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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652682/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-a-case-report-of-overdose-and-management-of-withdrawal
#1
Jack Diep, David Tian Chin, Somdatta Gupta, Faraz Syed, Ming Xiong, Jianguo Cheng
Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens...
April 15, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649094/methadone-maintenance-treatment-a-15-year-retrospective-study-in-split-dalmatia-county-croatia
#2
Davorka Sutlovic, Zeljko Kljucevic, Livia Sliskovic, Helena Susnjar, Ivo Viskovic, Marija Definis-Gojanovic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study is to use existing epidemiological data on patients in methadone maintenance treatment in Split Dalmatia County from 2001 to 2015 in order to evaluate the substitution treatment system and policy of opiate addicts treatment, the epidemiological trend, and risk of overdose mortality. In addition, we would like to highlight the problem of poor control of methadone therapy, and thus the possibility of selling methadone. The result is a greater number of deaths caused by methadone in people who were not in methadone therapy...
April 11, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619569/america-s-opioid-epidemic-a-comprehensive-review-and-look-into-the-rising-crisis
#3
REVIEW
Peter S Ostling, Kelly S Davidson, Best O Anyama, Erik M Helander, Melville Q Wyche, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the USA, there has been a sharp increase in heroin, prescription opiate, and illicitly manufactured fentanyl abuse with overdoses tripling since the 1990s. Several states have been deemed as "high-burden" abuse states where there is a greater proportion of synthetic opiate use. During the same period that prescription limitations were initially implemented throughout the country, the fentanyl epidemic started nationwide. RECENT FINDINGS: In the setting of data demonstrating an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008, states began restricting access to Food and Drug Agency (FDA) approved opioid medications...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618978/is-there-a-potential-of-misuse-for-venlafaxine-and-bupropion
#4
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini
Objective: Traditionally, studies on the non-medical use of pharmaceutical products have focused on controlled substances; e.g., opiates/opioids; and benzodiazepines. Although both bupropion and venlafaxine have been reported as being misused, only anecdotal reports have been made available so far. Hence, the European Monitoring Agency (EMA) Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), misuse/abuse/dependence and withdrawal, venlafaxine- and bupropion-related, database was here analyzed. Methods: All EMA spontaneous reports relating to venlafaxine (2005-2016) and bupropion (2003-2016) notifications were here analyzed, to provide a descriptive analysis by source, gender, age, and type of report...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578830/mortality-and-cause-of-death-a-30-year-follow-up-of-substance-misusers-in-sweden
#5
Ninive von Greiff, Lisa Skogens, Marie Berlin, Anders Bergmark
BACKGROUND: This article presents a 30-year follow-up study of a cohort of 1163 substance misusers who were in inpatient treatment in the early 1980s. Data was originally collected in the Swedish Drug Addict Treatment Evaluation (SWEDATE). OBJECTIVES: The aim is to examine the overall mortality and identify causes of death in different groups based on self-reported most dominant substance misuse among those who have died during January 1984-December 2013. METHODS: SWEDATE-data was linked to the National Cause of Death Register...
March 26, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574346/evaluation-of-three-rapid-oral-fluid-test-devices-on-the-screening-of-multiple-drugs-of-abuse-including-ketamine
#6
Magdalene H Y Tang, C K Ching, Simon Poon, Suzanne S S Chan, W Y Ng, M Lam, C K Wong, Ronnie Pao, Angus Lau, Tony W L Mak
Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe® 6S, Ora-Check® and SalivaScreen® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites...
March 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569175/cervical-dystonia-and-substance-abuse
#7
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Joseph Jankovic, Laura Marsh, Achint Patel, H A Jinnah, Cynthia Comella, Richard Barbano, Joel Perlmutter, Neepa Patel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of substance abuse (SA) in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and to correlate it with prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Data on anxiety, depression, dystonia severity, and substance abuse were collected from ten sites participating in the Dystonia Coalition. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of SA, utilizing Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 criteria. Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was used to analyze the difference in median scores on the questionnaires between the groups...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562165/mind-reading-abilities-in-opiate-dependent-patients-an-exploratory-study
#8
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Bérénice Lecluyse, Claire Triquet, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
OBJECTIVES: Impairments in social cognition have been described as playing a major role in the maintenance of addictive behavior in substance abusers. This study aimed to investigate the Theory of Mind (ToM) ability of opiate-dependent (OD) patients and to explore whether TOM ability was correlated with length of substance abuse, age at onset of substance abuse and length of abstinence. METHODS: OD patients (N = 29) and non-dependent individuals (NDI) (N = 29) were submitted to the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th...
