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prophylactic antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432539/early-onset-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-incidence-risk-factors-and-consequences-in-cerebral-oxygenation-and-outcome
#1
Pierre Esnault, Cédric Nguyen, Julien Bordes, Erwan D'Aranda, Ambroise Montcriol, Claire Contargyris, Jean Cotte, Philippe Goutorbe, Christophe Joubert, Arnaud Dagain, Henry Boret, Eric Meaudre
BACKGROUND: Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EOVAP) occurs frequently in severe traumatic brain-injured patients, but potential consequences on cerebral oxygenation and outcome have been poorly studied. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, risk factors for, and consequences on cerebral oxygenation and outcome of EOVAP after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study including all intubated TBI admitted in the trauma center...
April 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431507/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-outside-the-operating-theatre-an-audit-in-a-university-hospital
#2
Jan W T Deelen, Caroline E Visser, Jan M Prins, Reinier M van Hest
BACKGROUND: The prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents to prevent infections in non-surgical situations has hardly been investigated. We investigate the extent, indications and appropriateness of antimicrobial prophylaxis given outside the operating room in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Four point-prevalence surveys were conducted in which all inpatients on that day were screened for the use of prophylactic antimicrobials: medical prophylaxis, prophylaxis around non-surgical interventions and surgical prophylaxis given on the ward...
April 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424918/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infections-among-1-772-patients-operated-on-for-lumbar-disc-herniation-a-multicentre-observational-registry-based-study
#3
Samer Habiba, Øystein P Nygaard, Jens I Brox, Christian Hellum, Ivar M Austevoll, Tore K Solberg
BACKGROUND: There are no previous studies evaluating risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) and the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic treatment (PAT), specifically for patients operated on for lumbar disc herniation. METHOD: This observational multicentre study comprises a cohort of 1,772 consecutive patients operated on for lumbar disc herniation without laminectomy or fusion at 23 different surgical units in Norway. The patients were interviewed about SSIs according to a standardised questionnaire at 3 months' follow-up...
April 20, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420053/risk-of-infective-endocarditis-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#4
Y S Chang, C C Chang, Y H Chen, W S Chen, J H Chen
Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are considered vulnerable to infective endocarditis and prophylactic antibiotics are recommended before an invasive dental procedure. However, the evidence is insufficient. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk and related factors of infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We identified 12,102 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from the National Health Insurance research-oriented database, and compared the incidence rate of infective endocarditis with that among 48,408 non-systemic lupus erythematosus controls...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420030/role-of-endoscopy-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-and-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-easl-clinical-guideline
#5
Lars Aabakken, Tom H Karlsen, Jörg Albert, Marianna Arvanitakis, Olivier Chazouilleres, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Martti Färkkilä, Peter Fickert, Gideon M Hirschfield, Andrea Laghi, Marco Marzioni, Michael Fernandez, Stephen P Pereira, Jürgen Pohl, Jan-Werner Poley, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Christoph Schramm, Fredrik Swahn, Andrea Tringali, Cesare Hassan
1 ESGE/EASL recommend that, as the primary diagnostic modality for PSC, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) should be preferred over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation. 2 ESGE/EASL suggest that ERCP can be considered if MRC plus liver biopsy is equivocal or contraindicated in patients with persisting clinical suspicion of PSC. The risks of ERCP have to be weighed against the potential benefit with regard to surveillance and treatment recommendations...
April 18, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417451/prophylactic-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotics-for-cystic-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Alan R Smyth, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414173/affinity-interactions-drive-post-implantation-drug-filling-even-in-the-presence-of-bacterial-biofilm
#7
Erika L Cyphert, Sean T Zuckerman, Horst A von Recum, Julius N Korley
Current post-operative standard of care for surgical procedures, including device implantations, dictates prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, but a percentage of patients still develop infections. Systemic antimicrobial therapy needed to treat such infections can lead to downstream tissue toxicities and generate drug-resistant bacteria. To overcome issues associated with systemic drug administration, a polymer incorporating specific drug affinity has been developed with the potential to be filled or refilled with antimicrobials, post-implantation, even in the presence of bacterial biofilm...
