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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443545/ovine-uteroplacental-and-fetal-metabolism-during-and-after-fetal-cortisol-overexposure-in-late-gestation
#1
Owen Rhys Vaughan, Miles J De Blasio, Abigail L Fowden
Cortisol modifies fetal metabolism in preparation for delivery but whether preterm cortisol exposure programs persisting changes in feto-placental metabolism remains unknown. This study infused fetal sheep with saline (n=36) or cortisol (n=27), to raise fetal plasma cortisol to normal prepartum concentrations, for 5 days from day 125 of gestation (term≈145 days). Fetal uptake and uteroplacental metabolism of glucose, oxygen and lactate, together with fetal hepatic glucogenic capacity, were measured on the final day of infusion or 5 days later...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430878/placental-implantation-over-prior-cesarean-scar-causes-activation-of-fetal-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Tina A Nguyen, Daniel A Kahn, Andrea I Loewendorf
INTRODUCTION: Maternal-fetal chimerism is miniscule, a testament to the integrity of the uteroplacental interface. The soundness of this border region is potentially altered through cesarean delivery of prior babies with uncertain consequences for the following pregnancies. METHODS: Using multicolor flow cytometry and quantitative PCR of non-inherited maternal antigens we performed a retrospective case control pilot study and formulated the null hypothesis that placental implantation over a prior uterine scar does not result in the presence of memory Treg (CD45RO+) in the fetus...
February 12, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422212/diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-late-onset-fetal-growth-restriction
#3
REVIEW
Francesc Figueras, Javier Caradeux, Fatima Crispi, Elisenda Eixarch, Anna Peguero, Eduard Gratacos
By consensus, late fetal growth restriction is that diagnosed >32 weeks. This condition is mildly associated with a higher risk of perinatal hypoxic events and suboptimal neurodevelopment. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of uteroplacental vascular lesions (especially infarcts), although the incidence of such lesions is lower than in preterm fetal growth restriction. Screening procedures for fetal growth restriction need to identify small babies and then differentiate between those who are healthy and those who are pathologically small...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422210/pathophysiology-of-placental-derived-fetal-growth-restriction
#4
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Placental-related fetal growth restriction arises primarily due to deficient remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries supplying the placenta during early pregnancy. The resultant malperfusion induces cell stress within the placental tissues, leading to selective suppression of protein synthesis and reduced cell proliferation. These effects are compounded in more severe cases by increased infarction and fibrin deposition. Consequently, there is a reduction in villous volume and surface area for maternal-fetal exchange...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415560/current-model-systems-for-the-study-of-preeclampsia
#5
M L Martinez-Fierro, G P Hernández-Delgadillo, V Flores-Morales, E Cardenas-Vargas, M Mercado-Reyes, I P Rodriguez-Sanchez, I Delgado-Enciso, C E Galván-Tejada, J I Galván-Tejada, J M Celaya-Padilla, I Garza-Veloz
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complex disease, distinguished by high blood pressure and proteinuria, diagnosed after the 20th gestation week. Depending on the values of blood pressure, urine protein concentrations, symptomatology, and onset of disease there is a wide range of phenotypes, from mild forms developing predominantly at the end of pregnancy to severe forms developing in the early stage of pregnancy. In the worst cases severe forms of PE could lead to systemic endothelial dysfunction, eclampsia, and maternal and/or fetal death...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381706/ocular-and-uteroplacental-pathology-in-a-macaque-pregnancy-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#6
Emma L Mohr, Lindsey N Block, Christina M Newman, Laurel M Stewart, Michelle Koenig, Matthew Semler, Meghan E Breitbach, Leandro B C Teixeira, Xiankun Zeng, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Troy H Thoong, Gregory J Wiepz, Dawn M Dudley, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Terry K Morgan, M Shahriar Salamat, Sarah Kohn, Kathleen M Antony, Matthew T Aliota, Mariel S Mohns, Jennifer M Hayes, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Michele L Schotzko, Eric Peterson, Saverio Capuano, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor, Thaddeus G Golos
Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection impacts fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. We infected a pregnant rhesus macaque with a Puerto Rican ZIKV isolate in the first trimester. The pregnancy was complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), intraamniotic bacterial infection and fetal demise 49 days post infection (gestational day 95). Significant pathology at the maternal-fetal interface included acute chorioamnionitis, placental infarcts, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the myometrial radial arteries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360395/a-novel-rodent-model-of-pregnancy-complications-associated-with-genetically-determined-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-activity
#7
Eugenia Mata-Greenwood, Arlin B Blood, LeeAnna D Sands, Shannon L Bragg, Daliao Xiao, Lubo Zhang
Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LW) inbred rat strains harbor different angiotensin converting enzyme (Ace) polymorphisms that result in higher ACE activity in BN than LW rats. Thus, we hypothesized that pregnant BN rats would show pregnancy complications linked to angiotensin II activity. We performed longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in pregnant LW and BN rats. We found that BN rats have significantly higher ACE activity and angiotensin II levels at pre-pregnancy and throughout pregnancy compared to LW rats, except at mid-gestation...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343712/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques-causes-placental-dysfunction-and-immunopathology
#8
Alec J Hirsch, Victoria H J Roberts, Peta L Grigsby, Nicole Haese, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Jamie O Lo, Zheng Liu, Christopher D Kroenke, Jessica L Smith, Meredith Kelleher, Rebecca Broeckel, Craig N Kreklywich, Christopher J Parkins, Michael Denton, Patricia Smith, Victor DeFilippis, William Messer, Jay A Nelson, Jon D Hennebold, Marjorie Grafe, Lois Colgin, Anne Lewis, Rebecca Ducore, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Rhonda MacAllister, Ashlee V Moses, Terry K Morgan, Antonio E Frias, Daniel N Streblow
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and fetal central nervous system malformations, which are outcomes broadly referred to as the Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Here we infect pregnant rhesus macaques and investigate the impact of persistent ZIKV infection on uteroplacental pathology, blood flow, and fetal growth and development. Despite seemingly normal fetal growth and persistent fetal-placenta-maternal infection, advanced non-invasive in vivo imaging studies reveal dramatic effects on placental oxygen reserve accompanied by significantly decreased oxygen permeability of the placental villi...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330635/hypotension-due-to-spinal-anesthesia-influences-fetal-circulation-in-primary-caesarean-sections
#9
K Lato, I Bekes, Peter Widschwendter, T W P Friedl, W Janni, F Reister, G Froeba, U Friebe-Hoffmann
PURPOSE: Hypotension due to spinal anesthesia is a well-known side effect in pregnant women receiving caesarean section. Little is known about its impact on fetal blood circulation. METHODS: 40 women with uncomplicated singleton term pregnancies prepared for caesarean section were prospectively evaluated by Doppler sonography before and immediately after spinal anesthesia. RESULTS: In 90% of the women, blood pressure significantly decreased after spinal anesthesia and 42...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282009/strider-sildenafil-therapy-in-dismal-prognosis-early-onset-fetal-growth-restriction-an-international-consortium-of-randomised-placebo-controlled-trials
#10
A Pels, L C Kenny, Z Alfirevic, P N Baker, Peter von Dadelszen, C Gluud, C T Kariya, B W Mol, A T Papageorghiou, A G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, W Ganzevoort, K M Groom
BACKGROUND: Severe, early-onset fetal growth restriction due to placental insufficiency is associated with a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity with long-lasting sequelae. Placental insufficiency is the result of abnormal formation and function of the placenta with inadequate remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries. There is currently no effective therapy available. Some evidence suggests sildenafil citrate may improve uteroplacental blood flow, fetal growth, and meaningful infant outcomes...
December 28, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275822/screening-for-fetal-growth-restriction-using-fetal-biometry-combined-with-maternal-biomarkers
#11
REVIEW
Francesca Gaccioli, Irving L M H Aye, Ulla Sovio, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Screening for fetal growth restriction is a key element of prenatal care but it is recognized to be problematic. Screening using clinical risk assessment and targeting ultrasound to high-risk women is the standard of care in the United States and United Kingdom, but the approach is known to have low sensitivity. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials do not demonstrate any benefit from universal ultrasound screening for fetal growth restriction in the third trimester, but the evidence base is not strong...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235113/postnatal-effects-of-intrauterine-treatment-of-the-growth-restricted-ovine-fetus-with-intra-amniotic-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#12
A M Spiroski, M H Oliver, A L Jaquiery, T C R Prickett, E A Espiner, J E Harding, F H Bloomfield
Placental insufficiency-mediated fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with altered postnatal growth and metabolism, which are, in turn, associated with increased risk of adult disease. Intra-amniotic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) treatment of ovine FGR increases growth rate in late gestation, but the effects on postnatal growth and metabolism are unknown. We investigated the effects of intra-amniotic IGF1 administration to ovine fetuses with uteroplacental embolisation-induced FGR on phenotypic and physiologic characteristics in the two weeks after birth...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229321/the-role-of-aspirin-heparin-and-other-interventions-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#13
REVIEW
Katie M Groom, Anna L David
Fetal growth restriction and related placental pathologies such as preeclampsia, stillbirth, and placental abruption are believed to arise in early pregnancy when inadequate remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries leads to persistent high-resistance and low-flow uteroplacental circulation. The consequent placental ischaemia, reperfusion injury, and oxidative stress are associated with an imbalance in angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors. Many interventions have centered on the prevention and/or treatment of preeclampsia with results pertaining to fetal growth restriction and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy often included as secondary outcomes because of the common pathophysiology...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209071/inhaled-nicotine-equivalent-to-cigarette-smoking-disrupts-systemic-and-uterine-hemodynamics-and-induces-cardiac-arrhythmia-in-pregnant-rats
