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A E Brown, S Nash, N Connor, P D Kirwan, D Ogaz, S Croxford, D De Angelis, V C Delpech
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to present recent trends in the UK HIV epidemic (2007-2016) and the public health response. METHODS: HIV diagnoses and clinical markers were extracted from the HIV and AIDS Reporting System; HIV testing data in sexual health services (SHS) were taken from GUMCAD STI Surveillance System. HIV data were modelled to estimate the incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) and post-migration HIV acquisition in heterosexuals. Office for National Statistics (ONS) data enabled mortality rates to be calculated...
June 20, 2018: HIV Medicine
Amanda E Martin, Lenore Fahrig
Some theories predict habitat specialists should be less dispersive and migratory than generalists, while other theories predict the opposite. We evaluated the cross-species relationship between the degree of habitat specialization and dispersal and migration status in 101 bird species breeding in North America and the United Kingdom, using empirical estimates of the degree of habitat specialization from breeding bird surveys and mean dispersal distance estimates from large-scale mark-recapture studies. We found that habitat specialists dispersed farther than habitat generalists, and full migrants had more specialized habitat than partial migrants or resident species...
June 19, 2018: Ecology
Thomas J Peto, Rupam Tripura, Nou Sanann, Bipin Adhikari, James Callery, Mark Droogleever, Chhouen Heng, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Chan Davoeung, Chea Nguon, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher Pell
Background: Mass drug administrations (MDAs) are part of the World Health Organization's Plasmodium falciparum elimination strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). In Cambodia, a 2015-2017 clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of MDA. This article explores factors that influence the feasibility and acceptability of MDA, including seasonal timing, financial incentives and the delivery model. Methods: Quantitative data were collected through structured questionnaires from the heads of 163 households...
June 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Aimee Elizabeth Kessler, Malia A Santos, Ramona Flatz, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Dashnyam Batsuur, Fyodor G Bidashko, Natsag Galbadrakh, Oleg Goroshko, Valery V Khrokov, Tuvshin Unenbat, Ivan I Vagner, Muyang Wang, Christopher Irwin Smith
The Great Bustard is the heaviest bird capable of flight and an iconic species of the Eurasian steppe. Populations of both currently recognized subspecies are highly fragmented and critically small in Asia. We used DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the mitochondrial control region to estimate the degree of mitochondrial differentiation and rates of female gene flow between the subspecies. We obtained genetic samples from 51 individuals of Otis tarda dybowskii representing multiple populations, including the first samples from Kazakhstan and Mongolia and samples from near the Altai Mountains, the proposed geographic divide between the subspecies, allowing for better characterization of the boundary between the two subspecies...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
F Sim, P Mackie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Public Health
Shuang Shao, Meirong Wang, Guanghui Jin, Yali Zhao, Xiaoqin Lu, Juan Du
BACKGROUND: Migrants are the unique production of China's urbanization process. They are often excluded from social welfare and security systems of cities, and often exposed to high health risk related closely to their health problems. This research sought to unveil and explore the influencing factors on health services utilization of migrants in Beijing. METHODS: A sample of 2014 inter-provincial migrants and 4578 residents with Beijing "Hukou" who were 15 years old and above was chosen by three-stage stratified cluster sampling method...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Paola Scognamiglio, Giacomina Chiaradia, Marta Giovanetti, Emidio Albertini, Antonella Camposeragna, Massimo Farinella, Daniela Lorenzetti, Massimo Oldrini, Laura Rancilio, Anna Caraglia, Francesco Paolo Maraglino, Giuseppe Ippolito, Enrico Girardi
BACKGROUND: Globally the access to HIV testing has greatly increased over the past 30 years. Nonetheless, a high proportion of people living with HIV remains undiagnosed, even in resource rich countries. To increase the proportion of people aware of their HIV serostatus and their access to medical care, several strategies have been proposed including HIV rapid test programs offered outside health facilities. The aim of this project was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the HIV rapid testing offered in community and outreach settings in Italy...
June 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: In the past few decades Arab countries had witnessed several intra-regional conflicts and civil wars that led to the creation of millions of refugees and migrants. Assessment of research activity is an indicator of national and international efforts to improve the health of those millions of war victims. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze published literature in international Arab migrants. METHODS: Literature in international Arab migrants published during the past three decades (1988-2017) was retrieved using Scopus database...
June 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yves Fougère, Samir El Houss, Joan-Carles Suris, Sylvie Rouvenaz-Defago, Damien Miletto, Lucie Von der Weid, Fanny Willen, Joanne Anesta Williams-Smith, Mario Gehri, Pierre Alex Crisinel
BACKGROUND: Worldwide coverage of hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is increasing. This should be considered when determining the best strategy for catch-up HB vaccination in migrant children, who rarely have written proof of past immunizations. This study aimed to estimate HB vaccine protection, chronic HB prevalence and to identify determinants of vaccine protection. METHODS: Newly arrived migrant children at Lausanne University Hospital from October 2014 to July 2017 were prospectively enrolled...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Meriem Louni, Nadia Amanzougaghene, Nassima Mana, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Idir Bitam, Oleg Mediannikov
BACKGROUND: Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Phylogenetically, they occur in five divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, C and E), each having a particular geographical distribution. Recent studies have revealed that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Here, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of head lice collected from Niger's refugees (migrant population) arriving in Algeria, northern Africa, and to look for louse-borne pathogens...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Céline Ledoux, Eva Pilot, Esperanza Diaz, Thomas Krafft
BACKGROUND: The current migration flow into Europe is leading to a growing ethnically diverse population in many European countries. Now more than ever, those populations have different healthcare needs, languages, traditions, and previous level of care. This higher level of diversity is likely to increase health inequalities that might challenge healthcare systems if not addressed. In this context, this study aims at reviewing the policy framework for migrants' access to healthcare in Spain, Portugal and Ireland, countries with a long history of immigration, to identify lessons to be learned for policies on migrants' health...
