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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811093/risk-factors-for-infective-endocarditis-in-children-with-congenital-heart-diseases-a-nationwide-population-based-case-control-study
#1
Li-Chuan Sun, Chih-Cheng Lai, Cheng-Yi Wang, Ya-Hui Wang, Jen-Yu Wang, Yo-Ling Hsu, Yin-Lan Hu, En-Ting Wu, Ming-Tai Lin, Leticia B Sy, Likwang Chen
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon in childhood. Its associated epidemiological characteristics in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) remain unclear. METHODS: The study population included children born in Taiwan during the years 1997 to 2005 who were diagnosed as having CHD before 3years of age. All children were followed up until the end year of 2010, the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, or death. The demographic characteristics of patients with and without IE, the invasive procedures performed during 6months before the index date, the prophylactic antibiotics related to dental procedures, and in-hospital mortality were collected...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#2
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810038/culture-positive-endophthalmitis-after-open-globe-injuries-with-and-without-retained-intraocular-foreign-bodies
#3
Tanuj P Banker, Andrew J McClellan, Benjamin D Wilson, Fabiana M Juan, Ajay E Kuriyan, Nidhi Relhan, Felix V Chen, Eric D Weichel, Thomas A Albini, Audina M Berrocal, Jay Sridhar, Ninel Z Gregori, Justin H Townsend, Harry W Flynn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To report the visual and anatomical outcomes and microbiologic spectrum of culture-positive endophthalmitis in open globe injuries (OGIs) with or without intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, interventional case series of OGIs (n = 718) treated between 2004 and 2015. Patients underwent a management protocol for OGI, including systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics, on presentation. RESULTS: Culture-positive cases of endophthalmitis after open globe repair occurred in 2...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808474/effect-of-shin-iseihaito-xinyiqingfeitang-on-acute-streptococcus-pneumoniae-murine-sinusitis-via-macrophage-activation
#4
Masaaki Minami, Toru Konishi, Hiroshi Takase, Zhixia Jiang, Tetsuya Arai, Toshiaki Makino
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes sinusitis. The general treatment of S. pneumonia sinusitis is by using antibiotics; however, one of their serious problems is the attenuation of their effect. Shin'iseihaito (Xinyiqingfeitang), a formula of Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, has been used for the treatment of sinusitis in Japan. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Shin'iseihaito against S. pneumoniae-caused sinusitis in mice. Oral administration of Shin'iseihaito extract (SSHT) decreased the nasal colonization of S...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807192/does-compliance-with-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-pediatric-simple-appendicitis-matter
#5
Krislynn M Mueck, Luke R Putnam, Kathryn T Anderson, Kevin P Lally, KuoJen Tsao, Lillian S Kao
BACKGROUND: Institutional protocols for preincisional antibiotic prophylaxis can standardize care and improve outcomes. However, challenges remain in compliance with such protocols for urgent or emergent operations. We hypothesized that compliance with an institutional protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis for appendectomy for appendicitis in pediatric patients results in reduced surgical site infections (SSIs) after simple appendectomy. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed all pediatric patients (≤18 y) who underwent appendectomy for confirmed simple appendicitis at a tertiary children's hospital between 2012 and 2015...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803549/comparative-gut-microbiota-and-resistome-profiling-of-intensive-care-patients-receiving-selective-digestive-tract-decontamination-and-healthy-subjects
#6
Elena Buelow, Teresita D J Bello González, Susana Fuentes, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Leo Lahti, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Eline A M Majoor, Johanna C Braat, Maaike S M van Mourik, Evelien A N Oostdijk, Rob J L Willems, Marc J M Bonten, Mark W J van Passel, Hauke Smidt, Willem van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in critically ill patients during their stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). To suppress gut colonization with opportunistic pathogens, a prophylactic antibiotic regimen, termed "selective decontamination of the digestive tract" (SDD), is used in some countries where it improves clinical outcome in ICU patients. Yet, the impact of ICU hospitalization and SDD on the gut microbiota remains largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803455/effect-of-positive-perioperative-donor-and-recipient-respiratory-bacterial-cultures-on-early-post-transplant-outcomes-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#7
Crystal K Howell, Christopher A Paciullo, Marshall G Lyon, David Neujahr, Peter Lyu, George Cotsonis, Michael Hurtik
BACKGROUND: It is standard practice to administer prophylactic antibiotics post lung transplantation. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of culture positivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate early post-transplant outcomes of culture-positive and culture-negative lung transplant (LT) recipients and the appropriateness of the empiric regimens used. METHODS: Adult patients who received an LT at Emory University Hospital between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2015 were reviewed and stratified into three groups: (i) culture-positive appropriate empiric treatment, (ii) culture-positive inappropriate empiric treatment, and (iii) culture-negative...
