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Tropical Pathology

B W Case
Following up on the largest case-control study of malignant mesothelioma yet performed, investigators at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine assessed 1732 male and 670 female cases as of May 2013. Epidemiological findings of a subset of these were published previously, excluding patients who died or who refused to be interviewed. Pathology reports were collected for subjects, including those both eligible and ineligible for epidemiology study based on vital status. The current investigation examined 860 cases having pathology reports available...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Maria I Estevao-Costa, Silea S Gontijo, Barbara L Correia, Armando Yarleque, Dan Vivas-Ruiz, Edith Rodrigues, Carlos Chávez-Olortegui, Luciana S Oliveira, Eladio F Sanchez
Snakebite envenoming is a neglected public pathology, affecting especially rural communities or isolated areas of tropical and subtropical Latin American countries. The parenteral administration of antivenom is the mainstay and the only validated treatment of snake bite envenoming. Here, we assess the efficacy of polyspecific anti-Bothrops serum (α-BS) produced in the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Peru) and at the Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED, Brazil), to neutralize the main toxic activities induced by five medically-relevant venoms of: Bothrops atrox, B...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Yasir A Khan, Mohd Abdul Hannan Khan, S M A Abidi
The digenetic trematodes, Fasciola gigantica and Gigantocotyle explanatum, belonging to the family Fasciolidae and Paramphistomidae respectively, have been often found to concurrently infect the liver of Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, causing serious pathological damage to the vital organ, incurring huge economic losses. In the present study the soluble gene products of both F. gigantica and G. explanatum were analyzed by 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The soluble proteomic profile revealed considerable similarity as well as differences in the size, distribution pattern, total number, the isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mr) of the resolved polypeptide spots...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
A T Jarikre, O B Emikpe, G O Ohore, A T Akinremi, O S Akpavie
Goats in the tropics are often reared under the traditional extensive and semi-intensive management systems. These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats comprising different breed, age and body scores. The pneumonia status was well characterised using standard pathological tools...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Robert Rottscholl, Marlen Haegele, Britta Jainsch, Hong Xu, Gesine Respondek, Matthias Höllerhage, Thomas W Rösler, Emilie Bony, Jessica Le Ven, Vincent Guérineau, Isabelle Schmitz-Afonso, Pierre Champy, Wolfgang H Oertel, Elizabeth S Yamada, Günter U Höglinger
In the pathogenesis of tauopathies genetic and environmental factors have been identified. While familial clustering led to the identification of mutations in MAPT encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau, the high incidence of a sporadic tauopathy endemic in Guadeloupe was linked to the plant-derived mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin. The interaction of both factors was studied in the present work in a realistic paradigm over a period of 12 months. Mice overexpressing either human wild-type tau or R406W mutant tau as well as non-transgenic mice received either regular drinking water or commercially available tropical fruit juice made of soursop (Annona muricata L...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Fernanda Khouri Barreto, Ricardo Khouri, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida Rego, Luciane Amorim Santos, Maria Fernanda de Castro-Amarante, Izabela Bialuk, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Antoine Gessain, Steven Jacobson, Genoveffa Franchini, Luiz Carlos Alcantara
The region known as pX in the 3' end of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genome contains four overlapping open reading frames (ORF) that encode regulatory proteins. HTLV-1 ORF-I produces the protein p12 and its cleavage product p8. The functions of these proteins have been linked to immune evasion and viral infectivity and persistence. It is known that the HTLV-1 infection does not necessarily imply the development of pathological processes and here we evaluated whether natural mutations in HTLV-1 ORF-I can influence the proviral load and clinical manifestation of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
August 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Benoît Marin, Gino Cédric Agbota, Pierre-Marie Preux, Farid Boumédiene
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials are increasingly conducted in the field of neurology in developing countries. To our knowledge, no review has been performed to date about the temporal evolution, geographical distribution, pathological fields, and types of trials conducted. Besides, the validity of those clinical trials needs to be evaluated. SUMMARY: Our main aim was to describe, using a systematic literature review, the clinical trials performed in the field of neurology in developing countries...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Michael C Levin, Sangmin Lee, Lidia A Gardner, Yoojin Shin, Joshua N Douglas, Hannah Salapa
Several years following its discovery in 1980, infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was shown to cause HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease biologically similar to progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this manuscript, we review some of the clinical, pathological, and immunological similarities between HAM/TSP and MS with an emphasis on how autoantibodies to an RNA binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1 (hnRNP A1), might contribute to neurodegeneration in immune mediated diseases of the central nervous system...
