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Bone ablation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040534/macrophages-escape-klotho-gene-silencing-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-promote-muscle-growth-and-increase-satellite-cell-numbers-through-a-klotho-mediated-pathway
#1
Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Steven S Welc, Guiseppina Samengo, Chiara Rinaldi, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Jeongyoon Lee, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040309/targeted-pth4-expressing-cell-ablation-impairs-skeletal-mineralization-in-zebrafish
#2
Paula Suarez-Bregua, Ankur Saxena, Marianne E Bronner, Josep Rotllant
Skeletal development and mineralization are essential processes driven by the coordinated action of neural signals, circulating molecules and local factors. Our previous studies revealed that the novel neuropeptide Pth4, synthesized by hypothalamic cells, was involved in bone metabolism via phosphate regulation in adult zebrafish. Here, we investigate the role of pth4 during skeletal development using single-cell resolution, two-photon laser ablation of Pth4:eGFP-expressing cells and confocal imaging in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035781/lack-of-myeloid-fatp1-increases-atherosclerotic-lesion-size-in-ldlr-mice
#3
Liyang Zhao, Alyssa J Cozzo, Amy R Johnson, Taylor Christensen, Alex J Freemerman, James E Bear, Jeremy D Rotty, Brian J Bennett, Liza Makowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Altered metabolism is an important regulator of macrophage (MΦ) phenotype, which contributes to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Broadly, pro-inflammatory, classically-activated MΦs (CAM) are glycolytic while alternatively-activated MΦs (AAM) oxidize fatty acids, although overlap exists. We previously demonstrated that MΦ fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1, Slc27a1) was necessary to maintain the oxidative and anti-inflammatory AAM phenotype in vivo in a model of diet-induced obesity...
October 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024060/loss-of-dnmt3b-in-chondrocytes-leads-to-delayed-endochondral-ossification-and-fracture-repair
#4
Cuicui Wang, Yousef Abu-Amer, Regis J O'Keefe, Jie Shen
Despite advanced understanding of signaling mediated by local and systemic factors, the role of epigenetic factors in the regulation of bone regeneration remains vague. The DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b have tissue specific expression patterns and create unique methylation signatures to regulate gene expression. Using a stabilized murine tibia fracture model we find that Dnmt3b is induced early in fracture healing, peaks at 10 days post fracture (dpf), and declines to nearly undetectable levels by 28 dpf...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024000/myeloid-notch1-deficiency-activates-rhoa-rock-pathway-and-aggravates-hepatocellular-damage-in-mouse-ischemic-livers
#5
Ling Lu, Shi Yue, Longfeng Jiang, Changyong Li, Qiang Zhu, Michael Ke, Hao Lu, Xuehao Wang, Ronald W Busuttil, Qi-Long Ying, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski, Bibo Ke
Notch signaling plays an emerging role in the regulation of immune cell development and function during inflammatory response. Activation of the ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway promotes leukocyte accumulation in tissue injury. However, it remains unknown whether Notch signaling regulates RhoA/ROCK-mediated immune responses in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). This study investigated intracellular signaling pathways regulated by Notch receptors in the IR-stressed liver and in vitro...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021995/tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#6
Pablo Florenzano, Rachel I Gafni, Michael T Collins
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993616/bone-corticalization-requires-local-socs3-activity-and-is-promoted-by-androgen-action-via-interleukin-6
#7
Dae-Chul Cho, Holly J Brennan, Rachelle W Johnson, Ingrid J Poulton, Jonathan H Gooi, Brett A Tonkin, Narelle E McGregor, Emma C Walker, David J Handelsman, T J Martin, Natalie A Sims
Long bone strength is determined by its outer shell (cortical bone), which forms by coalescence of thin trabeculae at the metaphysis (corticalization), but the factors that control this process are unknown. Here we show that SOCS3-dependent cytokine expression regulates bone corticalization. Young male and female Dmp1Cre.Socs3 (f/f) mice, in which SOCS3 has been ablated in osteocytes, have high trabecular bone volume and poorly defined metaphyseal cortices. After puberty, male mice recover, but female corticalization is still impaired, leading to a lasting defect in bone strength...
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986227/anterior-cervical-discectomy-with-instrumented-allograft-fusion-lordosis-restoration-and-comparison-of-functional-outcomes-among-patients-of-different-age-groups
#8
Dario Muzevic, Bruno Splavski, Frederick A Boop, Kenan I Arnautovic
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical parameters of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) treatment and outcomes using osseous allograft in different age groups, study postoperative results of restoring of lordosis, and evaluate the utility of bone allografts for ACDF, including graft subsidence. METHODS: We reviewed data from 154 patients having clinical symptoms and radiological signs of disc herniation and/or cervical spondylosis. Decompression was achieved through discectomy, osteophyte ablation, endplate drilling, and foraminotomy...
