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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472496/il-7-dependent-maintenance-of-ilc3s-is-required-for-normal-entry-of-lymphocytes-into-lymph-nodes
#1
Jie Yang, Ferry Cornelissen, Natalie Papazian, Rogier M Reijmers, Miriam Llorian, Tom Cupedo, Mark Coles, Benedict Seddon
IL-7 is essential for the development and homeostasis of T and B lymphocytes and is critical for neonatal lymph node organogenesis because Il7-/- mice lack normal lymph nodes. Whether IL-7 is a continued requirement for normal lymph node structure and function is unknown. To address this, we ablated IL-7 function in normal adult hosts. Either inducible Il7 gene deletion or IL-7R blockade in adults resulted in a rapid loss of lymph node cellularity and a corresponding defect in lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471939/tet2-mediated-clonal-hematopoiesis-accelerates-heart-failure-through-a-mechanism-involving-the-il-1%C3%AE-nlrp3-inflammasome
#2
Soichi Sano, Kosei Oshima, Ying Wang, Susan MacLauchlan, Yasufumi Katanasaka, Miho Sano, María A Zuriaga, Minoru Yoshiyama, David Goukassian, Matthew A Cooper, José J Fuster, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that hematopoietic stem cells can undergo clonal expansion secondary to somatic mutations in leukemia-related genes, thus leading to an age-dependent accumulation of mutant leukocytes in the blood. This somatic mutation-related clonal hematopoiesis is common in healthy older individuals, but it has been associated with an increased incidence of future cardiovascular disease. The epigenetic regulator TET2 is frequently mutated in blood cells of individuals exhibiting clonal hematopoiesis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467330/inducible-podocyte-specific-deletion-of-ctcf-drives-progressive-kidney-disease-and-bone-abnormalities
#3
Marta Christov, Abbe R Clark, Braden Corbin, Samy Hakroush, Eugene P Rhee, Hiroaki Saito, Dan Brooks, Eric Hesse, Mary Bouxsein, Niels Galjart, Ji Yong Jung, Peter Mundel, Harald Jüppner, Astrid Weins, Anna Greka
Progressive chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are on the rise worldwide. However, the sequence of events resulting in CKD progression remain poorly understood. Animal models of CKD exploring these issues are confounded by systemic toxicities or surgical interventions to acutely induce kidney injury. Here we report the generation of a CKD mouse model through the inducible podocyte-specific ablation of an essential endogenous molecule, the chromatin structure regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), which leads to rapid podocyte loss (iCTCFpod-/-)...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463607/reduced-atherosclerosis-lesion-size-inflammatory-response-in-mir-150-knockout-mice-via-macrophage-effects
#4
Fu-Han Gong, Wen-Lin Cheng, Haiping Wang, Maomao Gao, Juan-Juan Qin, Yan Zhang, Xia Li, Xueyong Zhu, Hao Xia, Zhi-Gang She
Atherosclerosis is generally considered a chronic inflammatory response that can lead to several severe clinical cardiovascular events. MiR-150 is a small non-coding RNA that has been reported to play an important role in regulating endothelial cell proliferation and migration and intravascular environmental homeostasis. However, the exact role that miR-150 plays in atherosclerosis remains unknown. In the present study, miR-150-/-ApoE-/- mice were generated to evaluate the impact of miR-150 deficiency on atherosclerosis development...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463593/interleukin-33-signaling-restrains-sporadic-colon-cancer-in-an-interferon-gamma-dependent-manner
#5
Moritz F Eissmann, Christine Dijkstra, Merridee A Wouters, David Baloyan, Dmitri Mouradov, Paul M Nguyen, Mercedes Davalos-Salas, Tracy L Putoczki, Oliver M Sieber, John M Mariadason, Matthias Ernst, Frederick Masson
Interleukin 33 (IL33) is an inflammatory cytokine released during necrotic cell death. The epithelium and stroma of the intestine express large amounts of IL33 and its receptor St2. IL33 is therefore continuously released during homeostatic turnover of the intestinal mucosa. Although IL33 can prevent colon cancer associated with inflammatory colitis, the contribution of IL33 signaling to sporadic colon cancer remains unknown. Here, we utilized a mouse model of sporadic colon cancer to investigate the contribution of IL33 signaling to tumorigenesis in the absence of pre-existing inflammation...
