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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799498/structure-based-approaches-targeting-parasite-cysteine-proteases
#1
Rafael Pinto Vieira, Viviane Corrêa Santos, Rafaela Salgado Ferreira
Cysteine proteases are essential hydrolytic enzymes present in the majority of organisms, including viruses and unicellular parasites. Despite the high sequence identity displayed among these proteins, specific structural features across different species grant distinct functions to these biomolecules, frequently related to pathological conditions. Consequently, their relevance as promising targets for potential specific inhibitors has been highlighted and occasionally validated in recent decades. In this review, we discuss the recent outcomes on structure-based campaigns aiming the discovery of new inhibitor prototypes against cruzain and falcipain, as alternative therapeutic tools for Chagas disease and malaria treatments, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798144/frontline-science-leishmania-mexicana-amastigotes-can-replicate-within-neutrophils
#2
Benjamin P Hurrell, Manon Beaumann, Sandrina Heyde, Ivo B Regli, Andreas J Müller, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, causing a spectrum of clinical manifestations varying from self-healing to unhealing lesions that may be very difficult to treat. Emerging evidence points to a detrimental role for neutrophils during the first hours following infection with many distinct Leishmania species (spp.) at a time when the parasite is in its nonreplicative promastigote form. Neutrophils have also been detected at later stages of infection in unhealing chronic cutaneous lesions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793309/the-microbiome-in-urogenital-schistosomiasis-and-induced-bladder-pathologies
#3
Adewale S Adebayo, Mangesh Survayanshi, Shrikanth Bhute, Atinuke M Agunloye, Raphael D Isokpehi, Chiaka I Anumudu, Yogesh S Shouche
BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by Schistosoma species. Research on the molecular mechanisms influencing the outcomes of bladder infection by Schistosoma haematobium is urgently needed to develop new diagnostics, therapeutics and infection prevention strategies. The objective of the research study was to determine the microbiome features and changes in urine during urogenital schistosomiasis and induced bladder pathologies...
August 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764177/idiopathic-tumoral-calcinosis-rare-clinico-pathological-entity-a-report-of-two-cases
#4
Sreedevi Jakka, Radhika Narayan, Minakshi Mishra, Farah Rana, J K Laik
Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disease reported mainly in blacks of tropical and subtropical African regions. It is characterized by tumour-like periarticular deposits of calcium that are found in the regions of the hip, shoulder, elbow and small joints of hands and feet. The involvement of this disease in a healthy patient is extremely rare in young and middle aged individuals. We are presenting two cases with large, painless periarticular swellings in subscapular joint and feet. First case presented with recurrent swelling in different anatomical locations at different time intervals involving the hip and followed by shoulder joint...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759766/metal-toxicity-assessment-by-sentinel-species-of-mangroves-in-situ-case-study-integrating-chemical-and-biomarkers-analyses
#5
Luis Felipe de Almeida Duarte, Caroline Araújo de Souza, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro
Globally, there is a lack of knowledge about tropical ecotoxicology dealing with the potential impact of metal contamination in mangrove ecosystem. This habitat is considered a nursery for several animal species, among them the "uçá"-crab (Ucides cordatus), known as a key species due to its biological and economical importance. This study evaluated the association involving metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn and Hg) in water, sediment, red-mangrove vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) and tissues of uçá crab, together with its geno-cytotoxic responses, based on micronucleated hemocytes frequency and the retention time of neutral red in lysosomes...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758666/maldi-ms-imaging-investigation-of-the-host-response-to-visceral-leishmaniasis
#6
C F Jaegger, F Negrão, D M Assis, K R A Belaz, C F F Angolini, A M A P Fernandes, V G Santos, A Pimentel, D R Abánades, S Giorgio, M N Eberlin, D F O Rocha
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of animal tissues has become an important tool for in situ molecular analyses and biomarker studies in several clinical areas, but there are few applications in parasitological studies. Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, and experimental mouse models have been essential to evaluate pathological and immunological processes and to develop diagnostic methods. Herein we have employed MALDI MSI to examine peptides and low molecular weight proteins (2 to 20 kDa) differentially expressed in the liver during visceral leishmaniasis in mice models...