August 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802796/antibacterial-prophylaxis-for-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-infections-in-cranial-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Pranav Abraham, Nayan Lamba, Michael Acosta, Joanna Gholmie, Hassan Y Dawood, Matthew Vestal, Kevin Huang, Maher Hulou, Morteza Asgarzadeh, Hasan Zaidi, Rania A Mekary, Timothy R Smith
BACKGROUND: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis against gram positive and gram negative infections is considered standard of care in the perioperative management of patients undergoing cranial surgery. The antibiotic regimen which best reduces the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs) remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the effect of various prophylactic antibiotics on infection incidence among patients undergoing cranial surgeries...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800838/noncompliance-with-surgical-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-guidelines-a-jordanian-experience-in-cesarean-deliveries
#9
Mariam Hantash Abdel Jalil, Khawla Abu Hammour, Mervat Alsous, Rand Hadadden, Wedad Awad, Faris Bakri, Kamil Fram
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are common, especially in developing countries. Nevertheless, up to 60% of surgical site infections can be prevented with appropriate perioperative care, which includes among other measures using suitable surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP). METHODS: After a short interview with patients and retrospective review of medical charts, compliance with 6 SAP parameters was assessed for appropriateness; those parameters are indication, choice, dose, time of administration, intraoperative redosing interval, and duration of prophylaxis in 1,173 operations...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800202/the-sign-104-guideline-2014-for-topical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-during-grommet-insertion-misguided
#10
Rohit D Gohil, Mohammed Iqbal Syed
We write to express both concern and surprise at the updated SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate guidelines network) guideline 104 (2014) for antibiotic prophylaxis [1]. The original SIGN guideline 104 (2008)[2] recommended the use of a single dose of prophylactic topical antibiotic during grommet insertion based on 3 RCT's one of which showed no difference in outcome in the use of antibiotic and saline drops. Two of the 3 studies used Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin, neither of which is licensed for use in the United Kingdom...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794894/swine-enteric-colibacillosis-diagnosis-therapy-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Luppi
Intestinal infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease in swine resulting in significant economic losses. Knowledge about the epidemiology, the diagnostic approach and methods of control are of fundamental importance to tackle the disease. The ETEC causing neonatal colibacillosis mostly carry the fimbriae F4 (k88), F5 (k99), F6 (987P) or F41, while the ETEC of post-weaning diarrhoea carry the fimbriae F4 (k88) and F18. These fimbriae adhere to specific receptors on porcine intestinal brush border epithelial cells (enterocytes), starting the process of enteric infection...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794086/urine-producing-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter
#12
Musa Elgaali, Olukayode Abiola, Helen Collinson, Sunil Bhandari
Insertion of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter into the bladder is a rare complication of PD. Herein, we describe a case of an adult patient undergoing PD tube insertion who was found to have the catheter in the urinary bladder. He was treated with PD catheter removal, prophylactic antibiotics and repair of the bladder wall. This report gives a timely reminder of and the need to check for urinary bladder distension prior to PD catheter insertion surgery. Perforating injuries should be considered in patients with symptoms related to the urinary tract and free flow of fluid from the PD tube...
August 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781211/perioperative-antibiotic-use-in-diabetic-patients-a-retrospective-review-of-670-surgeries
#13
Justine S Ko, Samantha Zwiebel, Brigid Wilson, Devra B Becker
PURPOSE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a high incidence in diabetic patients, with a reported incidence up to 21%. In severe cases of CTS, patients may undergo carpal tunnel release (CTR) surgery, which involves the risk of infection and other complications. To decrease the risk of infection, some physicians provide prophylactic antibiotics. Our study examines the effects of prophylactic antibiotic use, especially in a high-risk, diabetic population. METHODS: A total of 469 CTR surgeries performed by plastic surgery specialists were reviewed for diabetic status at the time of surgery and perioperative antibiotic use...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771946/prophylactic-intravitreal-antibiotics-reduce-the-risk-of-post-traumatic-endophthalmitis-after-repair-of-open-globe-injuries
#14
Marwan A Abouammoh, Abdullah Al-Mousa, Mohammad Gogandi, Hani Al-Mezaine, Essam Osman, Abdulrahman M Alsharidah, Abdullah Al-Kharashi, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
PURPOSE: To investigate efficacy of prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics in reducing incidence of endophthalmitis after repair of open globe injuries. At King Abdulaziz University Hospital, a standard protocol of intravenous vancomycin and ceftazidime was used in all cases. METHODS: Charts of 353 patients who presented between January 2010 and January 2014 with open globe injury were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, the standard protocol in this cohort included prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics in high-risk cases at time of primary repair...