February 20, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452935/e3-ligase-vhl-promotes-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-maturation-and-function-via-glycolysis-inhibition-and-induction-of-interleukin-33-receptor
#6
Qian Li, Dulei Li, Xian Zhang, Qingqing Wan, Wen Zhang, Mingke Zheng, Le Zou, Chris Elly, Jee H Lee, Yun-Cai Liu
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a specialized subset of lymphoid effector cells that are critically involved in allergic responses; however, the mechanisms of their regulation remain unclear. We report that conditional deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase VHL in innate lymphoid progenitors minimally affected early-stage bone marrow ILC2s but caused a selective and intrinsic decrease in mature ILC2 numbers in peripheral non-lymphoid tissues, resulting in reduced type 2 immune responses. VHL deficiency caused the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and attenuated interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor ST2 expression, which was rectified by HIF1α ablation or inhibition...
February 6, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450575/osteoblastomatosis-an-unusual-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
Elena Quílez-Caballero, José Martel-Villagran, Ángel Luis Bueno-Horcajadas, Laura López-Brasal, María Jesús Díaz-Candamio
Osteoblastomatosis (OBLT), also referred to as multifocal osteoblastoma (OB), is an unusual and recently described entity consisting of multifocal tumors histologically consistent with osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma (OO) but radiologically mimicking a vascular bone lesion. OBLT treatment is based on aggressive procedures, such as amputation, en bloc resection, and chemotherapy. Only one previously reported case was successfully treated following a multimodal approach consisting of curettage, cryotherapy, intravenous bisphosphonates, and radiofrequency ablation...
February 15, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447948/roles-of-ihh-signaling-in-chondroprogenitor-function-in-postnatal-condylar-cartilage
#8
Naito Kurio, Cheri Saunders, Till E Bechtold, Imad Salhab, Hyun-Duck Nah, Sayantani Sinha, Paul C Billings, Maurizio Pacifici, Eiki Koyama
Condylar articular cartilage in mouse temporomandibular joint develops from progenitor cells near the articulating surface that proliferate, undergo chondrogenesis and mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, it remains unclear how these processes are regulated, particularly postnatally. Here we focused on the apical polymorphic layer rich in progenitors and asked whether the phenotype and fate of the cells require signaling by Indian hedgehog (Ihh) previously studied in developing long bones. In condyles in newborn mice, the apical polymorphic/progenitor cell layer was ~10 cell layer-thick and expressed the articular matrix marker Tenascin-C (Tn-C), and the underlying thick cell layer expressed Tn-C as well as the chondrogenic master regulator Sox9...
February 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444358/a-complex-role-for-lipocalin-2-in-bone-metabolism-global-ablation-in-mice-induces-osteopenia-caused-by-an-altered-energy-metabolism
#9
Mattia Capulli, Marco Ponzetti, Antonio Maurizi, Sara Gemini-Piperni, Thorsten Berger, Tak Wah Mak, Anna Teti, Nadia Rucci
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an adipokine that carries out a variety of functions in diverse organs. We investigated the bone phenotype and the energy metabolism of Lcn2 globally deleted mice (Lcn2 -/- ) at different ages. Lcn2 -/- mice were largely osteopenic, exhibiting lower trabecular bone volume, lesser trabecular number and higher trabecular separation when compared to wild type (WT) mice. Lcn2 -/- mice showed a lower osteoblast number and surface over bone surface, and subsequently a significantly lower bone formation rate, while osteoclast variables were unremarkable...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434189/ablation-of-protein-phosphatase-5-pp5-leads-to-enhanced-both-bone-and-cartilage-development-in-mice
#10
Jun Wang, Yong Cao, Bin Qiu, Jianyong Du, Tingting Wang, Chao Wang, Ran Deng, Xudong Shi, Kai Gao, Zhongwen Xie, Weidong Yong
This study aimed to investigate the role of protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) on bone and cartilage development using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Six- to 8-week- old male PP5 knockout mice (KO) and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls were randomly selected for this study, and their body weights and bone (femur) lengths were measured. Micro-computed tomography scanning (Micro-CT) was performed to determine femoral bone density and micro-architecture. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow were used to examine the effects of PP5 on osteogenesis in vitro...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431348/new-technique-for-large-mandibular-and-surrounding-soft-tissue-reconstruction-that-uses-an-intraoral-three-dimensional-distractor-for-one-step-transport-disc-distraction-osteogenesis
#11
Antonio Cortese, Mario Caggiano, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Massimo Amato, Pier P Claudio
BACKGROUND: Mandibular reconstruction after ablative surgery is challenging not only for the amount of bone tissue needed following bone loss after benign or malignant tumor surgical removal, but mainly to reconstruct bone shape and structure necessary for subsequent implant insertion to preserve the function (speech, swallowing and chewing) and aesthetic of the lower face. Several different techniques for maxillary bone defects reconstruction have been described. The aim of our work is to describe a new technique for mandibular reconstruction that uses an intramural distractor, which is placed in one surgical step and without the need for a skin incision...