April 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413453/amelioration-of-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-by-probiotic-vsl-3-treatment
#8
Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni infections is progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic compounds might open up valuable tools to decrease pathogen burden and subsequent pro-inflammatory immune responses, but in vivo data are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment were perorally challenged with the commercial probiotic compound VSL#3 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413052/purified-natural-pig-immunoglobulins-can-substitute-dietary-zinc-in-reducing-piglet-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#9
Chris J Hedegaard, Charlotte Lauridsen, Peter M H Heegaard
Enteric infectious disease in weaner piglets, including postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), are usually treated and/or prevented with antibiotics and/or zinc oxide in the piglet feed. However extensive use of antibiotics and zinc oxide in intensive animal production is unwanted as it may promote microbial antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410572/incidence-of-infection-following-internal-fixation-of-open-and-closed-tibia-fractures-in-india-infiniti-a-multi-centre-observational-cohort-study
#10
Prakash Doshi, Hitesh Gopalan, Sheila Sprague, Chetan Pradhan, Sunil Kulkarni, Mohit Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a major public health problem, particularly in India due to the country's rapid urbanization. Tibia fractures are a common and often complicated injury that is at risk of infection following surgical fixation. The primary objectives of this cohort study were to determine the incidence of infection within one year of surgery and to describe the distribution of infections by location and time of diagnosis for tibia fractures in India. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center, prospective cohort study...
April 14, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403585/the-role-of-nutraceuticals-and-phytotherapy-in-the-management-of-urinary-tract-infections-what-we-need-to-know
#11
Tommaso Cai, Irene Tamanini, Ekaterina Kulchavenya, Tamara Perepanova, Béla Köves, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Zafer Tandogdu, Gernot Bonkat, Riccardo Bartoletti, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infectious diseases and carry a significant impact on patient quality of life and health care costs. Despite that, there is no well-established recommendation for a "standard" prophylactic antibiotic management to prevent UTI recurrences. The majority of patients undergoes long-term antibiotic treatment that severely impairs the normal microbiota and increases the risk of development of multidrugresistant microorganisms. In this scenario, the use of phytotherapy to both alleviate symptoms related to UTI and decrease the rate of symptomatic recurrences is an attractive alternative...
March 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400887/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-orbital-fractures
#12
Benjamin Reiss, Lamise Rajjoub, Tamer Mansour, Tony Chen, Aisha Mumtaz
PURPOSE: To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with orbital fracture prevent orbital infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: All patients diagnosed with orbital fracture between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2014 at The George Washington University Hospital and Clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Development of orbital infection. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-two patients with orbital fracture met our inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399322/antibiotic-use-and-kirschner-wire-fixation-in-forefoot-surgery-a-national-survey
#13
Gregory Pace, Samuel Dellenbaugh, Brian Stapinski, Umur Aydogan, Jorge Bustillo, Paul Juliano
In foot and ankle patients, the use of Kirschner wires is common, and the population in the typical foot and ankle practice has higher rates of comorbidities associated with infection. This study assessed national trends regarding the use of postoperative prophylactic antibiotic therapy in patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery treated with percutaneous Kirschner wires. Attending physicians at foot and ankle fellowships were mailed a questionnaire that included 3 clinical vignettes containing questions on the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients treated with percutaneous Kirschner wires...
April 11, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396072/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-antibiotic-use-in-septorhinoplasty-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Gregory D Lohr, Brian Hollabaugh, Patrick Waters, Paul S Tiwana
Septorhinoplasty is a commonly performed procedure for facial aesthetics and obstructed nasal breathing. There have been only 4 reported cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated postoperative complications following septorhinoplasty reported in the literature across all specialties. In this article, we report a case of MRSA-associated infection after an uncomplicated septorhinoplasty. Risk stratification and outcome of treatment are described, followed by a review of the current literature...
January 24, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395618/examining-evidence-on-dog-bite-injuries-and-their-management-in-children
#15
Gemma Elizabeth Murray
Dog bites are common injuries in children. The effects of such injuries can be devastating for the children concerned and their families. It is therefore important to provide holistic care and to consider psychological well-being as well as physical recovery. There should be clear guidelines for professionals about reporting dog bites and safeguarding. The literature recommends primary closure of the dog bite wound unless an infection is present. Literature also suggests that prophylactic antibiotics are ineffective in preventing infection except in hand injuries, although they are still routinely used in practice...
