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Stress and uteroplacental

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571133/sex-specific-metabolic-outcomes-in-offspring-of-female-rats-born-small-or-exposed-to-stress-during-pregnancy
#1
Jean N Cheong, James Sm Cuffe, Andrew J Jefferies, Kristina Anevska, Karen M Moritz, Mary E Wlodek
Low birth weight increases adult metabolic disease risk in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generation. Physiological stress during pregnancy in F1 females that were born small induces F2 fetal growth restriction, but the long-term metabolic health of these F2 offspring is unknown. Uteroplacental insufficiency (Restricted) or sham (Control) surgery was performed in F0 rats. F1 females (Control, Restricted) were allocated to Unstressed or Stressed pregnancies. F2 offspring exposed to maternal stress in utero had reduced birth weight...
August 29, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339196/preeclampsia-and-health-risks-later-in-life-an-immunological-link
#2
REVIEW
Shi-Bin Cheng, Surendra Sharma
Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring...
November 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292274/a-physiological-increase-in-maternal-cortisol-alters-uteroplacental-metabolism-in-the-pregnant-ewe
#3
O R Vaughan, K L Davies, J W Ward, M J de Blasio, A L Fowden
Fetal nutrition is determined by maternal availability, placental transport and uteroplacental metabolism of carbohydrates. Cortisol affects maternal and fetal metabolism but whether maternal cortisol concentrations within the physiological range regulate uteroplacental carbohydrate metabolism remains unknown. This study determined the effect of maternal cortisol infusion (1.2 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) iv. for 5 days, n = 20) on fetal glucose, lactate and oxygen supplies in pregnant ewes on day ∼130 of pregnancy (term = 145 days)...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130231/endothelin-receptor-a-antagonism-prevents-damage-to-glycogen-rich-placental-cells-following-uterine-ischemia-reperfusion-in-the-rat
#4
Larry G Thaete, Saira Khan, Mark G Neerhof
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal uteroplacental perfusion is the most commonly identified cause of FGR, and ischemic lesions are often observed in placentas from pregnancies complicated by FGR. Ischemia followed by reperfusion is a strong stimulus to the production of the vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (ET-1) which has been implicated in several models of FGR. We sought to investigate oxidative stress and placental morphology in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced FGR and to evaluate the role of ET-1 in the observed pathology...
April 28, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109011/nitric-oxide-synthase-and-changes-in-oxidative-stress-levels-in-embryonic-kidney-observed-in-a-rabbit-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#5
Horacio Figueroa, Jorge Cifuentes, Mauricio Lozano, Cristobal Alvarado, Claudia Cabezas, Elisenda Eixarch, Ellio Fernández, Luis Contreras, Sebastian E Illanes, Edgar Hernández-Andrade, Eduard Gratacós, Carlos E Irarrazabal
OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to study the effect of uteroplacental circulation restriction on endothelial kidney damage in a fetal rabbit model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were subjected to 40% to 50% of uteroplacental artery ligation at day 25 of pregnancy. After 5 days, surviving fetuses were harvested by cesarean section. The gene and protein expressions of selected enzymes associated with nitric oxide production and oxidative stress were analyzed in fetal kidney homogenates...
July 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928151/quantitative-assessment-of-placental-perfusion-by-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-macaques-and-human-subjects
#6
Victoria H J Roberts, Jamie O Lo, Jennifer A Salati, Katherine S Lewandowski, Jonathan R Lindner, Terry K Morgan, Antonio E Frias
BACKGROUND: The uteroplacental vascular supply is a critical determinant of placental function and fetal growth. Current methods for the in vivo assessment of placental blood flow are limited. OBJECTIVE: We demonstrate the feasibility of the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging to visualize and quantify perfusion kinetics in the intervillous space of the primate placenta. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant Japanese macaques were studied at mid second trimester and in the early third trimester...
March 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612342/abnormal-uterine-artery-remodelling-in-the-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#7
Heather Y Small, Hannah Morgan, Elisabeth Beattie, Sinead Griffin, Marie Indahl, Christian Delles, Delyth Graham
INTRODUCTION: The stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is an established model of human cardiovascular risk. We sought to characterise the uteroplacental vascular response to pregnancy in this model and determine whether this is affected by the pre-existing maternal hypertension. METHODS: Doppler ultrasound and myography were utilised to assess uterine artery functional and structural changes pre-pregnancy and at gestational day 18 in SHRSP (untreated and nifedipine treated) and in the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat...
