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er stress and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770126/crosstalk-between-the-unfolded-protein-response-micrornas-and-insulin-signaling-pathways-in-search-of-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Chinar Berry, Megha Lal, B K Binukumar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by functional defects in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Its complex etiology and multifaceted nature have made it difficult to design effective therapies for early diagnosis and treatment. Several lines of evidence indicate that aberrant activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress impairs the β cell's ability to respond to glucose and promotes apoptosis. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that govern β cell dysfunction and cell death can help investigators design therapies to halt or prevent the development of T2DM...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758481/kaempferol-alleviates-palmitic-acid-induced-lipid-stores-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-through-ampk-mtor-mediated-lipophagy
#2
Ritu Varshney, Rajat Varshney, Rutusmita Mishra, Sumeet Gupta, Debabrata Sircar, Partha Roy
Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has the beneficial effects of preserving pancreatic β-cell mass and function, but its action on β-cell lipid metabolism still remains elusive. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a major role in lipid metabolism in various cell types, but its role in pancreatic β-cell's lipid metabolism is rarely reported. Here, we investigated the role of kaempferol-induced autophagy in inhibition of lipid stores, ER stress and β-cell dysfunction in palmitic acid-challenged RIN-5F cells and isolated pancreatic islets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751100/low-level-laser-therapy-with-850-nm-recovers-salivary-function-via-membrane-redistribution-of-aquaporin-5-by-reducing-intracellular-ca-2-overload-and-er-stress-during-hyperglycemia
#3
Raktim Biswas, Jin Chul Ahn, Jeong Hwan Moon, Jungbin Kim, Young-Hoon Choi, So Young Park, Phil-Sang Chung
The overall goal is to study the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on membrane distribution of major water channel protein aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in salivary gland during hyperglycemia. Par C10 cells treated with high glucose (50 mM) showed a reduced membrane distribution of AQP5. The functional expression of AQP5 was down regulated due to intracellular Ca2+ overload and ER stress. This reduction in AQP5 expression impairs water permeability and therefore results in hypo-salivation. A reduced salivary flow was also observed in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice model and the expression of AQP5 and phospho-AQP5 was down regulated...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733843/modulation-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-reduction-of-neural-tube-defects-by-quercetin-3-glucoside-in-embryos-of-diabetic-mice
#4
Chengyu Tan, Fantong Meng, E Albert Reece, Zhiyong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects in infants. Maternal hyperglycemia stimulates the expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2 (NOS2), which can be regulated by transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family. Increases in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generate intracellular stress conditions, including nitrosative, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses, and trigger programmed cell death (or apoptosis) in the neural folds, resulting in neural tube defects (NTDs) in the embryo...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725368/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-homologous-protein-knockdown-alleviates-hypoxia-induced-myocardial-injury-in-rat-cardiomyocytes-exposed-to-high-glucose
#5
Wenqi Yang, Fang Wu, Ting Luo, Yuelan Zhang
Diabetic patients are more sensitive to ischemic injury than non-diabetics. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be closely associated with the pathophysiology of ischemic injury in diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the progression of diabetes complicated by myocardial infarction (MI) and further verify the role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein (CHOP) using an in vitro model of diabetes/MI. The rats were exposed to 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720183/disrupted-sphingolipid-metabolism-following-acute-clozapine-and-olanzapine-administration
#6
Katrina Weston-Green, Ilijana Babic, Michael de Santis, Bo Pan, Magdalene K Montgomery, Todd Mitchell, Xu-Feng Huang, Jessica Nealon
BACKGROUND: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) induce glucometabolic side-effects, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which pose a therapeutic challenge for mental illness. Sphingolipids play a role in glycaemic balance and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to impaired insulin signalling and whole-body glucose intolerance. Diabetogenic SGA effects on ER stress and sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingomyelin, in peripheral metabolic tissues are unknown...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717631/hypoxia-and-reactive-oxygen-species-as-modulators-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-golgi-homeostasis
#7
Daniela Mennerich, Sakari Kellokumpu, Thomas Kietzmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Eukaryotic cells execute various functions in subcellular compartments or organelles for which cellular redox homeostasis is of importance. Apart from mitochondria, hypoxia and stress mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) functions. Recent Advances: Research during the last decade has improved our understanding of disulfide bond formation, protein glycosylation and secretion as well as pH and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA)...
May 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717162/growth-differentiation-factor-15-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#8
Kook Hwan Kim, Seong Hun Kim, Dai Hoon Han, Young Suk Jo, Yong-Ho Lee, Myung-Shik Lee
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is an endocrine hormone belonging to the TGFβ superfamily member. GDF15 administration or GDF15 overexpression has been reported to have anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is frequently associated with obesity and insulin resistance, the functional role of endogenous GDF15 and therapeutic effect of GDF15 overexpression in NASH and related metabolic deterioration have not been evaluated...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707582/vitamin-d-ameliorates-impaired-wound-healing-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-by-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#9
Yi Feng Yuan, Sushant K Das, Mao Quan Li
Background: This study is designed to investigate whether vitamin D promotes diabetic wound healing and explore the potential mechanism which may be involved in the healing process. Material and Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with 200  μ g/ml of advanced glycation end product-modified human serum albumin (AGE-HSA) and 250 mg/dl of glucose with vitamin D. Cell viability was analyzed using the CCK-8 assay, and the apoptosis rate was measured using flow cytometry...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705815/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-overexpressing-hiapp-impaired-mitophagy-and-unbalanced-mitochondrial-dynamics
#10
Miriam García Hernández, Ana García Aguilar, Jesús Burillo, Raquel Gómez Oca, Maria Antonietta Manca, Ana Novials, Gema Alcarraz-Vizan, Carlos Guillén, Manuel Benito
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), or amylin, has the tendency to aggregate into insoluble amyloid fibrils, a typical feature of islets from type 2 diabetes individuals. Thus, we investigated comparatively the impact of hIAPP on key pathways involved in pancreatic beta survival. INS1E-hIAPP cells present a hyperactivation of MTORC1 and an inhibition of autophagy signaling, those cells showing an increase in cell size. Resveratrol, a MTORC1 inhibitor, can reverse TSC2 degradation that occurs in INS1E-hIAPP cells and diminished MTORC1 hyperactivation with concomitant autophagy stimulation...