February 9, 2018: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420592/effects-of-fin-fold-mesenchyme-ablation-on-fin-development-in-zebrafish
#12
Robert L Lalonde, Marie-Andrée Akimenko
The evolution of the tetrapod limb involved an expansion and elaboration of the endoskeletal elements, while the fish fin rays were lost. Loss of fin-specific genes, and regulatory changes in key appendicular patterning genes have been identified as mechanisms of limb evolution, however their contributions to cellular organization and tissue differences between fins and limbs remains poorly understood. During early larval fin development, hoxa13a/hoxd13a-expressing fin fold mesenchyme migrate through the median and pectoral fin along actinotrichia fibrils, non-calcified skeletal elements crucial for supporting the fin fold...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415886/osteoblastic-heparan-sulfate-regulates-osteoprotegerin-function-and-bone-mass
#13
Satoshi Nozawa, Toshihiro Inubushi, Fumitoshi Irie, Iori Takigami, Kazu Matsumoto, Katsuji Shimizu, Haruhiko Akiyama, Yu Yamaguchi
Bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process involving bone formation and resorption, and imbalance of this process results in osteoporosis. It has long been recognized that long-term heparin therapy often causes osteoporosis, suggesting that heparan sulfate (HS), the physiological counterpart of heparin, is somehow involved in bone mass regulation. The role of endogenous HS in adult bone, however, remains unclear. To determine the role of HS in bone homeostasis, we conditionally ablated Ext1, which encodes an essential glycosyltransferase for HS biosynthesis, in osteoblasts...
February 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409069/percutaneous-image-guided-treatment-of-benign-musculoskeletal-tumors-in-children
#14
Matthew Cody O'Dell, Anne Gill, C Matthew Hawkins
Percutaneous ablation of benign musculoskeletal tumors in children has become an area of significant clinical growth over the last decade. With growing research interest, the technologies available and techniques used are becoming increasingly safe and effective. We review some of the more common ablation technologies and their utility in several common benign bone and soft tissue tumors that occur in children and young adults.
February 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408411/teriparatide-human-pth1-34-compensates-for-impaired-fracture-healing-in-cox-2-deficient-mice
#15
Kiminori Yukata, Chao Xie, Tian-Fang Li, Matthew L Brown, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Xinping Zhang, Hani A Awad, Edward M Schwarz, Christopher A Beck, Jennifer H Jonason, Regis J O'Keefe
Genetic ablation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in mice is known to impair fracture healing. To determine if teriparatide (human PTH1-34) can promote healing of Cox-2-deficient fractures, we performed detailed in vivo analyses using a murine stabilized tibia fracture model. Periosteal progenitor cell proliferation as well as bony callus formation was markedly reduced in Cox-2-/- mice at day 10 post-fracture. Remarkably, intermittent PTH1-34 administration increased proliferation of periosteal progenitor cells, restored callus formation on day 7, and enhanced bone formation on days 10, 14 and 21 in Cox-2-deficient mice...