June 15, 2018: Globalization and Health
Chenyue Zhao, Feng Wang, Xudong Zhou, Minmin Jiang, Therese Hesketh
BACKGROUND: Tens of millions of rural "left-behind children (LBC)" in China grow up experiencing prolonged separation from their migrant worker parents. This study aimed to explore how children are affected by parental migration, from the perspectives of children, parents, and grandparents, focusing on the experiences of prolonged parent-child separation and relationship dynamics in the extended family. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted in a migrant-sending rural area of eastern China...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
L Terragni, E Beune, K Stronks, E Davidson, S Qureshi, B Kumar, E Diaz
OBJECTIVES: South Asian migrant populations have a high risk of non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study is to provide in-depth insight into key success factors and challenges in developing culturally adapted lifestyle interventions to prevent T2D within South Asian migrant populations. STUDY DESIGN: The study has a qualitative research design. METHODS: In-depth interviews, using a semi-structured interview guide, were conducted with eight researchers and project leaders from five studies of culturally adapted lifestyle interventions for South Asian migrant populations...
June 11, 2018: Public Health
Kristin Bianchini, Christy A Morrissey
Efficient fuelling is essential for migratory birds because fuel loads and fuelling rates affect individual fitness and survival during migration. Many migrant shorebirds are exposed to oil pollution and its toxic constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at migratory staging sites, which has the potential to interfere with avian refuelling physiology. In this study, we orally dosed shorebirds with environmentally-relevant PAH mixtures to simulate dietary exposure during staging. Forty-nine wild-caught Sanderling (Calidris alba) were exposed to 0 (control), 12...
June 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
(no author information available yet)
The global refugee/migrant crisis of displacement because of persecution and conflict carries staggering implications of ambiguity and loss for the individuals affected. In 2013, approximately 25,000 displaced people sought asylum in the United States; many of whom have experienced state-sponsored physical and psychological torture. With Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), several medical student clinics work closely with immigration attorneys and University and Community based clinicians to assist U.S. asylum seekers in their asylum claims...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Maykel Verkuyten, Hadi Ghazi Altabatabaei, Wybren Nooitgedagt
Immigration leads to strong public and political debates in Europe and the Western world more generally. In some of these debates, migrants are described as either having little choice but to migrate (involuntary migrants) or migrating out of their own free choice (voluntary migrants). In two experimental studies among national samples of native Dutch respondents, we examined whether support for the accommodation of newcomers differs for voluntary and involuntary migrants and whether this depends on the relative importance of humanitarian considerations and host society considerations...
April 2018: Social Psychological and Personality Science
Jean-Michel Lafleur, Elsa Mescoli
Following the financial and economic crisis, welfare policies across the EU are increasingly becoming instruments for limiting the mobility of certain EU migrants. In this article, we focus on EU citizens who see their freedom of movement in the EU being restricted after they have applied for social assistance or unemployment benefits in their country of residence. Doing so, we conceptualize undocumented EU migration by means of the concepts of 'non-deportability', 'deservingness' and 'precariousness'. Overall, this article - based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted with Italian migrants in Belgium - expands our understanding of undocumented migration by demonstrating how arbitrary and intimidating bureaucratic processes undermine the exercise of EU citizenship...
June 2018: Sociology
Man Ki Kwok, C Mary Schooling, S V Subramanian, Gabriel M Leung, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In economically developed settings, household income is usually inversely associated with child and adolescent adiposity, but this association may not extend to migrants. Hong Kong is a unique developed setting to study how household income and adolescent adiposity vary by migrant status given many Hong Kong-born Chinese children were born to parents who migrated from neighboring provinces of Mainland China. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We examined differences between the associations of absolute household income vs...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Gerard Talavera, Clément Bataille, Dubi Benyamini, Martin Gascoigne-Pees, Roger Vila
The Palearctic-African migratory circuit has been typically associated with birds. Very few insects are known to endure annual trans-Saharan circuits, but the Painted Lady butterfly ( Vanessa cardui ) is an exception. While it was demonstrated that this species massively migrates from Europe to the Afrotropics during the autumn, the existence of a reverse migration from the Afrotropics to Europe in the early spring remains hypothetical. Here, we analysed wing stable hydrogen isotope values (δ2 H) of V. cardui migrants collected from February to April across the circum-Mediterranean region...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Luke A Rogers, Anne K Salomon, Brendan Connors, Martin Krkošek
The roles of dispersal and recruitment have long been a focal point in ecology and conservation. The adopted migrant hypothesis proposes a life history in which social learning transmits migratory knowledge between generations of iteroparous fish. Specifically, juveniles disperse from the parental spawning site, encounter and recruit to a local adult population, and learn migration routes between spawning and foraging habitats by following older, experienced fish. Although the adopted migrant life history may apply to many species of pelagic marine fishes, there is scant theoretical or empirical work on the consequent population dynamics...
July 2018: American Naturalist
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