October 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983104/shp2-regulates-the-osteogenic-fate-of-growth-plate-hypertrophic-chondrocytes
#9
Lijun Wang, Jiahui Huang, Douglas C Moore, Chunlin Zuo, Qian Wu, Liqin Xie, Klaus von der Mark, Xin Yuan, Di Chen, Matthew L Warman, Michael G Ehrlich, Wentian Yang
Transdifferentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes into bone-forming osteoblasts has been reported, yet the underlying molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. SHP2 is an ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase. SHP2 loss-of-function mutations in chondroid cells are linked to metachondromatosis in humans and mice, suggesting a crucial role for SHP2 in the skeleton. However, the specific role of SHP2 in skeletal cells has not been elucidated. To approach this question, we ablated SHP2 in collagen 2α1(Col2α1)-Cre- and collagen 10α1(Col10α1)-Cre-expressing cells, predominantly proliferating and hypertrophic chondrocytes, using "Cre-loxP"-mediated gene excision...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980721/igf-1-signaling-mediated-cell-specific-skeletal-mechano-transduction
#10
REVIEW
Faming Tian, Yongmei Wang, Daniel D Bikle
Mechanical loading preserves bone mass and stimulates bone formation, whereas skeletal unloading leads to bone loss. In addition to osteocytes, which are considered the primary sensor of mechanical load, osteoblasts and bone specific mesenchymal stem cells also are involved. The skeletal response to mechanical signals is a complex process regulated by multiple signaling pathways including that of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Conditional osteocyte deletion of IGF-1 ablates the osteogenic response to mechanical loading...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971184/the-effect-of-mg-and-sr-on-the-crystallinity-of-bones-evaluated-through-raman-spectroscopy-and-laser-ablation-icpms-analysis
#11
Yu-Ki Tanaka, Nobuyuki Yajima, Masahiro Okada, Takuya Matsumoto, Yusuke Higuchi, Shigeaki Miyazaki, Hideyuki Yamato, Takafumi Hirata
We investigated the possible linkage between the crystallinity and elemental ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) of the femoral cortical bones of rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes mellitus (DM). The Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were measured by using the laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) technique and the crystallinity was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy on the same sample slice. The measured crystallinity varied significantly along the radial direction, reflecting the heterogeneities in the Mg/Ca ratio for the bone samples...
October 3, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966983/late-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-liver-transplantation
#12
Julia A Zhang, Sandi A Kwee, Linda L Wong
AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and liver transplant (LT) prolongs survival. However, 15-20% will experience recurrent HCC, most occurring within 2 years of LT. HCC patients with late recurrences (>5 years after LT) may have distinctive clinical/biological characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 88 patients who underwent LT for HCC between 1993-2015, analyzing demographics, clinical factors, explant pathology, and outcome...
2017: Hepatoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955981/a-relation-between-osteoclastogenesis-inhibition-and-membrane-type-estrogen-receptor-gpr30
#13
Masaaki Masuhara, Takao Tsukahara, Kazuo Tomita, Minami Furukawa, Shouichi Miyawaki, Tomoaki Sato
Disruption of the cooperative balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts causes various bone disorders, some of which are because of abnormal osteoclast recruitment. Osteoporosis, one of the bone disorders, is not effectively treated by currently available medicines. In addition to the development of novel drugs for palliative treatment, the exploitation of novel compounds for preventive treatment is important in an aging society. Quercetin, a major flavonoid found in many fruits and vegetables, has been expected to inhibit cancer and prevent several diseases because of its anti-inflammatory and estrogenic functions...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940209/chronic-psychological-stress-promotes-lung-metastatic-colonization-of-circulating-breast-cancer-cells-by-decorating-a-pre-metastatic-niche-through-activating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling
#14
Hongyu Chen, Dan Liu, Liang Guo, Xiang Cheng, Ning Guo, Ming Shi
Numerous studies have indicated that primary tumors induce formation of a pre-metastatic niche in distant organs by secreting tumor-derived factors. The present study shows that pre-exposure to chronic stress enhanced lung colonization efficiency by circulating tumor cells, suggesting that chronic stress critically influences pre-metastatic lungs before arrival of disseminated tumor cells. Ablation of the sympathetic nerve function by 6-OHDA or blockage of the β-adrenergic signaling by propranolol remarkably suppressed stress-induced lung metastasis...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927782/development-and-internal-validation-of-prediction-models-for-biochemical-failure-and-composite-failure-after-focal-salvage-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-local-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer-presentation-of-risk-scores-for-individual-patient-prognoses
#15
Max Peters, Abi Kanthabalan, Taimur T Shah, Neil McCartan, Caroline M Moore, Manit Arya, Jochem R van der Voort van Zyp, Marinus A Moerland, Richard G Hindley, Mark Emberton, Hashim U Ahmed
PURPOSE: Patient selection for focal salvage remains difficult. Therefore, we developed and internally validated prediction models for biochemical failure (BF) and a composite endpoint (CE) following focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective HIFU registry identified 150 cases (November 2006-August 2015). Recurrence was assessed with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with template prostate mapping biopsies, targeted biopsies, or systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies...
