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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216892/opiate-agonist-treatment-to-improve-health-of-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-lebanon
#1
Ali Ghaddar, Zeinab Abbas, Ramzi Haddad
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy has been widely used to reduce harms among individuals with opioid use disorder but its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Middle East North African (MENA) region. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a program using opioid agonist therapy in combination with psychosocial support on improving psychological and social well-being, reducing arrest, and reducing risky behavior in individuals with opioid use disorder in Lebanon. METHODS: A one-group pre-test post-test design study was performed at SKOUN Lebanese Addiction Centre between January 2013 and December 2014...
December 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214743/gc-ms-ms-detects-potential-pregabalin-abuse-in-susceptible-subjects-hair
#2
Federica Ianni, Kyriaki Aroni, Alessio Gili, Roccaldo Sardella, Mauro Bacci, Massimo Lancia, Benedetto Natalini, Cristiana Gambelunghe
Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognized as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals...
December 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200559/a-comparative-study-of-factors-associated-with-relapse-in-alcohol-dependence-and-opioid-dependence
#3
Maithili Kadam, Ankita Sinha, Swateja Nimkar, Yusuf Matcheswalla, Avinash De Sousa
Background: Alcohol and opiates are among the most addictive substances posing significant public health problems due to the biopsychosocial impact that they have on individuals. Research shows that majority of abstinent alcohol and/or opioid dependence subjects relapse within 1 year. It has also been estimated that 26-36 million people worldwide abuse opiates, with exceptionally high-relapse rates. The purpose of this study was to compare the sociodemographic factors and correlates relapse in alcohol dependence and opioid dependence...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200050/a-call-for-compassionate-care
#4
Karen Alexander
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2014) reported that 1.1% of pregnant women used nonprescription opiates (either heroin or prescription pills) in the last 30 days. Methadone and buprenorphine are the most common treatments for opiate addiction in pregnant women. Reasons for seeking opiate maintenance treatment (OMT) include keeping custody of one's children and the hope of developing a healthy parenting relationship. Yet, healthcare organizations and professionals have mixed opinions regarding health promotion within the maternal OMT population...
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199843/motivational-interviewing-enhancement-and-brief-interventions-over-the-last-decade-a-review-of-reviews-of-efficacy-and-effectiveness
#5
Carlo C DiClemente, Catherine M Corno, Meagan M Graydon, Alicia E Wiprovnick, Daniel J Knoblach
Motivation is a well-established predictor of recovery for addictive behaviors. Treatments aimed at changing substance use and gambling frequently employ motivational enhancing strategies, based in the principles of Motivational Interviewing (MI). Evidence for these approaches across addictive behaviors does not always paint a clear picture. The purpose of this review was to examine existing reviews of motivational-based interventions for various substances of abuse and gambling in the last decade to gain a deeper understanding of the current evidence and implications for future research and clinical practice...
December 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197244/systematic-assessment-of-different-solvents-for-the-extraction-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals-from-an-authentic-hair-pool
#6
Milena M Madry, Thomas Kraemer, Markus R Baumgartner
Hair analysis has been established as a prevalent tool for retrospective drug monitoring. In this study, different extraction solvents for the determination of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in hair were evaluated for their efficiency. A pool of authentic hair from drug users was used for extraction experiments. Hair was pulverized and extracted in triplicate with seven different solvents in a one- or two-step extraction. Three one- (methanol, acetonitrile, and acetonitrile/water) and four two-step extractions (methanol two-fold, methanol and methanol/acetonitrile/formate buffer, methanol and methanol/formate buffer, and methanol and methanol/hydrochloric acid) were tested under accurately equal experimental conditions...
November 23, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194045/mothering-under-the-influence-how-perinatal-drugs-of-abuse-alter-the-mother-infant-interaction
#7
Anna Brancato, Carla Cannizzaro
Although drug-abusing women try to moderate their drug and alcohol use during pregnancy, they often relapse at a time when childcare needs are high and maternal bonding is critical to an infant's development. In the clinical setting, the search for the neural basis of drug-induced caregiving deficits is complex due to several intervening variables. Rather, the preclinical studies that control for drug dose and regimen, as well as for gestational and postpartum environment, allow a precise determination of the effects of drugs on maternal behaviour...
December 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182614/tiapride-prevents-the-aversive-but-not-the-rewarding-effect-induced-by-parabrachial-electrical-stimulation-in-a-place-preference-task
#8
María M Hurtado, Raquel García, Amadeo Puerto
The parabrachial complex has been related to the processing of both rewarding and aversive signals. This pontine area is activated after the gastrointestinal administration of rewarding nutrients, in taste aversion learning, and in response to the reinforcing and aversive effects of some drugs of abuse. Electrical stimulation of this region can induce, in different animals, preference or aversion behaviors towards a place in a rectangular three-chamber maze task. This study examined the effect of tiapride, a D2/D3 receptor antagonist, on the aversive or rewarding effects induced by electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (NLPBe)...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#9
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108963/influences-of-social-reward-experience-on-behavioral-responses-to-drugs-of-abuse-review-of-shared-and-divergent-neural-plasticity-mechanisms-for-sexual-reward-and-drugs-of-abuse
#10
REVIEW
Lauren N Beloate, Lique M Coolen
Different factors influence the development of drug addiction in humans, including social reward experiences. In animals, experience with social rewards, such as sexual behavior, pair bonding, social and environmental enrichment, can be protective. However, loss or lack of social rewards can lead to a vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior. The effects of social reward experience on drug-seeking behavior are associated with changes in the neural pathways that control drug-related behavior. This review will provide an introduction and overview of the mesolimbic pathway and the influence of social reward experience on drug-seeking behavior in rodents...
