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Tropical Pathology

Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Suwit J Somponpun, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Tippawan Anantatat, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Susanna J Dunachie, Eric D Lombardini, Robin L Burke, Stuart D Blacksell, James W Jones, Carl J Mason, Allen L Richards, Nicholas P J Day, Daniel H Paris
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease in tropical Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi for which no effective broadly protective vaccine is available. The successful evaluation of vaccine candidates requires well-characterized animal models and a better understanding of the immune response against O. tsutsugamushi. While many animal species have been used to study host immunity and vaccine responses in scrub typhus, only limited data exists in non-human primate (NHP) models...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Wilson Cardona-G, Andres F Yepes, Angie Herrera-R
Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are endemic pathologies in tropical countries. These cause high morbidity and a public health problem. Current chemotherapies are based on conventional drugs with variable efficacy and toxicity related with length of therapeutic schemes and high doses. When two pharmacological agents are combined into a single molecule, the result is the so-called hybrid molecule. In the search for new treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, several studies have shown that hybrid molecules display high antiprotozoal activity and this emerging strategy is quite promising in the field of new drug discovery and development...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Tiago F Moreira, Elias J Facury Filho, Antônio U Carvalho, Mikael L Strube, Martin W Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim K Jensen
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide, and it is frequently reported in high-yielding, free stall dairy herds from regions with a temperate climate. However, DD is also observed with high prevalence in grazing cattle with a low milk yield in tropical regions. To clarify whether these differences have an impact on the etiology of the disease, we studied DD lesions from all year round grazing cattle of mixed breed in Brazil using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization...
2018: PloS One
Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Murad A Mubaraki, Mohamed Dkhil, Taghreed A Hafiz, Mona F Khalil, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Denis Delic, Kamal Elshaikh, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 106 P...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kim E Schmidt, Janina M Kuepper, Beatrix Schumak, Judith Alferink, Andrea Hofmann, Shanshan W Howland, Laurent Rénia, Andreas Limmer, Sabine Specht, Achim Hoerauf
Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation...
2018: PloS One
P A Windsor, S Nampanya, V Putthana, K Keonam, K Johnson, R D Bush, S Khounsy
Progressing economic development in Southeast Asia has increased regional demand for goat meat, leading to expanding production by smallholders and recently, development of commercial farms. In Laos, an emerging export market for goats into Vietnam has led to increased goat numbers, with potential increases in risk of disease, particularly endoparasitism. A cross-sectional survey investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous Kambing-Katjang goats on smallholder farms (n = 389) in 8 villages where no anthelmintic treatments were in use, providing comparisons with a case study of imported Boer crossbred goats (n = 45) on a commercial farm where intensive anthelmintic treatments were required to manage mortalities attributable to Haemonchosis...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Nicole LoGiudice, Linh Le, Irene Abuan, Yvette Leizorek, Sigrid C Roberts
The fluorinated ornithine analog α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, eflornithine, ornidyl) is an irreversible suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The ubiquitous and essential polyamines have many functions, but are primarily important for rapidly proliferating cells. Thus, ODC is potentially a drug target for any disease state where rapid growth is a key process leading to pathology. The compound was originally discovered as an anticancer drug, but its effectiveness was disappointing...
February 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Fátima Gärtner, José M Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Control of schistosomiasis currently relies on a single drug, praziquantel, and despite its efficacy against the all schistosome species that parasitize humans, it displays some problematic drawbacks and alone is ineffective in counteracting adverse pathologies associated with infection. Moreover, due to the development of the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains, the search for additional or alternative antischistosomal drugs have become a public health priority...
February 5, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Taeko Moriyasu, Risa Nakamura, Sharmina Deloer, Masachika Senba, Masato Kubo, Megumi Inoue, Richard Culleton, Shinjiro Hamano
Malaria and schistosomiasis are major parasitic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Epidemiological surveys have revealed coinfection rates of up to 30% among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the impact of coinfection of these two parasites on disease epidemiology and pathology, we carried out coinfection studies using Plasmodium yoelii and Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Malaria parasite growth in the liver following sporozoite inoculation is significantly inhibited in mice infected with S...