July 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Luis Felipe de Almeida Duarte, Caroline Araújo de Souza, Caio Rodrigues Nobre, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro
There is a global lack of knowledge on tropical ecotoxicology, particularly in terms of mangrove areas. These areas often serve as nurseries or homes for several animal species, including Ucides cordatus (the uçá crab). This species is widely distributed, is part of the diet of human coastal communities, and is considered to be a sentinel species due to its sensitivity to toxic xenobiotics in natural environments. Sublethal damages to benthic populations reveal pre-pathological conditions, but discussions of the implications are scarce in the literature...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sandra Simões, Manuela Carvalheiro, Maria Manuela Gaspar
Infectious diseases in the skin represent a major group of pathologies that contribute annually for significant health economic expenses. According to WHO, Buruli Ulcer (BU) and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) are two neglected tropical diseases for which therapy remains inadequate. Topical delivery of therapeutics constitutes an advantageous alternative to treat infected skin lesions as it allows a direct treatment of affected areas avoiding unwanted systemic effects and reducing the drug dosage. However, effective topical delivery of antimicrobial agents is still a challenge...
June 30, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Roberto Cárdenas-Zúñiga, Daniel Coronado-Velázquez, Anjan Debnath, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
It has been 50 years since the first case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) an acute and rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) was reported in Australia. It is now known that the etiological agent of PAM is Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba that is commonly known as "the brain-eating amoeba". N. fowleri infects humans of different ages which are in contact with contaminated water with this microorganism. N. fowleri is distributed worldwide and is found growing in bodies of freshwater in tropical and subtropical environments...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
C Bernigaud, G Monsel, P Delaunay, G Do-Pham, F Foulet, F Botterel, O Chosidow
Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice)...
June 29, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Azam Azimi, Seyed Mahmood Ghaffari, Gholam Hossein Riazi, Seyed Shahriar Arab, Mohammad Mehdi Tavakol, Shahriar Pooyan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), commonly known as purple nutsedge or nut grass is one of the most invasive and endemic weeds in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. This plant has been extensively used in traditional medicine for anti-arthritic, antidiarrheal and antiplatelet properties as well as treatment for several CNS disorders such as epilepsy, depression and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation is evidently occurring in pathologically susceptible regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain as well as other disorders...
June 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Juan David Ramírez, Carolina Hernández, Cielo M León, Martha S Ayala, Carolina Flórez, Camila González
Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gareth Whiteley, Rhiannon A E Logan, Kam-Yin D Leung, Fiona J Newberry, Paul D Rowley, John P Dunbar, Simon C Wagstaff, Nicholas R Casewell, Robert A Harrison
BACKGROUND: Snake venoms contain many proteinaceous toxins that can cause severe pathology and mortality in snakebite victims. Interestingly, mRNA encoding such toxins can be recovered directly from venom, although yields are low and quality is unknown. It also remains unclear whether such RNA contains information about toxin isoforms and whether it is representative of mRNA recovered from conventional sources, such as the venom gland. Answering these questions will address the feasibility of using venom-derived RNA for future research relevant to biomedical and antivenom applications...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
María E Peichoto, Matías N Sánchez, Ariel López, Martín Salas, María R Rivero, Pamela Teibler, Gislayne de Melo Toledo, Flávio L Tavares
The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion...
July 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
F Carémil, P F Wey, É Nourry, F X Jean, É Dardare, P Gérome, C de Charry, N Alberti, A Lamblin
For a patient recently returned from a tropical country in intensive care, the leading hypothesis for a fever leading to multiple organ failure is evidently malaria. Nonetheless, many other causes are possible and should be considered: parasites, viruses, and bacteria. A multidisciplinary discussion between specialists in emergency medicine, radiology, pathology, and infectious diseases is essential to start appropriate treatment as quickly as possible without impairing the patient's prognosis.
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Patience Uchenna Tweteise, Bernard Natukunda, Joel Bazira
Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV...
2016: Leukemia Research and Treatment
Anna Kuna, Agnieszka Wroczyńska, Michał Gajewski, Iwona Felczak-Korzybska, Wacław L Nahorski
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the second cause of fever after malaria in travellers returning from the tropics. The infection may be asymptomatic or it may manifest itself with fever only, some patients, however, may develop haemorrhagic symptoms and shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 58-year-old woman came to the University Centre of Tropical Medicine in Gdynia after returning from a tourist journey to Brazil because of fever up to 39°C and malaise. She had lived in South America many years and then moved to Europe 3 years before hospitalisation...
2016: International Maritime Health
Felix Reichert, Daniel Pilger, Angela Schuster, Hannah Lesshafft, Silas Guedes de Oliveira, Ralf Ignatius, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in Manaus, Brazil. HrCLM was diagnosed in 8.2% (95% CI, 6.3-10.1%) of the study population (N = 806) with a peak prevalence of 18...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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