April 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389732/clinical-and-microbiological-features-of-infection-in-alcoholic-hepatitis-an-international-cohort-study
#16
Richard Parker, Gene Im, Fiona Jones, Onan Pérez Hernández, Jonathan Nahas, Aditi Kumar, Daniel Wheatley, Ashish Sinha, Emilio Gonzalez-Reimers, María Sanchez-Pérez, Antonella Ghezzi, Miruna Delia David, Christopher Corbett, Anne McCune, Guruprasad Padur Aithal, Andrew Holt, Stephen Stewart
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described the clinical impact of infection in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) but none have comprehensively explored the aetiopathogenesis of infection in this setting. We examined the causes, consequences and treatment of infection in a cohort of patients with AH. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with AH admitted between 2009 and 2014 to seven centres in Europe and the USA. Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from medical records...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377245/postoperative-non-pathological-fever-after-spinal-surgery-incidence-and-risk-factor-analysis
#17
Junghan Seo, Jin Hoon Park, Eun Hee Song, Young-Seok Lee, Sang Ku Jung, Sang Ryong Jeon, Seung Chul Rhim, Sung Woo Roh
BACKGROUND: Although there are many postoperative febrile causes, surgical site infection has always been considered as one of the major causes, but it should be excluded; we encountered many patients who showed delayed postoperative fever that was not related to wound infection after spinal surgery. We aimed to determine the incidence of delayed postoperative fever and its characteristics after spinal surgery, and to analyze the causal factors. METHODS: A total of 250 patients who underwent any type of spinal surgery were analyzed...
April 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375803/routine-use-of-prophylactic-antibiotics-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-surgical-site-infections
#18
Pinar Sarkut, Sadik Kilicturgay, Hikmet Aktas, Yilmaz Ozen, Ekrem Kaya
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for the treatment of symptomatic gallbladder stones. As infections are rare in uncomplicated LC, it is widely accepted that prophylactic antibiotics need not be administered, and guidelines do not support routine antibiotic prophylaxis during elective LC. However, routine antibiotic prophylaxis for elective LC is still popular in many clinical settings. We investigated this situation in our department. METHOD: This randomized double-blind controlled study included 570 patients who underwent LC between March 2007 and February 2010...
April 4, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371248/randomized-controlled-trial-of-perioperative-antimicrobial-therapy-based-on-the-results-of-preoperative-bile-cultures-in-patients-undergoing-biliary-reconstruction
#19
Kunishige Okamura, Kimitaka Tanaka, Takumi Miura, Yoshitsugu Nakanishi, Takehiro Noji, Toru Nakamura, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Keisuke Okamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
BACKGROUND: The high frequency of surgical site infections (SSIs) after hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery is a problem that needs to be addressed. This prospective, randomized, controlled study examined whether perioperative prophylactic use of antibiotics based on preoperative bile culture results in HPB surgery could decrease SSI. METHODS: Participants comprised 126 patients who underwent HPB (bile duct, gallbladder, ampullary, or pancreatic) cancer surgery with biliary reconstruction at Hokkaido University Hospital between August 2008 and March 2013 (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry #00001278)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371190/toxicity-profile-differences-of-adjuvant-docetaxel-cyclophosphamide-tc-between-asian-and-caucasian-breast-cancer-patients
#20
L W C Chow, L Biganzoli, A D Leo, K Kuroi, H S Han, J Patel, C S Huang, Y S Lu, L Zhu, C Y C Chow, W T Y Loo, S Glück, M Toi
AIM: For early-stage breast cancer, four cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) was proven superior to doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide in the US Oncology 9375 trial. Given primary prophylactic antibiotics, 5% febrile neutropenia was recorded in a population comprising 75.5% Caucasians. Smaller trials and retrospective studies reviewing TC use in Asian patients did not produce similar incidence rates. This study aims to discover the variable hematological toxicities with TC use in Caucasian and Asian patients...
March 28, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
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