August 3, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767628/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-swab-and-suction-drain-tip-cultures-in-4573-spinal-surgeries-efficacy-in-management-of-surgical-site-infections
#15
Atsuyuki Kawabata, Kenichiro Sakai, Hirokazu Sato, Shinichi Sasaki, Ichiro Torigoe, Masaki Tomori, Masato Yuasa, Yu Matsukura, Yoshiyasu Arai
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective single-center study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab and suction drain tip cultures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The prognostic value of MRSA nasal swab and suction drain tip cultures has not been firmly established in spinal surgery. METHODS: This study retrospectively included 4573 consecutive patients who underwent spinal surgery between January 2008 and December 2014...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763340/rifaximin-for-the-prevention-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-hepatorenal-syndrome-in-cirrhosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Faisal Kamal, Muhammad Ali Khan, Zubair Khan, George Cholankeril, Tariq A Hammad, Wade M Lee, Aijaz Ahmed, Bradford Waters, Colin W Howden, Satheesh Nair, Sanjaya K Satapathy
Prophylactic antibiotics have been recommended in patients with a previous history of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Recently, there has been interest in the use of rifaximin for the prevention of SBP and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate this association of rifaximin. We searched several databases from inception through 24 January 2017, to identify comparative studies evaluating the effect of rifaximin on the occurrence of SBP and HRS. We performed predetermined subgroup analyses based on the type of control group, design of the study, and type of prophylaxis...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762439/antibiotic-abuse-during-endodontic-treatment-in-private-dental-centers
#17
Mothanna K AlRahabi, Ziad A Abuong
We evaluated antibiotic prescription practices during root canal treatments among general dentists in private dental clinics in Al-Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A self-administered, questionnaire about antibiotic used during root canal treatment was distributed to 75 randomly selected general dental practitioners working in private dental clinics in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, between March and April 2016. The questionnaires were collected one week later. To compare results of the collected data, Chi-square test was used...
August 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761863/management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder-challenges-and-solutions
#18
REVIEW
Jürgen Pannek, Jens Wöllner
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common morbidities in persons with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). They are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, and they affect the quality of life of the affected patients. Diagnosis and treatment of UTI in this group of patients are challenging. In this review, the current strategies regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are summarized. DIAGNOSTICS: it is important to correctly diagnose a UTI, as treatment of bacteriuria should strictly be avoided...
2017: Research and Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760356/unplanned-readmission-and-outpatient-examination-90-days-after-acute-appendectomy-in-adults
#19
Bo Bendvold, Arne Refsum, Line Schjøth-Iversen, Kjersti Bringedal, Anders Husby, Kristoffer Watten Brudvik
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and indications for unplanned readmission and outpatient examination after acute appendectomy. METHODS: Adults who underwent acute appendectomy from 2008-2013 were included in the study and events occurring within 90-days from discharge recorded. RESULTS: A total of 710 patients underwent surgery. The appendix was removed in 622 patients and post-discharge contact occurred in 99 (15...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757118/experience-with-prophylactic-gentamicin-during-penile-prosthesis-surgery-a-retrospective-comparison-of-two-different-doses
#20
Donghua Xie, Victor Gheiler, Isabel Lopez, Guy M Nehrenz, Boris Klopukh, Fernando Bianco, Paul Perito, Edward Gheiler
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin has been determined to be active against a wide range of bacterial infections and has been commonly used as a preoperative antibiotic for inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation. However, the best dosing regimen to produce the safest optimal prophylactic effect remains to be determined. AIM: To compare low- and high-dose gentamicin as prophylaxis during IPP implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed two groups of patients who underwent IPP placement from April 14, 2012 through April 13, 2016...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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