April 29, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700294/reduction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-improves-angiogenic-progenitor-cell-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#11
Maulasri Bhatta, Krishna Chatpar, Zihua Hu, Joshua J Wang, Sarah X Zhang
Persistent vascular injury and degeneration in diabetes are attributed in part to defective reparatory function of angiogenic cells. Our recent work implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in high-glucose-induced bone marrow (BM) progenitor dysfunction. Herein, we investigated the in vivo role of ER stress in angiogenic abnormalities of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that ER stress markers and inflammatory gene expression in BM mononuclear cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells increase dynamically with disease progression...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696512/protective-effects-of-notoginsenoside-r1-via-regulation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-jnk-pathway-in-neonatal-cerebral-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#12
Liu Tu, Yan Wang, Di Chen, Ping Xiang, Jingjing Shen, Yingbo Li, Shali Wang
Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a predominant phytoestrogen extracted from Panax notoginseng that has recently been reported to play important roles in the treatment of cardiac dysfunction, diabetic kidney disease, and acute liver failure. Studies have suggested that NGR1 may be a viable treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonates by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress via estrogen receptors (ERs). However, whether NGR1 has other neuroprotective mechanisms or long-term neuroprotective effects is unclear...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695191/high-glucose-inhibits-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-through-oxidative-stress-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#13
Xi Chen, Wei-Bin Shen, Penghua Yang, Daoyin Dong, Winny Sun, Peixin Yang
Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects by suppressing neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium. Our recent study further revealed that high glucose inhibited embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. However, the mechanism whereby high glucose suppresses neural differentiation is unclear. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) lead to the inhibition of neural differentiation, the effect of high glucose on neural stem cell (the C17...
April 26, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693708/diazoxide-inhibits-of-er-stress%C3%A2-mediated-apoptosis-during-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-in-vitro-and-cerebral-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-in-vivo
#14
Xiaofeng Lei, Lijian Lei, Zhiqing Zhang, Yan Cheng
Neuroprotective strategies using diazoxide (DZX) have been demonstrated to limit ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)‑induced injury and cell apoptosis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, DZX has been reported to improve β‑cell function and reduce their apoptosis, through suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the effects of DZX on ER stress during I/R‑induced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus remains to be elucidated. In the present study, pretreatment of hippocampal neurons with DZX was revealed to inhibit oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD)‑stimulated apoptosis in vitro and to alleviate I/R‑induced hippocampal injury and behavioral deficits in rats in vivo...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687616/percutaneous-muscle-biopsy-induced-tissue-injury-causes-local-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#15
Jun Yoshino, Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Anna C Moseley, Bettina Mittendorfer, Samuel Klein
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is likely involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunction in people with obesity and diabetes. Although tissue biopsy is often used to evaluate the presence and severity of ER stress, it is not known whether acute tissue injury-induced by percutaneous muscle biopsy causes ER stress and its potential downstream effects on markers of inflammation and metabolic function. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that percutaneous biopsy-induced tissue injury causes ER stress and alters inflammatory and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684344/er-stress-attenuation-by-aloe-derived-polysaccharides-in-the-protection-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-free-fatty-acid-induced-lipotoxicity
#16
Kisoo Kim, Min Hwa Chung, Soyoung Park, Jimin Cha, Jin Hong Baek, Shin-Young Lee, Sang-Yun Choi
Insulin resistance, a pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, is associated with obesity. Lipotoxicity in obesity leads to the dysfunction and death of pancreatic β-cells and inadequate insulin production, thereby aggravating type 2 diabetes. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Aloe vera polysaccharides (APs) as an anti-hyperglycemic agent and their mechanisms of action. Gel polysaccharides from Aloe extracts were separated using ultrafiltration devices with molecular weight-cutoff membranes, and the protective effect of APs on pancreatic β-cells in response to free fatty acids (FFAs) was determined...
June 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663803/simultaneous-fluorescence-visualization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-superoxide-anion-and-polarity-in-myocardial-cells-and-tissue
#17
Haibin Xiao, Chuanchen Wu, Ping Li, Bo Tang
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a critical complication of diabetes, the accurate pathogenesis of which remains elusive. It's widely accepted that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and abnormal fluctuations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be closely associated with progress of DCM. In addition, DCM-induced changes of myocardial tissue and ROS-derived oxidation of proteins will cause changes of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains and may further seriously alter the myocardial cell polarity...
April 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661866/reciprocal-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-used-to-treat-hiv-infection-on-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-%C3%AE-klotho-system
#18
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). In contrast, expression of the FGF21-obligatory co-receptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type-2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614832/ixeris-dentata-extract-increases-salivary-secretion-through-the-regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-a-diabetes-induced-xerostomia-rat-model
#19
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Hwa-Young Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607540/melatonin-improves-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-through-attenuation-of-alpha-2-hs-glycoprotein
#20
Jee-In Heo, Dae Wui Yoon, Ji Hee Yu, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Nan Hee Kim
Melatonin plays an important role in regulating circadian rhythms. It also acts as a potent anti-oxidant and regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, although the exact action mechanism is not clear. The α2-HS-glycoprotein gene (AHSG) and its protein, fetuin-A (FETUA) is one of the hepatokines and is known to be associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin improves hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a FETUA-dependent manner...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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