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Tropical Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753342/climate-change-and-the-neglected-tropical-diseases
#1
Mark Booth
Climate change is expected to impact across every domain of society, including health. The majority of the world's population is susceptible to pathological, infectious disease whose life cycles are sensitive to environmental factors across different physical phases including air, water and soil. Nearly all so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) fall into this category, meaning that future geographic patterns of transmission of dozens of infections are likely to be affected by climate change over the short (seasonal), medium (annual) and long (decadal) term...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731934/computed-tomography-scan-findings-in-children-from-a-tropical-region
#2
Grace B Inah, Gbenga Kajogbola, Nchiewe Ani
BACKGROUND: Computed Tomography in the diagnosis of pathologies in children is becoming increasingly popular. AIMS: To document indications and findings of referrals for CT scan in children in a private Radio - diagnostic Center in a developing environment. METHOD: Children aged 6 months to 13 years referred to a private Radio - diagnostic Center, between June 2015 to June 2016 were studied. Patients were examined using GE CT Brivo 385 machine...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701975/characterizing-the-biochemical-response-to-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-and-treatment-with-praziquantel-in-pre-school-and-school-aged-children
#3
Gordana Panic, Jean T Coulibaly, Nikita Harvey, Jennifer Keiser, Jonathan Swann
Schistosomiasis is a wide-spread chronic neglected tropical disease prevalent mostly in children in under-resourced rural areas. Its pathological effects have been clinically characterized, yet the molecular-level effects are understudied. In this study, the biochemical effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment were studied in 159 pre-school aged and 130 school aged infected children and 11 non-infected children in Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire. Urine samples were collected prior to receiving 20, 40 or 60 mg/kg of praziquantel or a placebo, as well as 24 hours post-treatment, and at the 3-week follow up...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666966/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-notes-from-the-field
#4
Maria Teresa Giordani, Francesca Tamarozzi, Daniel Kaminstein, Enrico Brunetti, Tom Heller
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ultrasound is helpful to evaluate lung pathology in patients with acute dyspnea. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound in patients with extrapulmonary TB and HIV co-infection. This retrospective, open-label case-control study explores the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-positive patients. In particular, it highlights the potential role of specific sonographic features that may be unique to this population...
April 17, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656841/from-phaeohyphomycosis-to-disseminated-chromoblastomycosis-a-retrospective-study-of-infections-caused-by-dematiaceous-fungi
#5
E Thomas, A Bertolotti, A Barreau, J Klisnick, P Tournebize, G Borgherini, N Zemali, J Jaubert, G Jouvion, S Bretagne, S Picot
OBJECTIVE: Infections caused by dematiaceous fungi are more common in tropical and subtropical areas. We aimed to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of case patients diagnosed at a University Hospital located on an Indian Ocean island. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective study of infections caused by dematiaceous fungi diagnosed at the University Hospital of Saint-Pierre, Reunion, from 2000 to 2015. Mycological identifications were performed at the National Reference Center for Invasive Mycosis and Antifungal Agents (Paris)...
April 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605790/fatal-varicella-in-immigrants-from-tropical-countries-case-reports-and-forensic-perspectives
#6
Gianni Guadagnini, Simone Lo Baido, Francesca Poli, Annamaria Govi, Sveva Borin, Paolo Fais, Susi Pelotti
The primary Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection results in varicella, a generally benign, self-limiting disease in immunocompetent children. Despite the usual course a possible fatal evolution of the primary infection is observed predominantly in immunocompromised subjects and in adults, especially emigrating from tropical regions. Two cases of fatal varicella have been investigated and discussed. Death occurred in two patients over 40 years of age, coming from South Asia and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy...
March 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604997/clinical-characteristics-of-spirocerca-lupi-migration-in-the-spinal-cord
#7
Orit Chai, Einat Yas, Ori Brenner, Alicia Rojas, Lilach Konstantin, Sigal Klainbart, Merav H Shamir
Spirocerca lupi is a nematode infecting dogs mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. Although its typical target is the esophageal wall, aberrant migration is not uncommon, including migration of unknown incidence into the spinal cord. While successful treatment of intraspinal S. lupi (ISSL) infection depends on early diagnosis, tools for definitive ante-mortem diagnosis are unavailable. We therefore aimed at characterizing clinical signs and clinical pathology findings of ISSL in dogs. For that, we analyzed medical records of dogs hospitalized in 2005-2016 presenting with neurological signs consistent with ISSL, which were diagnosed definitively post-mortem...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568977/in-silico-analysis-of-endogenous-sirnas-associated-transposable-elements-and-nats-in-schistosoma-japonicum-reveals-their-putative-roles-during-reproductive-development
#8
Bikash Ranjan Giri, Jiannan Ye, Yongjun Chen, Chaochun Wei, Guofeng Cheng
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Successful reproductive development is critical for the production of eggs, which are responsible for host pathology and disease dissemination. Endogenous small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as protection against foreign pathogens, cell differentiation, and chromosomal stability by regulating target gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we performed in silico analysis of endogenous small non-coding RNAs in different stages, and sex of S...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563288/age-associated-differences-in-infection-of-human-skin-in-the-scid-mouse-model-of-varicella-zoster-virus-pathogenesis
#9
Leigh Zerboni, Phillip Sung, Gordon Lee, Ann Arvin
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the skin-tropic human alphaherpesvirus responsible for both varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella and herpes zoster skin lesions have similar morphology but herpes zoster occurs disproportionally in older individuals and is often associated with a more extensive local rash and severe zoster-related neuralgia. We hypothesized that skin aging could also influence the outcome of the anterograde axonal transport of VZV to skin. We utilized human skin xenografts maintained in immunodeficient (SCID) mice to study VZV-induced skin pathology in vivo in fetal and adult skin xenografts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522521/characterization-of-the-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-scrub-typhus-model-susceptibility-to-intradermal-challenge-with-the-human-pathogen-orientia-tsutsugamushi-karp