January 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562100/effects-of-placental-ischemia-are-attenuated-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-treatment-and-associated-with-reduced-apoptosis-and-increased-autophagy
#8
Xiaoyu Tian, Suling Ma, Yaqi Wang, Lianguo Hou, Yun Shi, Min Yao, Xiaoning Wang, Huifeng Zhang, Lingling Jiang
We evaluated the effects of administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) during pregnancy on relieving adverse outcomes of preeclampsia and the pathologic and biochemical changes in reduction in uteroplacental perfusion (RUPP) model of rats. On day 1, 7, and 14 of pregnancy, rats in pregnant RUPP plus 1,25(OH)2D (RUPP+VD) group (n = 15) received 120 ng/100 g body weight/week of 1,25(OH)2D by subcutaneous injection, while rats in normal pregnant (n = 12) and the RUPP group (n = 14) received 1,25(OH)2D vehicle (saline solution)...
February 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554841/proteome-differences-in-placenta-and-endometrium-between-normal-and-intrauterine-growth-restricted-pig-fetuses
#9
Fang Chen, Taiji Wang, Cuiping Feng, Gang Lin, Yuhua Zhu, Guoyao Wu, Gregory Johnson, Junjun Wang
Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26428507/preeclampsia-biomarkers-syncytiotrophoblast-stress-and-placental-capacity
#10
Christopher W G Redman, Anne Cathrine Staff
The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is mediated by dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast (STB). When this is stressed by uteroplacental malperfusion, its signaling to the mother changes, as part of a highly coordinated stress response. The STB signals are both proinflammatory and dysangiogenic such that the preeclamptic mother has a stronger vascular inflammatory response than normal, with an antiangiogenic bias. Angiogenic factors have limitations as preeclampsia biomarkers, especially for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia at term...
October 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26104649/the-six-stages-of-pre-eclampsia
#11
Cwg Redman
For many years pre eclampsia has been considered to be a two-stage disease. The first stage comprises poor placentation. The second stage is the clinical expression of the disease namely new hypertension and new proteinuria. The first stage is preclinical and symptomless, which evolves between weeks 8 and 18 of pregnancy, when the uteroplacental circulation is established by spiral artery remodelling. Its consequence is dysfunctional perfusion of the intervillous space of the placenta with oxidative and haemodynamic stress...
July 2014: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26092522/the-role-of-arginine-homoarginine-and-nitric-oxide-in-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Asma Khalil, Lotte Hardman, Pat O Brien
Normal pregnancy leads to profound maternal hemodynamic changes, including increased blood volume and vasodilatation. Several vasodilator mediators are implicated, including prostaglandins, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide (NO). Pre-eclampsia (PE) affects 3-10 % of pregnancies and is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Around 8 % of pregnancies are complicated by intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), also associated with increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. PE and IUGR often co-exist...
September 2015: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25926690/identification-of-target-genes-for-a-prolactin-family-paralog-in-mouse-decidua
#13
S M Khorshed Alam, Toshihiro Konno, Michael J Soares
Prolactin family 8, subfamily a, member 2 (PRL8A2; also called decidual prolactin-related protein; dPRP) is a member of the expanded prolactin family. PRL8A2 is expressed in the uterine decidua and contributes to pregnancy-dependent adaptations to hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to identify gene targets for PRL8A2 action within the uteroplacental compartment. Affymetrix DNA microarray analysis was performed for RNA samples from WT and Prl8a2 null tissues. Validation of the DNA microarray was performed using quantitative RT-PCR...
June 2015: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25916720/effect-of-advanced-maternal-age-on-pregnancy-outcomes-and-vascular-function-in-the-rat
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alison S Care, Stephane L Bourque, Jude S Morton, Emma P Hjartarson, Sandra T Davidge
Advanced maternal age is becoming increasingly common in Western societies and is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that aging results in impaired vascular function in pregnancy because of increased vascular oxidative stress and resultant scavenging of nitric oxide in both uterine and systemic arteries, causing reduced uteroplacental perfusion and poor pregnancy outcomes. Using aged rats (9.5 months), we investigated the effect of a delayed first natural pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes and uterine and mesenteric artery function on gestational day 20...
