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Pediatric hydration therapy

Svjetlana Loga Zec, Kenan Selmanovic, Natasa Loga Andrijic, Azra Kadic, Lamija Zecevic, Lejla Zunic
INTRODUCTION: Bronchopneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation of pneumonia in pediatric population and leading infectious cause of mortality in children under 5 years. Evaluation of treatment involves diagnostic procedures, assessment of disease severity and treatment for disease with an emphasis on vulnerability of the population. AIM: To determine the most commonly used antibiotics at the Pediatric Clinic in Sarajevo and concomitant therapy in the treatment of bronchopneumonia...
June 2016: Medical Archives
Şule Yıldırım, Nazan Kaymaz, Naci Topaloğlu, Fatih Köksal Binnetoğlu, Mustafa Tekin, Hakan Aylanç, Fatih Battal, Burçin Gön Uuml Ll Uuml
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to establish the role of intravenous hydration therapy on mild bronchiolitis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case control study. Infants between 1 month and 2 years of age admitted to our general pediatrics ward between June 2012 and June 2013 with a diagnosis of uncomplicated acute bronchiolitis were enrolled to the study. Hospital medical files were reviewed to get information about children personal history, symptoms of the disease, disease severity scores and their management...
2016: Colombia Médica: CM
Stephen B Freedman, Andrew R Willan, Kathy Boutis, Suzanne Schuh
IMPORTANCE: Gastroenteritis is a common pediatric illness. Electrolyte maintenance solution is recommended to treat and prevent dehydration. Its advantage in minimally dehydrated children is unproven. OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral hydration with dilute apple juice/preferred fluids is noninferior to electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, single-blind noninferiority trial conducted between the months of October and April during the years 2010 to 2015 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
May 10, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jason Reynolds, Amber Rogers, Samantha Capehart, Peter Manyang, Mehernoor F Watcha
OBJECTIVE: Satisfactory conditions for auditory brainstem responses (ABR) screening tests for pediatric hearing loss are usually achieved with oral chloral hydrate (CH) sedation. When the US manufacture of this drug was discontinued for business reasons, we developed an alternative sedation regimen using intranasal dexmedetomidine (IN DEX) 4 μg/kg. This institutional review board-approved retrospective study compared the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of these 2 sedative regimens...
March 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Fatihi Hassan Soliman Toaimah, Hala Mohammad Fathi Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Rapid intravenous (IV) rehydration is commonly used for the management of pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The current practice shows wide variation in the volume and rate of rapid IV hydration. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of rapid IV rehydration compared with standard method in children with gastroenteritis. METHOD: MEDLINE (1946-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), and CENTRAL via the Cochrane Library (Issue 8, 2014) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Se Young Kim
It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment...
December 2015: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ozgur Haki Yuksel, Mithat Kivrak, Aytac Sahin, Serkan Akan, Ahmet Urkmez, Ayhan Verit
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition with heterogeneous clinical symptoms characterized by polyuria (urine output >4 mL/kg/hr) and polydipsia (water intake >2 L/m (2)/d). In children, acquired nephrogenic DI (NDI) is more common than central DI (CDI). Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. A water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI from CDI and diagnose their incomplete forms...
November 2015: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Eugenio Baraldi, Marcello Lanari, Paolo Manzoni, Giovanni A Rossi, Silvia Vandini, Alessandro Rimini, Costantino Romagnoli, Pierluigi Colonna, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Biban, Giampietro Chiamenti, Roberto Bernardini, Marina Picca, Marco Cappa, Giuseppe Magazzù, Carlo Catassi, Antonio Francesco Urbino, Luigi Memo, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Carlo Minetti, Francesco Paravati, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Filippo Festini, Susanna Esposito, Giovanni Corsello
Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in children less than 1 year of age worldwide. It is usually a mild disease, but some children may develop severe symptoms, requiring hospital admission and ventilatory support in the ICU. Infants with pre-existing risk factors (prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart diseases and immunodeficiency) may be predisposed to a severe form of the disease. Clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis is manly based on medical history and physical examination (rhinorrhea, cough, crackles, wheezing and signs of respiratory distress)...
2014: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Azita Fesharakinia, Ali-Reza Ehsanbakhsh, Nasrin Ghorashadizadeh
OBJECTIVE: Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin which is widely used for treatment of infection in children accompanied by complications like urinary tract lithiasis and gallbladder psudolithiasis or sludge. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and predisposing factors that contribute to these complications in children. METHODS: This quasi-experimental and before- and after-study was conducted in 96 children who were hospitalized for treatment of different bacterial infections and received 50-100 mg/kg/day ceftriaxone divided into two equal doses intravenously under conditions of adequate hydration...
December 2013: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Mariana Fermiano, Jason Bergsbaken, Jill M Kolesar
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage, administration, and current role in therapy of a recently approved agent for controlling methotrexate toxicity are reviewed. SUMMARY: Glucarpidase is a bacterial enzyme useful in reversing toxicity induced by the widely used antineoplastic agent methotrexate. Glucarpidase gained U.S. marketing approval in 2012 for reducing serum methotrexate concentrations greater than 1 μM/L in patients with delayed methotrexate clearance due to impaired renal function...