July 31, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741648/american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-infancy-and-childhood
#7
REVIEW
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, Carolina Talhari, María F García Bustos, Tamara Rosales, Wilmer E Villamil-Gomez, Marilianna Marquez, Alexandra M Pérez Alvarez, Alejandra I Tálamo Sánchez, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736941/in-vivo-neutralization-of-%C3%AE-4-and-%C3%AE-7-integrins-inhibits-eosinophil-trafficking-and-prevents-lung-injury-during-tropical-pulmonary-eosinophilia-in-mice
#8
Pankaj Sharma, Aditi Sharma, Mrigank Srivastava
Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Results show an intact lung barrier, significantly lower lung inflammation and reduced eosinophil counts in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs of mice receiving anti-α4(+) β7 treatment...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663244/frontline-science-c-myc-regulates-p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-expression-in-monocytes-during-hiv-1-infection
#9
Ryan Connor, Letitia D Jones, Xing Qiu, Juilee Thakar, Sanjay B Maggirwar
Leukocyte extravasation is a crucial feature of the normal immune response to disease and infection and is implicated in various pathologies during chronic inflammatory disease. P-Selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is critical for leukocyte extravasation; however, despite extensive study, it remains unclear how its expression is regulated, which in turn, impedes a more precise understanding of how its expression level affects transmigration. To investigate the regulation of PSGL-1, 60 subjects, with or without HIV infection, were recruited and PSGL-1 expression in monocytes was measured...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661890/reflective-practice-and-social-responsibility-in-family-medicine-effect-of-performing-an-international-rotation-in-a-developing-country
#10
Christine Loignon, Thomas Gottin, Carol Valois, François Couturier, Robert Williams, Pierre-Michel Roy
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceived effect of an elective international health rotation on family medicine resident learning. DESIGN: Qualitative, collaborative study based on semistructured interviews. SETTING: Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 12 family medicine residents and 9 rotation supervisors (N = 21). METHODS: Semistructured interviews of residents and rotation supervisors. MAIN FINDINGS: Residents and supervisors alike reported that their technical skills and relationship skills had benefited...
November 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659489/transcriptional-profiling-confirms-the-therapeutic-effects-of-mast-cell-stabilization-in-a-dengue-disease-model
#11
Juliet Morrison, Abhay P S Rathore, Chinmay K Mantri, Siti A B Aman, Andrew Nishida, Ashley L St John
There are no approved therapeutics for the treatment of dengue disease despite the global prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) and its mosquito vectors. DENV infections can lead to vascular complications, hemorrhage and shock due to the ability of DENV to infect a variety of immune and non-immune cell populations. Increasingly, studies have implicated the host response as a major contributor to severe disease. Inflammatory products of various cell types, including responding T cells, mast cells (MCs) and infected monocytes can contribute to immune pathology...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655585/igm-and-igg-responses-in-schistosoma-mansoni-infected-mice-using-egg-and-worm-antigens-does-response-vary-with-parasitic-burden-and-phase-of-infection
#12
Miguel Cosenza, Emilia Barrios, Pimali Felibertt, Angel Castillo-Corujo, Génesis Ochoa, Eva Velasquez, Alejandra Rojas
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. The hepatic pathology of this parasitic disease could develop complications, such as fibrosis and cirrhosis, which can be fatal. The Venezuelan endemic area is considered as one of low transmission, which complicates the detection of infected individuals and signals the importance of improving the sensitivity of immunodiagnostic methods. Using ELISA, an evaluation was conducted of IgM and IgG responses to soluble antigens of eggs and female worms (SEA and SFWA) and excretion-secretion products of eggs and female worms (ESPE and ESPAW) in infected Balb/c mice with different parasitic burden and infection times...
August 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624508/epidemiological-profile-of-cutaneous-larva-migrans-in-travelers-returning-to-france-between-2003-and-2015
#13
Doudou Sow, Ferelaha Soro, Emilie Javelle, Fabrice Simon, Philippe Parola, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is caused by the penetration and migration of canine or feline hookworm larvae into the skin, and frequently affects travelers from high-income countries returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas. Unfortunately, this pathology is neglected due to poor understanding among both physicians and travelers. This study describes the profile of cases reported in Marseille, France. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in two specialized hospitals between 2003 and 2015...
June 15, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589386/navigating-the-jungles-of-tropical-infectious-gastrointestinal-pathology-a-pattern-based-approach-to-the-endoscopic-biopsy
#14
Tomas Slavik, Gregory Y Lauwers
International travels and global human migration have had the unforeseen consequence of increasing the exposure of histopathologists in developed countries to the pathology of tropical infectious disease. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often the primary site of infection due to the faecal-oral route of transmission and the high risk of exposure to contaminated water, food or soil when travelling to these regions. Whilst current microbiologic techniques are far more sensitive than histology in detecting infectious pathogens, the histopathologist nonetheless retains a pivotal role in diagnosing tropical GIT disease...