#14
Xuesi M Shao, Héctor E López-Valdés, Jing Liang, Jack L Feldman
Maternal smoking with obligatory nicotine inhalation is associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, fetal growth retardation and developmental defects. We tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking-relevant nicotine inhalation during pregnancy impairs cardiovascular function and uterine hemodynamics with consequential fetal ischemia. Pregnant rats exposed to episodic inhaled nicotine via a novel lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol method produced nicotine pharmacokinetics resembling cigarette smoking in humans...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208172/investigation-of-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-annexin-a5-and-apelin-by-immunohistochemistry-method-in-placenta-of-preeclampsia-patients
#15
Nese Colcimen, Gülay Bulut, Ozlem Ergul Erkec, Murat Cetin Ragbetli
Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria occurred after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.  The pathophysiological mechanism of preeclampsia is not known exactly yet. Preeclampsia endothelial cell dysfunction, associated with inadequate trophoblastic invasion is characterized by abnormal placentation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) according to is an angiogenic cytokine, Annexin A5 is among endogenous peptides are both expressed from placental trophoblasts and Apelin is a multifunctional peptide and expressed by placental trophoblasts and endothelial cells...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196995/epigenetics-and-preeclampsia-programming-of-future-outcomes
#16
Alberto Borges Peixoto, Liliam Cristine Rolo, Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Edward Araujo Júnior
Pregnancy is known to induce rapid, progressive, and substantial changes to the cardiovascular system, ultimately facilitating successful pregnancy outcomes. Women who develop hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are considered to have "failed" the cardiovascular stress test of pregnancy and likely represent a subpopulation with inadequate cardiovascular accommodation. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations in both mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has now been linked to a greater incidence of cardiovascular disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187760/the-exit-ex-utero-intrapartum-treatment-procedure-from-the-paediatric-ent-perspective
#17
B Pucher, J Szydlowski, K Jonczyk-Potoczna, J Sroczynski
The main principle of the EXIT procedure is to maintain uteroplacental circulation with neonatal anaesthesia by controlled uterine hypotonia. This enables securing the foetal airways and decompress or resect large neck and mediastinal foetal masses. The authors present their experience with use of the EXIT procedure in 7 foetuses in whom evaluation and management of the airways were performed. In 4 patients, the neck mass was surgically removed in the neonatal period, in 1 the propranolol treatment was introduced...
November 30, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184859/risk-factors-for-massive-postpartum-bleeding-in-pregnancies-in-which-incomplete-placenta-previa-are-located-on-the-posterior-uterine-wall
#18
Hyun Jung Lee, Young Jai Lee, Eun Hee Ahn, Hyeon Chul Kim, Sang Hee Jung, Sung Woon Chang, Ji Yeon Lee
Objective: To identify factors associated with massive postpartum bleeding in pregnancies complicated by incomplete placenta previa located on the posterior uterine wall. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed. We identified 210 healthy singleton pregnancies with incomplete placenta previa located on the posterior uterine wall, who underwent elective or emergency cesarean section after 24 weeks of gestation between January 2006 and April 2016...
November 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181841/epidural-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-pre-eclampsia-in-non-labouring-women
#19
REVIEW
Amita Ray, Sujoy Ray
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific multi-organ disorder, which is characterised by hypertension and multisystem organ involvement and which has significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Failure of the placental vascular remodelling and reduced uteroplacental flow form the etiopathological basis of pre-eclampsia. There are several established therapies for pre-eclampsia including antihypertensives and anticonvulsants. Most of these therapies aim at controlling the blood pressure or preventing complications of elevated blood pressure, or both...
November 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176779/maternal-fetal-rejection-reactions-are-unconstrained-in-preeclamptic-women
#20
Tina A Nguyen, Daniel A Kahn, Andrea I Loewendorf
The risk factors for preeclampsia, extremes of maternal age, changing paternity, concomitant maternal autoimmunity, and/or birth intervals greater than 5 years, suggest an underlying immunopathology. We used peripheral blood and lymphocytes from the UteroPlacental Interface (UPI) of 3rd trimester healthy pregnant women in multicolor flow cytometry-and in vitro suppression assays. The major end-point was the characterization of activation markers, and potential effector functions of different CD4-and CD8 subsets as well as T regulatory cells (Treg)...
2017: PloS One
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