May 15, 2014: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Amelie Clementine Seghers, Sophie Chan Cai, Madeleine Sheun Ling Ho, Yoke Chin Giam, Lucinda Tan, Carina Marie Grönhagen, Mark Boon Yang Tang
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a pseudoceramide-containing moisturizer as maintenance therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). METHODS: This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of a twice-daily application of a pseudoceramide-containing moisturizer for 4 weeks as maintenance therapy in 40 patients with stable, mild-to-moderate AD in a tropical climate. Clinical and skin barrier assessment was done at week 0, week 2 and week 4...
June 2014: Dermatology and Therapy
GholamHossein Naderi, AmirHossein Latif, Firouzeh Tabassomi, Seyed Taher Esfahani
PH type 2 is caused by decreased activity of GRHPR enzyme that eventually leads to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. Here, we describe an Iranian pediatric patient with PH2 and early ESRD development who received recommended treatment by undergoing isolated kidney transplantation. Diagnosis criteria included a history of reoccurring calcium oxalate renal stones and elevated oxalate levels combined with liver biopsy and decreased enzymatic activity at age five. ESRD prompted transplantation and was performed at age nine...
May 2014: Pediatric Transplantation
Kam Lun Hon, N H Pong, Terence C W Poon, Dorothy F Y Chan, T F Leung, Kelly Y C Lai, Y K Wing, Nai Ming Luk
BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema (AE) is a common relapsing inflammatory skin disease in children associated with chronicity and poor quality of life. Many children also display depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and if these symptoms are associated with disease severity, quality of life and skin biophysiology in childhood AE. METHODS: Psychological symptoms, eczema severity, quality of life and biophysical skin condition of consecutive adolescents at the pediatric dermatology clinic of a teaching hospital were evaluated with the validated Chinese versions of Depressive, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum skin hydration (SH), respectively...
February 2015: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Suthanthira Kannan Ramamoorthy, R Hephziba
High dose methotrexate infusion has become the standard of care in pediatric and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia management. Adequate hydration, alkalinization of urine and optimal folinic acid rescue are the key factors in the prevention of toxicity. The development of acute renal failure after high dose methotrexate infusion is very rare, albeit a few cases have been reported in literature. Various options have been available in addition to high dose folinic acid rescue, such as ultra filtration dialysis, continuous extracorporeal therapy, thymidine and Glucarpidase infusion to directly counter act excess methotrexate...
June 2013: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Małgorzata Wójcik, Dominika Janus, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Jerzy B Starzyk
PATIENT: Female, 14 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Multiple pituitary hormone deficiency Symptoms: Hyponatremia Medication: - Clinical Procedure: Endovascular embolectomy Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: PATIENT complains/malpractice. BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders. Depending on the patient's hydration status, hyponatremia can be classified as hypovolemic, hypervolemic, or normovolemic. The last type is caused by the syndrome of 'inappropriate' secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and more rarely by SIADH-like syndrome, in which oversecretion of ADH is caused by adrenal or thyroid insufficiency...
2013: American Journal of Case Reports
Jiwon M Lee, Younghwa Jung, Se Eun Lee, Jun Ho Lee, Kee Hyuck Kim, Ja Wook Koo, Young Seo Park, Hae Il Cheong, Il-Soo Ha, Yong Choi, Hee Gyung Kang
PURPOSE: Recent studies have established the association between hypotonic fluids administration and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children. The present paper investigated the pattern of current practice in intravenous fluid prescription among Korean pediatric residents, to underscore the need for updated education. METHODS: A survey-based analysis was carried out. Pediatric residents at six university hospitals in Korea completed a survey consisting of four questions...
July 2013: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Angela María Gutiérrez-Alvarez, Nicolas Medina Silva, María Catalina Vargas Bazurto, Sindy Montoya Osorio
Electronic database Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Lilacs were used to retrieve the clinical trials that will evaluate the various therapeutical options available for management of hemorrhagic dengue. Eight clinical studies were included. Supportive care and symptomatic treatment through hydration and aggressive fluid management, if hypotension develops in the course of disease, are the most important aids to improve survival. Treatment with corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, carbazochorome sodium sulfonate (AC-17) and recombinant activated factor VII did not reduce mortality in children with hemorrhagic dengue...
September 2006: Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical
Philip R Spandorfer, Sharon E Mace, Pamela J Okada, Harold K Simon, Coburn H Allen, David M Spiro, Keith Friend, George Harb, Francois Lebel
BACKGROUND: Alternative treatment of dehydration is needed when intravenous (IV) or oral rehydration therapy fails. Subcutaneous (SC) hydration facilitated by recombinant human hyaluronidase offers an alternative treatment for dehydration. This clinical trial is the first to compare recombinant human hyaluronidase-facilitated SC (rHFSC) rehydration with standard IV rehydration for use in dehydrated children. OBJECTIVE: This Phase IV noninferiority trial evaluated whether rHFSC fluid administration can be given safely and effectively, with volumes similar to those delivered intravenously, to children who have mild to moderate dehydration...
November 2012: Clinical Therapeutics
Rachel S Meyers
Managing fluids and electrolytes in children is an important skill for pharmacists, who can play an important role in monitoring therapy. Fluid therapy is divided into maintenance, deficit, and replacement requirements. The Holliday-Segar equation remains the standard method for calculating maintenance fluid requirements. Accounting for deficits when determining the fluid infusion rate is an important factor in treating dehydrated patients; deficit fluid is generally administered over the first 24 hours of hospitalization...
October 2009: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
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