March 12, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560840/older-women-who-died-by-suicide-suicide-means-sociodemographic-and-psychiatric-risk-factors-and-other-precipitating-circumstances
#9
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: US suicide rates among older women have substantially increased over the past decade. We examined potential differences in sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors among older female suicide decedents who died by drug overdose versus firearms, hanging/suffocation, and other means, and postmortem toxicology results by suicide means. METHODS: Data are from the 2005 to 2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 12,401 female decedents aged 50 years and over)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543652/exposure-to-opiates-in-male-adolescent-rats-alters-pain-perception-in-the-male-offspring
#10
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472948/craving-and-drug-reward-a-comparison-of-celecoxib-and-ibuprofen-in-detoxifying-opiate-addicts
#11
Sara Jafari, Sana Khajehpour, Emran Mohammad Razzaghi, Kazem Heidari, Mehdi Soleimani, Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: Craving for substance abuse is a usual and complicated problem in patients, with opioid addiction who are in opioid detoxifying process. Craving has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. The present trial aimed at comparing the effects of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in reducing pain and decreasing the desire to use opiates in patients undergoing opiate detoxification (n = 32). Method: A total of 32 patients (both inpatients and outpatients), who were undergoing opiate detoxification procedure and met the inclusion criteria entered this 4- week study...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465625/spinal-bromodomain-containing-protein-4-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-hiv-glycoprotein-120-with-morphine-in-rats
#12
Keiya Takahashi, Hyun Yi, Ching-Hang Liu, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Dennis J Patin, Shuanglin Hao
The symptoms of HIV-sensory neuropathy are dominated by neuropathic pain. Recent data show that repeated use of opiates enhances the chronic pain states in HIV patients. Limited attention has so far been devoted to exploring the exact pathogenesis of HIV painful disorder and opiate abuse in vivo, for which there is no effective treatment. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein (BET) family and functions as a chromatin 'reader' that binds acetylated lysines in histones in brain neurons to mediate the transcriptional regulation underlying learning and memory...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455270/ventricular-tachycardia-triggered-by-loperamide-and-famotidine-abuse
#13
Timothy R Larsen, Jedediah McMunn, Hala Ahmad, Soufian T AlMahameed
A 32-year-old male developed recurrent ventricular tachycardia after taking mega doses of loperamide and famotidine in order to experience an opiate-like euphoric effect. He was taking up to 200 mg of loperamide and multiple doses of famotidine each day. He developed palpitations and syncope. Electrocardiography demonstrated ventricular tachycardia and QT interval prolongation (corrected QT interval was 597 ms). He was diagnosed with loperamide-induced QT prolongation resulting in incessant ventricular tachycardia...
February 17, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435466/opana-er-oxymorphone-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-an-atypical-presentation-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-c
#14
Hassan Mehmood, Muzammil Khan, Asghar Marwat, Medha Joshi, Varun Malhotra
Oxymorphone is a semisynthetic extended release opiate used to treat moderate to severe chronic pain. The Food and Drug Administration approved the oral form of oxymorphone available as Opana and Opana ER (extended release) since 2006. The Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued warning against intravenous use of Opana ER. We are presenting a case report of a 37-year-old female with a history of active intravenous drug abuse who presented to our hospital with acute kidney injury...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432974/similarities-and-changes-between-15-and-24-year-survival-and-retention-rates-of-patients-in-a-large-medical-affiliated-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-center
#15
Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Anat Sason, Miriam Adelson
BACKGROUND: Environmental and social trends and patients' characteristics may affect predictors for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) outcome. METHODS: We have expanded our previous study of predictors for MMT outcome (from 619 to 890 patients) and the study period (from 15 to 24 years). Survival and retention in MMT since admission to the MMT clinic (6/1993-6/2016) and until death or study closure (6/2017) were compiled and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 890 patients ever admitted (10,146...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407532/the-involvement-of-crf1-receptor-within-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-dentate-gyrus-in-the-naloxone-induced-conditioned-place-aversion-in-morphine-dependent-mice
#16
E Valero, I Gómez-Milanés, P Almela, B Ribeiro Do Couto, M L Laorden, M V Milanés, C Núñez
Drug withdrawal-associated aversive memories trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important mediator of the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. However, the involvement of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in aversive memory induced by opiate withdrawal has yet to be elucidated. We used the conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to evaluate the role of CRF1R on opiate withdrawal memory acquisition, along with plasticity-related processes that occur after CPA within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dentate gyrus (DG)...
January 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389577/urine-specimen-validity-test-for-drug-abuse-testing-in-workplace-and-court-settings
#17
Shin-Yu Lin, Hei-Hwa Lee, Jong-Feng Lee, Bai-Hsiun Chen
In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370197/changes-in-opiate-and-stimulant-use-through-10-years-the-role-of-contextual-factors-mental-health-disorders-and-psychosocial-factors-in-a-prospective-sud-treatment-cohort-study
#18
Grethe Lauritzen, Trond Nordfjærn
AIM: To examine temporal changes in opiate and stimulant use among patients in substance abuse treatment over a ten-year observation period and to explore the role of contextual factors, mental health disorders and psychosocial factors on these changes. METHODS: A cohort of 481 patients was prospectively interviewed at admission to treatment and after 1, 2, 7 and 10 years. The sample was recruited from 20 facilities in the Greater Oslo region, Norway. RESULTS: The majority of patients were poly-drug users and 80% had used both opiates and stimulants the last 30 days prior to treatment admission...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366859/endogenous-opiates-and-behavior-2016
#19
REVIEW
Richard J Bodnar
This paper is the thirty-ninth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2016 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia, stress and social status, tolerance and dependence, learning and memory, eating and drinking, drug abuse and alcohol, sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology, mental illness and mood, seizures and neurologic disorders, electrical-related activity and neurophysiology, general activity and locomotion, gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions, cardiovascular responses, respiration and thermoregulation, and immunological responses...
March 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363042/potential-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathophysiology-of-drug-addiction
#20
REVIEW
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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