June 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486498/migratory-phase-of-litomosoides-sigmodontis-filarial-infective-larvae-is-associated-with-pathology-and-transient-increase-of-s100a9-expressing-neutrophils-in-the-lung
#15
Gregory Karadjian, Frédéric Fercoq, Nicolas Pionnier, Nathaly Vallarino-Lhermitte, Emilie Lefoulon, Adélaïde Nieguitsila, Sabine Specht, Leo M Carlin, Coralie Martin
Filarial infections are tropical diseases caused by nematodes of the Onchocercidae family such as Mansonella perstans. The infective larvae (L3) are transmitted into the skin of vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding vectors. Many filarial species settle in the serous cavities including M. perstans in humans and L. sigmodontis, a well-established model of filariasis in mice. L. sigmodontis L3 migrate to the pleural cavity where they moult into L4 around day 9 and into male and female adult worms around day 30. Little is known of the early phase of the parasite life cycle, after the L3 is inoculated in the dermis by the vector and enters the afferent lymphatic vessels and before the moulting processes in the pleural cavity...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441703/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-inhibitory-effects-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-on-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-and-allografts
#16
Ratchadawan Aukkanimart, Thidarut Boonmars, Pranee Sriraj, Panupan Sripan, Jiraporn Songsri, Panaratana Ratanasuwan, Porntip Laummaunwai, Parichart Boueroy, Sukhonthip Khueangchaingkhwang, Benjamabhorn Pumhirunroj, Atchara Artchayasawat, Sirintip Boonjaraspinyo, Zhiliang Wu, Chariya Hahnvajanawong, Kulthida Vaeteewoottacharn, Sopit Wongkham
We investigated the anti-cholangiocarcinoma effect of α-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract (GM) in a human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell line and a hamster CCA allograft model. In vitro, human CCA cells were treated with GM at various concentrations and for different time periods; then cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry, and metastatic potential with wound healing assays. In vivo, hamster allografts were treated with GM, gemcitabine (positive control) and a placebo (negative control) for 1 month; tumor weight and volume were then determined...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428344/vascular-adhesion-protein-1-is-elevated-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-predictive-of-clinical-outcome-and-facilitates-recruitment-of-gut-tropic-lymphocytes-to-liver-in-a-substrate-dependent-manner
#17
Palak J Trivedi, Joseph Tickle, Mette Nåmdal Vesterhus, Peter J Eddowes, Tony Bruns, Jani Vainio, Richard Parker, David Smith, Evaggelia Liaskou, Liv Wenche Thorbjørnsen, Gideon M Hirschfield, Kaisa Auvinen, Stefan G Hubscher, Marko Salmi, David H Adams, Chris J Weston
OBJECTIVE: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is the classical hepatobiliary manifestation of IBD. This clinical association is linked pathologically to the recruitment of mucosal T cells to the liver, via vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1-dependent enzyme activity. Our aim was to examine the expression, function and enzymatic activation of the ectoenzyme VAP-1 in patients with PSC. DESIGN: We examined VAP-1 expression in patients with PSC, correlated levels with clinical characteristics and determined the functional consequences of enzyme activation by specific enzyme substrates on hepatic endothelium...
April 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405984/a-prospective-study-of-acute-kidney-injury-according-to-kdigo-definition-and-its-mortality-predictors
#18
Rakesh Bhadade, Rosemarie De'Souza, Minal J Harde, Kalpana S Mehta, Prabhat Bhargava
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is no longer considered to be an innocent bystander merely reflecting co-existent pathologies but an independent risk factor for mortality in the ICU. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study clinical profile and correlation of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) according to KDIGO definition with respect to incidence, outcome and different causes of AKI in critical care unit. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: It is a prospective observational study; and was carried out in the ICU of a tertiary care, teaching, public hospital...
December 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388673/proteolysis-of-mature-hiv-1-p6-gag-protein-by-the-insulin-degrading-enzyme-ide-regulates-virus-replication-in-an-env-dependent-manner
#19
Friedrich Hahn, Adrian Schmalen, Christian Setz, Melanie Friedrich, Stefan Schlößer, Julia Kölle, Robert Spranger, Pia Rauch, Kirsten Fraedrich, Tatjana Reif, Julia Karius-Fischer, Ashok Balasubramanyam, Petra Henklein, Torgils Fossen, Ulrich Schubert
There is a significantly higher risk for type II diabetes in HIV-1 carriers, albeit the molecular mechanism for this HIV-related pathology remains enigmatic. The 52 amino acid HIV-1 p6 Gag protein is synthesized as the C-terminal part of the Gag polyprotein Pr55. In this context, p6 promotes virus release by its two late (L-) domains, and facilitates the incorporation of the viral accessory protein Vpr. However, the function of p6 in its mature form, after proteolytic release from Gag, has not been investigated yet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344946/incidental-maxillary-sinus-findings-on-cranial-computerized-tomographic-scan-in-a-tropical-setting
#20
C C Ani, A A Adoga, G S Tawe
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the maxillary sinuses are occasional findings on routine CT scans of the head. AIM: To study the incidental findings in the CT scans of the maxillary sinuses in patients with indications other than sinuses-related diseases. SETTING: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of patients who underwent CT scan of the head over a 5-month period (January 2015- May 2015) were retrospectively reviewed with the exclusion of those whose indication for the scan was trauma or sinus related disease...
April 2016: Journal of the West African College of Surgeons
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