#10
Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Suwit J Somponpun, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Tippawan Anantatat, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Susanna J Dunachie, Eric D Lombardini, Robin L Burke, Stuart D Blacksell, James W Jones, Carl J Mason, Allen L Richards, Nicholas P J Day, Daniel H Paris
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease in tropical Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi for which no effective broadly protective vaccine is available. The successful evaluation of vaccine candidates requires well-characterized animal models and a better understanding of the immune response against O. tsutsugamushi. While many animal species have been used to study host immunity and vaccine responses in scrub typhus, only limited data exists in non-human primate (NHP) models...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521209/hybrid-molecules-promising-compounds-for-the-development-of-new-treatments-against-leishmaniasis-and-chagas-disease
#11
Wilson Cardona-G, Andres F Yepes, Angie Herrera-R
Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are endemic pathologies in tropical countries. These cause high morbidity and a public health problem. Current chemotherapies are based on conventional drugs with variable efficacy and toxicity related with length of therapeutic schemes and high doses. When two pharmacological agents are combined into a single molecule, the result is the so-called hybrid molecule. In the search for new treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, several studies have shown that hybrid molecules display high antiprotozoal activity and this emerging strategy is quite promising in the field of new drug discovery and development...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513739/pathology-and-bacteria-related-to-digital-dermatitis-in-dairy-cattle-in-all-year-round-grazing-system-in-brazil
#12
Tiago F Moreira, Elias J Facury Filho, Antônio U Carvalho, Mikael L Strube, Martin W Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim K Jensen
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide, and it is frequently reported in high-yielding, free stall dairy herds from regions with a temperate climate. However, DD is also observed with high prevalence in grazing cattle with a low milk yield in tropical regions. To clarify whether these differences have an impact on the etiology of the disease, we studied DD lesions from all year round grazing cattle of mixed breed in Brazil using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505573/clonorchis-sinensis-adult-derived-proteins-elicit-th2-immune-responses-by-regulating-dendritic-cells-via-mannose-receptor
#13
Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496525/vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-intestinal-inflammatory-response-in-mice-infected-with-blood-stage-malaria
#14
Murad A Mubaraki, Mohamed A Dkhil, Taghreed A Hafiz, Mona F Khalil, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Denis Delic, Kamal Elshaikh, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 106 P...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438386/doxycycline-inhibits-experimental-cerebral-malaria-by-reducing-inflammatory-immune-reactions-and-tissue-degrading-mediators
#15
Kim E Schmidt, Janina M Kuepper, Beatrix Schumak, Judith Alferink, Andrea Hofmann, Shanshan W Howland, Laurent Rénia, Andreas Limmer, Sabine Specht, Achim Hoerauf
Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426484/the-endoparasitism-challenge-in-developing-countries-as-goat-raising-develops-from-smallholder-to-commercial-production-systems-a-study-from-laos
#16
P A Windsor, S Nampanya, V Putthana, K Keonam, K Johnson, R D Bush, S Khounsy
Progressing economic development in Southeast Asia has increased regional demand for goat meat, leading to expanding production by smallholders and recently, development of commercial farms. In Laos, an emerging export market for goats into Vietnam has led to increased goat numbers, with potential increases in risk of disease, particularly endoparasitism. A cross-sectional survey investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous Kambing-Katjang goats on smallholder farms (n = 389) in 8 villages where no anthelmintic treatments were in use, providing comparisons with a case study of imported Boer crossbred goats (n = 45) on a commercial farm where intensive anthelmintic treatments were required to manage mortalities attributable to Haemonchosis...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419804/alpha-difluoromethylornithine-an-irreversible-inhibitor-of-polyamine-biosynthesis-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-against-hyperproliferative-and-infectious-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Nicole LoGiudice, Linh Le, Irene Abuan, Yvette Leizorek, Sigrid C Roberts
The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl) is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing...
February 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401734/drug-repurposing-for-schistosomiasis-combinations-of-drugs-or-biomolecules
#18
REVIEW
Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Control of schistosomiasis currently relies on a single drug, praziquantel, and despite its efficacy against the all schistosome species that parasitize humans, it displays some problematic drawbacks and alone is ineffective in counteracting adverse pathologies associated with infection. Moreover, due to the development of the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains, the search for additional or alternative antischistosomal drugs have become a public health priority...
February 5, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373600/schistosoma-mansoni-infection-suppresses-the-growth-of-plasmodium-yoelii-parasites-in-the-liver-and-reduces-gametocyte-infectivity-to-mosquitoes
#19
Taeko Moriyasu, Risa Nakamura, Sharmina Deloer, Masachika Senba, Masato Kubo, Megumi Inoue, Richard Culleton, Shinjiro Hamano
Malaria and schistosomiasis are major parasitic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Epidemiological surveys have revealed coinfection rates of up to 30% among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the impact of coinfection of these two parasites on disease epidemiology and pathology, we carried out coinfection studies using Plasmodium yoelii and Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Malaria parasite growth in the liver following sporozoite inoculation is significantly inhibited in mice infected with S...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356140/clinicopathological-features-and-course-of-cutaneous-protothecosis
#20
H-C Tseng, C-B Chen, J-C Ho, Y-W Cheng, H-W Huang, P-L Sun, C-H Lee
BACKGROUND: Protothecosis is an uncommon infection caused by the achlorophyllic algae found more commonly in tropical areas. Only a limited number of cases have been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of cutaneous protothecosis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 20 pathology-confirmed cases of cutaneous protothecosis based on skin biopsies in two tertiary medical centres in Taiwan from 1997 to 2015...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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