as erythema or oedema and those using systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month were excluded. Results: In this study, the incidence of isolated bacteria was 24.2%. The middle aged group of 41-65 years presented the lowest rate of bacterial isolation which was 19...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614287/nasal-swab-screening-for-staphylococcus-aureus-in-spinal-deformity-patients-treated-with-growing-rods
#12
Scott J Luhmann, June C Smith
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infections are one of the most concerning complications in patients treated with growing rods (GR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of preoperative screening for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) for all growing spine procedures, and if this would permit alteration of prophylactic antibiotics to cover the identified resistances. METHODS: All patients were identified who had SA screening during the course of GR treatment. In otal, 34 patients [23 neuromuscular (NMS), 4 congenital, 4 idiopathic scoliosis (IS), and 3 syndromic] were identified who had 111 preoperative screenings [79 lengthenings, 23 insertions, 6 revisions, and 3 conversions to posterior spinal fusions (PSF)]...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612058/vesicoureteral-reflux-and-continuous-prophylactic-antibiotics
#13
REVIEW
Ted Lee, John M Park
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) management must be tailored based on the risk for further infections and renal scarring, gender, likelihood of spontaneous resolution, and parental preferences. Because we now understand that sterile VUR is benign and most reflux spontaneously resolves over time, the initial approach in majority of children is non-surgical with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) and correction of bladder and bowel dysfunction. Despite increasing utilization of CAP over the past four decades, the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis has been questioned due to conflicting results of studies plagued with design flaws and inadequate subject sample size...
June 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605452/optimizing-preoperative-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-reported-%C3%AE-lactam-allergy-a-novel-extension-of-antimicrobial-stewardship
#14
Alon Vaisman, Janine McCready, Sandy Hicks, Jeff Powis
Background: Use of alternative second-line antibiotics is associated with adverse events in patients reporting β-lactam allergy. In the perioperative setting, we hypothesized that structured allergy histories, without the use of skin testing, can reduce alternative prophylactic antibiotic use. Objectives: Assess the impact of structured allergy histories on patients with self-reported β-lactam allergy (SRBA) undergoing elective surgical procedures. Methods: Structured allergy histories were performed by a pharmacist and reviewed with an infectious diseases physician...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602589/early-pathogenic-colonisers-of-acute-burn-wounds-a-retrospective-review
#15
Hye-Sung Park, Chengde Pham, Eldho Paul, Alex Padiglione, Cheng Lo, Heather Cleland
BACKGROUND: Early excision of burns reduces the incidence of local and systemic infections caused by colonising microorganisms, and reduces mortality and length of hospital stay. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the risk of postoperative wound infections and skin graft loss. Antibiotic selection should be based on likely pathogens. However, there are few studies that have investigated the early pathogenic colonisers of acute burn wounds. AIM: To describe pathogenic microorganisms found in acute burns and to make further recommendations on the use of early perioperative prophylactic antibiotics...
June 8, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601567/impact-of-evidence-based-interventions-on-wound-complications-after-cesarean
#16
Lorene A Temming, Nandini Raghuraman, Ebony B Carter, Molly J Stout, Roxane M Rampersad, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill, Methodius G Tuuli
BACKGROUND: A number of evidence-based interventions have been proposed to reduce post cesarean wound complications. Examples of such interventions include appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotics, appropriate choice of skin antisepsis, closure of the subcutaneous layer if subcutaneous depth is ≥ 2 cm, and subcuticular skin closure with suture rather than staples. However, the collective impact of these measures is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the impact of a group of evidence-based surgical measures (prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to skin incision, chlorhexidine-alcohol for skin antisepsis, closure of subcutaneous layer, and subcuticular skin closure with suture) on wound complications after cesarean, and to estimate residual risk factors for wound complications...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601215/field-wound-care-prophylactic-antibiotics
#17
REVIEW
Clinton K Murray
Adequate management of wounds requires numerous interventions, one of which is the appropriate use of antimicrobials to attempt to minimize the risk of excess morbidity or mortality without increasing toxicity or multidrug resistant bacterial acquisition. There are numerous recommendations and opinions for not only the use of systemic prophylactic antimicrobials, but also the agent, dose, route, and duration. To best address the implementation of systemic antimicrobials in a field scenario, one must weigh the factors that go into that decision and then determine the best agents possible...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599967/challenging-surgical-dogma-in-the-management-of-proximal-esophageal-atresia-with-distal-tracheoesophageal-fistula-outcomes-from-the-midwest-pediatric-surgery-consortium
#18
Dave R Lal, Samir K Gadepalli, Cynthia D Downard, Daniel J Ostlie, Peter C Minneci, Ruth M Swedler, Thomas H Chelius, Laura Cassidy, Cooper T Rapp, Deborah Billmire, Steven Bruch, R Carland Burns, Katherine J Deans, Mary E Fallat, Jason D Fraser, Julia Grabowski, Ferdynand Hebel, Michael A Helmrath, Ronald B Hirschl, Rashmi Kabre, Jonathan Kohler, Matthew P Landman, Charles M Leys, Grace Z Mak, Jessica Raque, Beth Rymeski, Jacqueline M Saito, Shawn D St Peter, Daniel von Allmen, Brad W Warner, Thomas T Sato
PURPOSE: Perioperative management of infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is frequently based on surgeon experience and dogma rather than evidence-based guidelines. This study examines whether commonly perceived important aspects of practice affect outcome in a contemporary multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing primary repair for the most common type of esophageal atresia anomaly, proximal EA with distal TEF. METHODS: The Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium conducted a multicenter, retrospective study examining selected outcomes on infants diagnosed with proximal EA with distal TEF who underwent primary repair over a 5-year period (2009-2014), with a minimum 1-year follow up, across 11 centers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598694/kiwifruit-ameliorates-gentamicin-induced-histological-and-histochemical-alterations-in-the-kidney-of-albino-mice
#19
Y I Mahmoud, S Farag
Gentamicin is an antibiotic used worldwide for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections. Gentamicin causes nephrotoxicity in up to 25% of therapeutic cases owing to increased production of free radicals. Kiwifruit are nutrient-dense fruits that have proven effective for ameliorating many pathological conditions caused by oxidative stress. We investigated the possible prophylactic and therapeutic effects of kiwifruit on the changes in renal histology and histochemistry caused by gentamicin. Intramuscular injection of mice with gentamicin for 10 consecutive days was nephrotoxic as indicated by epithelial vacuolization, glomerular atrophy and tubular necrosis...
June 9, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592405/current-and-emerging-topical-antibacterials-and-antiseptics-agents-action-and-resistance-patterns
#20
REVIEW
Deborah A Williamson, Glen P Carter, Benjamin P Howden
Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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