June 2015: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25431453/sildenafil-prevents-apoptosis-of-human-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells-exposed-to-oxidative-stress-possible-role-for-nitric-oxide-activation-of-3-5-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-signaling
#15
Jay M Bolnick, Brian A Kilburn, Alan D Bolnick, Michael P Diamond, Manvinder Singh, Michael Hertz, Jing Dai, D Randall Armant
Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival...
June 2015: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25346691/endothelial-dysfunction-and-preeclampsia-role-of-oxidative-stress
#16
REVIEW
Lissette C Sánchez-Aranguren, Carlos E Prada, Carlos E Riaño-Medina, Marcos Lopez
Preeclampsia (PE) is an often fatal pathology characterized by hypertension and proteinuria at the 20th week of gestation that affects 5-10% of the pregnancies. The problem is particularly important in developing countries in where the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is higher and maternal mortality rates are 20 times higher than those reported in developed countries. Risk factors for the development of PE include obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that stimulate inflammatory cytokine release and oxidative stress leading to endothelial dysfunction (ED)...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25142009/growth-restriction-before-and-after-birth-increases-kinase-signaling-pathways-in-the-adult-rat-heart
#17
G D Wadley, M E Wlodek, G Ng, C Goodman, C Stathis, G K McConell
To investigate the mechanisms for the previously reported development of adult cardiac hypertrophy in male rats following growth restriction, the levels of oxidative stress and activation of signaling kinases were measured in the left ventricle (LV) of adult rat offspring. In experiment one, bilateral uterine vessel ligation to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and growth restriction in the offspring (Restricted) or sham surgery was performed during pregnancy. Litters from sham mothers had litter size either reduced (Reduced Litter), which also restricted postnatal growth, or were left unaltered (Control)...
December 2010: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24933425/hypoxic-treatment-of-human-dual-placental-perfusion-induces-a-preeclampsia-like-inflammatory-response
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Arjun Jain, Henning Schneider, Eldar Aliyev, Fatimah Soydemir, Marc Baumann, Daniel Surbek, Matthias Hediger, Paul Brownbill, Christiane Albrecht
Preeclampsia is a human pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by a placental pro-inflammatory response in combination with an imbalance of angiogenic factors and clinical symptoms, including hypertension and proteinuria. Insufficient uteroplacental oxygenation in preeclampsia due to impaired trophoblast invasion during placentation is believed to be responsible for many of the molecular events leading to the clinical manifestations of this disease. We investigated the use of hypoxic treatment of the dual placental perfusion system as a model for preeclampsia...
August 2014: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24554944/serum-levels-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-interleukin-15-and-interleukin-10-in-patients-with-pre-eclampsia-in-comparison-with-normotensive-pregnant-women
#19
Fathollah Kalantar, Samira Rajaei, Amir Behzad Heidari, Reza Mansouri, Nesa Rashidi, Maryam Hosseinali Izad, Mahroo Mirahmadian
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy associated disorder characterized by hyper-tension and proteinuria. The first 2 stages of PE cause dysfunction in uteroplacental perfusion and oxidative stress while the third stage of PE is due to the release of inflammatory and angiogenic factors, which could lead to maternal endothelial damage and systemic inflammatory response. In this study, we compared the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-15 (IL-15), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in PE and normotensive women...
November 2013: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24477207/ifpa-senior-award-lecture-making-sense-of-pre-eclampsia-two-placental-causes-of-preeclampsia
#20
C W Redman, I L Sargent, A C Staff
Incomplete spiral artery remodelling is the first of two stages of pre-eclampsia, typically of early onset. The second stage comprises dysregulated uteroplacental perfusion and placental oxidative stress. Oxidatively stressed syncytiotrophoblast (STB) over-secretes proteins that perturb maternal angiogenic balance and are considered to be pre-eclampsia biomarkers. We propose that, in addition and more fundamentally, these STB-derived proteins are biomarkers of a cellular (STB) stress response, which typically involves up-regulation of some proteins and down-regulation of others (positive and negative stress proteins respectively)...
February 2014: Placenta
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