February 2, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407343/a-bifunctional-scaffold-with-cufese2-nanocrystals-for-tumor-therapy-and-bone-reconstruction
#16
Wentao Dang, Tao Li, Bo Li, Hongshi Ma, Dong Zhai, Xiaocheng Wang, Jiang Chang, Yin Xiao, Jinwu Wang, Chengtie Wu
Bone tumor is one of major challenging issues clinically. After surgical intervention, a few bone tumor cells still remain around bone defects and then proliferate over days. Fabrication of specific biomaterials with dual functions of bone tumor therapy and bone regeneration is of great significance. In order to achieve this aim, we managed to prepare bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds functionalized by the CuFeSe2 nanocrystals (BG-CFS) by combining 3D printing technique with solvothermal method. During the solvothermal reaction process, CuFeSe2 nanocrystals could in situ grow on the strut surface of BG scaffolds and thus endow BG scaffolds excellent photothermal performance...
January 18, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406415/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-applications-in-pediatrics-early-experience-at-children-s-national-medical-center
#17
Karun V Sharma, Pavel S Yarmolenko, Avinash Eranki, Ari Partanen, Haydar Celik, AeRang Kim, Matthew Oetgen, Peter C W Kim
Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a novel technology that integrates magnetic resonance imaging with therapeutic ultrasound. This unique approach provides a completely noninvasive method for precise thermal ablation of targeted tissues with real-time imaging feedback. Over the past 2 decades, MR-HIFU has shown clinical success in several adult applications ranging from treatment of painful bone metastases to uterine fibroids to prostate cancer and essential tremor...
February 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401582/skeletal-cell-yap-and-taz-combinatorially-promote-bone-development
#18
Christopher D Kegelman, Devon E Mason, James H Dawahare, Daniel J Horan, Genevieve D Vigil, Scott S Howard, Alexander G Robling, Teresita M Bellido, Joel D Boerckel
The functions of the paralogous transcriptional coactivators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in bone are controversial. Each has been observed to promote or inhibit osteogenesis in vitro, with reports of both equivalent and divergent functions. Their combinatorial roles in bone physiology are unknown. We report that combinatorial YAP/TAZ deletion from skeletal lineage cells, using Osterix-Cre, caused an osteogenesis imperfecta-like phenotype with severity dependent on allele dose and greater phenotypic expressivity with homozygous TAZ vs...
January 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394144/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-pain-management-in-patients-with-cancer
#19
Susan Dababou, Cristina Marrocchio, Roberto Scipione, Hans-Peter Erasmus, Pejman Ghanouni, Michele Anzidei, Carlo Catalano, Alessandro Napoli
Cancer-related pain affects up to 80% of patients with malignancies. Pain is an important distressing symptom that diminishes the quality of life and negatively affects the survival of patients. Opioid analgesics are generally the primary therapy for cancer-related pain, with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other interventions used in cases of treatment-resistant pain. These treatments, which can be associated with substantial side effects and systemic toxicity, may not be effective. High-intensity focused ultrasound is an entirely noninvasive technique that is approved for treatment of uterine fibroids, bone metastases, and essential tremors...
January 30, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386201/cd301b-mgl2-mononuclear-phagocytes-orchestrate-autoimmune-cardiac-valve-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#20
Lee A Meier, Jennifer L Auger, Brianna J Engelson, Hannah M Cowan, Elise R Breed, Mayra I Gonzalez-Torres, Joshua D Boyer, Mayank Verma, Aubyn Marath, Bryce A Binstadt
Background -Valvular heart disease (VHD) is common and affects the mitral valve (MV) most frequently. Despite the prevalence of mitral valve disease (MVD), the cellular and molecular pathways that initiate and perpetuate it are not well understood. Methods -K/B.g7 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice spontaneously develop systemic autoantibody-associated autoimmunity, leading to fully-penetrant fibro-inflammatory MVD and arthritis. We used multiparameter flow cytometry, intracellular cytokine staining, and immunofluorescent staining to characterize the cells in inflamed K/B...
January 31, 2018: Circulation
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