January 26, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Han-Chi Tseng, Chun-Bing Chen, Ji-Chen Ho, Yu-Wen Cheng, Hsin-Wei Huang, Pei-Lun Sun, Chih-Hung Lee
BACKGROUND: Protothecosis is an uncommon infection caused by the achlorophyllic algae found more commonly in tropical areas. Only a limited number of cases have been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of cutaneous protothecosis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 20 pathology-confirmed cases of cutaneous protothecosis based on skin biopsies in two tertiary medical centers in Taiwan from 1997 to 2015...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Amal A Mohamed, Amal A Elshimy, Abir O El Sadik, Elham Ezzat, Mona Nasar, Shereen S M Elshaer, Moataz M Sayed
The relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, severity of liver disease, frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection, and degree of gastric lesions was not yet fully investigated in Egyptian patients. The present work was performed on 100 Egyptian patients with HBV from the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Institute and 70 healthy volunteers as control group. The participants were subjected to full medical history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. All patients were positive for HBV surface antigen (HBV sAg), HBV DNA, and negative for hepatitis C virus antibodies...
January 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arnault Tauziède-Espariat, Fabrice Chrétien, Grégory Jouvion, Homa Alde-Biassette, Paul Hofman
Pathologists have been, are and will be always implicated in the diagnosis of infectious and tropical diseases. The resurgence of opportunistic infections due to the development of immunosuppressive drugs, the increase of migratory involvements draining tropical infections and the last epidemics spotlight the importance of pathologists in the field of infectious diseases. However, cancer is nowadays the first preoccupation of pathologists, which is constantly subject to evaluate diagnostic and prognostic markers and factors predictive to targeted therapy response or immunotherapy...
January 6, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
K Doh, I Thiam, A Halim, R C A Takin, G Woto-Gaye
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastritis in upper endoscopies performed for clinical signs suggestive of gastritis among 100 patients in a tropical country. Chronic gastritis (CG) was present among 81%, including CG due to Helicobacter pylori (n = 61, 75.3%), reactive CG (n = 14), and autoimmune CG (n = 6). The gastritis was located in the stomach antrum (55.7%, n = 40), fundus (3.3%, n = 2), or both (41% n = 25). Median age at diagnosis was 35 years (14/80). This CG was associated with signs of stomach activity (27...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
G Ntsambi-Eba, A Beltchika Kalubye, J P Kalala Okito
Surgery is a treatment to consider in epilepsy when the condition is refractory or epileptic events are related to a clearly identified brain abnormality. The tropical climate of the DRC explains the high risk of epilepsy and the potentially large number of refractory cases. The number of patients with epilepsy in Kinshasa is estimated to be at least 120 000, and almost one third may be refractory. Hence, the need to integrate the use of surgery in the treatment of this disease. Most neurosurgical techniques used for treating epilepsy are practiced with a neurosurgical microscope and neuronavigation...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Patricia A Woodall, Michael R Kramer
Case reports and pathology series suggest associations of female genital schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Differential geographic distribution of infertility is not explained by analyses of known risk factors. In this cross-sectional multilevel semi-ecologic study, interpolated prevalence maps for S. haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in East Africa were created using data from two open-access Neglected Tropical Diseases Databases. Prevalence was extracted to georeferenced survey sample points for Demographic and Health Surveys for Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda for 2000 and 2010...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Iasmim Baptista de Farias, Karen de Morais-Zani, Caroline Serino-Silva, Sávio S Sant'Anna, Marisa M T da Rocha, Kathleen F Grego, Débora Andrade-Silva, Solange M T Serrano, Anita M Tanaka-Azevedo
Snake venom is a variable phenotypic trait, whose plasticity and evolution are critical for effective antivenom production. A significant reduction of the number of snake donations to Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) occurred in recent years, and this fact may impair the production of the Brazilian Bothropic Reference Venom (BBRV). Nevertheless, in the last decades a high number of Bothrops jararaca specimens have been raised in captivity in the Laboratory of Herpetology of Butantan Institute. Considering these facts, we compared the biochemical and biological profiles of B...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans , derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans -specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Wei Shi, Zhi-Yong Wei, Hany M Elsheikha, Fu-Kai Zhang, Zhao-An Sheng, Ke-Jing Lu, Dong-Ying Wang, Wei-Yi Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Determining the mechanisms involved in the immune-pathogenesis of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, is crucial to the development of any effective therapeutic intervention. Here, we examined the differential gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors in the liver of F. gigantica-infected buffaloes, over the course of infection. METHODS: Water buffaloes (swamp type) were infected orally with 500 F. gigantica encysted metacercariae...
December 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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