September 15, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925899/effect-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-adt-on-bone-health-status-in-men-with-prostate-cancer
#16
Nur Vaizura Mohamad, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Kok Yong Chin
Backgraoung and Objective: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent non-cutaneous cancer in men, which causes significant mortality among the patients. Since prostate cancer cells are stimulated by androgen, effective androgen ablation in men is one of the essential strategies in the management of prostate cancer. DISCUSSION: Several treatment options are available for different stages of prostate cancer. Hormone therapy known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the first line treatment used to treat advanced prostate cancer...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900153/genetic-ablation-of-fgf23-or-klotho-does-not-modulate-experimental-heart-hypertrophy-induced-by-pressure-overload
#17
Svetlana Slavic, Kristopher Ford, Magalie Modert, Amarela Becirovic, Stephan Handschuh, Andreas Baierl, Nejla Katica, Ute Zeitz, Reinhold G Erben, Olena Andrukhova
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) ultimately leads to heart failure in conditions of increased cardiac pre- or afterload. The bone-derived phosphaturic and sodium-conserving hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its co-receptor Klotho have been implicated in the development of uremic LVH. Using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in gene-targeted mouse models, we examine the role of Fgf23 and Klotho in cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by pressure overload. TAC profoundly increases serum intact Fgf23 due to increased cardiac and bony Fgf23 transcription and downregulation of Fgf23 cleavage...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894659/prevention-of-mandible-reconstruction-plate-exposure-by-costal-cartilage-wrapping
#18
Motonao Iwasawa, Yoshito Mishima, Miho Ohtsubo
After mandibulectomy in cancer surgery, reconstruction is often performed with a reconstruction plate covered with a soft-tissue free flap in patients in poor condition. However, the rate of complications for mandibular reconstruction is higher with a reconstruction plate than with vascularized bone grafts. We have developed a costal cartilage wrapping method to prevent exposure of the mandible reconstruction plate. The eighth costal cartilage was removed and split into 2 pieces to wrap around the reconstruction plate...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887454/the-intestinal-phosphate-transporter-napi-iib-slc34a2-is-required-to-protect-bone-during-dietary-phosphate-restriction
#19
Thomas Knöpfel, Eva M Pastor-Arroyo, Udo Schnitzbauer, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt, Giovanni Pellegrini, Nati Hernando, Carsten A Wagner
NaPi-IIb/Slc34a2 is a Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporter that accounts for the majority of active phosphate transport into intestinal epithelial cells. Its abundance is regulated by dietary phosphate, being high during dietary phosphate restriction. Intestinal ablation of NaPi-IIb in mice leads to increased fecal excretion of phosphate, which is compensated by enhanced renal reabsorption. Here we compared the adaptation to dietary phosphate of wild type (WT) and NaPi-IIb(-/-) mice. High phosphate diet (HPD) increased fecal and urinary excretion of phosphate in both groups, though NaPi-IIb(-/-) mice still showed lower urinary excretion than WT...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884296/an-open-label-prospective-observational-study-of-the-efficacy-of-bisphosphonate-therapy-for-painful-osteoid-osteoma
#20
Valérie Bousson, Tifenn Leturcq, Hang-Korng Ea, Olivier Hauger, Nadia Mehsen-Cetre, Bassam Hamzé, Caroline Parlier-Cuau, Jean-Denis Laredo, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Philippe Orcel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of bisphosphonate therapy on bone pain in patients with osteoid osteoma (OO) (main objective), and to describe bisphosphonate-induced changes in nidus mineralisation and regional bone-marrow oedema (BMO). METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted from 2011 to 2014. Patients with risk factors for complications of percutaneous or surgical ablation or recurrence after ablation, were offered once monthly intravenous bisphosphonate treatment until significant pain alleviation was achieved...
September 7, 2017: European Radiology
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