November 3, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077662/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-a-case-report-of-overdose-and-management-of-withdrawal
#11
Jack Diep, David Tian Chin, Somdatta Gupta, Faraz Syed, Ming Xiong, Jianguo Cheng
Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens...
October 26, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058550/immunomodulatory-role-of-complement-proteins-in-the-neuropathology-associated-with-opiate-abuse-and-hiv-1-co-morbidity
#12
Supriya D Mahajan, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Neil U Parikh, Alexander Jacob, Katherine Cwiklinski, Prateet Sandhu, Kevin Le, Alexander W Loftus, Stanley A Schwartz, Richard J Quigg, Jessy J Alexander
The complement system which is a critical mediator of innate immunity plays diverse roles in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection such as clearing HIV-1 and promoting productive HIV-1 replication. In the development of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders (HAND), there may be an imbalance between complement activation and regulation, which may contribute to the neuronal damage as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. It is well recognized that opiate abuse exacerbates HIV-1 neuropathology, however, little is known about the role of complement proteins in opiate induced neuromodulation, specifically in the presence of co-morbidity such as HIV-1 infection...
November 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046744/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-acute-drug-intoxication-admitted-to-icu
#13
Jose Orsini, Nanda Din, Ershad Elahi, Anthony Gomez, Salil Rajayer, Ryan Malik, Elie Jean
Background: Drug overdose continues to be the most common cause of acute poisoning worldwide. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence over the past decade, probably as a result of the emergence of new synthetic designer drugs. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with acute drug intoxication admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: A single center, prospective, observational study was conducted among all adult patients with clinical signs suggestive of acute drug intoxication admitted from the Emergency Department (ED) to ICU during a 6-month period (September to March)...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#14
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986608/opiate-dependence-induces-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-intrinsic-membrane-properties-in-the-rat-juxtacapsular-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-jcbnst
#15
Walter Francesconi, Attila Szücs, Fulvia Berton, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Pietro Paolo Sanna
RATIONALE: Drugs of abuse can alter circuit dynamics by modifying synaptic efficacy and/or the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons. The juxtacapsular subdivision of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST) has unique connectivity that positions it to integrate cortical and amygdala inputs and provide feed-forward inhibition to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), among other regions. In this study, we investigated changes in the synaptic and intrinsic properties of neurons in the rat jcBNST during protracted withdrawal from morphine dependence using a combination of conventional electrophysiological methods and the dynamic clamp technique...
December 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985334/simultaneous-quantitation-of-methamphetamine-ketamine-opiates-and-their-metabolites-in-urine-by-spe-and-lc-ms-ms
#16
Chu-An Yang, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Dong-Liang Lin, Ray H Liu, You-Zung Hsieh, Shu-Pao Wu
Heroin, methamphetamine and ketamine have been the most commonly abused drugs in Taiwan. The presence of these drugs and their metabolites in postmortem specimens has been routinely monitored in our laboratory mostly by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods. This study aimed to evaluate a more effective approach to simultaneously quantify these analytes (i.e., amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, ketamine and norketamine) in postmortem urine and blood specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971091/the-effects-of-perinatal-oxycodone-exposure-on-behavioral-outcome-in-a-rodent-model
#17
Thitinart Sithisarn, Sandra J Legan, Philip M Westgate, Melinda Wilson, Kristen Wellmann, Henrietta S Bada, Susan Barron
Opiate addiction is now a major public health problem. Perinatal insults and exposure to opiates such as morphine in utero are well known to affect development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the offspring adversely and are associated with a higher risk of developing neurobehavioral problems. Oxycodone is now one of the most frequently abused pain killers during pregnancy; however, limited data are available regarding whether and how perinatal oxycodone exposure (POE) alters neurobehavioral outcomes of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958905/-uro-and-nephrotoxic-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-literature-review-and-pharmaco-epidemiological-survey-in-france-and-in-the-marseille-area
#18
Marion Gully, Élisabeth Frauger, Michel Spadari, Liselotte Pochard, Vanessa Pauly, Fanny Romain, Bertrand Gondouin, Marion Sallée, Julie Moussi-Frances, Stéphane Burtey, Bertrand Dussol, Laurent Daniel, Joëlle Micallef, Noémie Jourde-Chiche
A great diversification of drugs of abuse has been observed in recent years, both in the populations using them and in the types of drugs. Although dependency and psychiatric disorders associated with the abuse of these substances is well known, somatic complications, uro-nephrotoxicity in particular, are less recognized. We propose here an overview of the products used by drugs abusers in France, through the analysis of the national pharmaco-epidemiological study Observation des produits psychotropes illicites ou détournés de leur utilisation médicamenteuse (OPPIDUM)...
September 25, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899794/female-rats-exhibit-less-avoidance-than-male-rats-of-a-cocaine-but-not-a-morphine-paired-saccharin-cue
#19
Christopher B Jenney, Jinju Dasalla, Patricia S Grigson
Rats avoid intake of an otherwise palatable taste cue when paired with drugs of abuse (Grigson and Twining, 2002). In male rats, avoidance of drug-paired taste cues is associated with conditioned blunting of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (Grigson and Hajnal, 2007), conditioned elevation in circulating corticosterone (Gomez et al., 2000), and greater avoidance of the drug-paired cue predicts greater drug-taking (Grigson and Twining, 2002). While female rats generally are more responsive to drug than male rats, in this self-administration model, female rats consume more of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue and take less drug than males (Cason and Grigson, 2013)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878103/multimodality-imaging-of-anomalous-origin-of-right-coronary-artery-from-pulmonary-artery-arcapa
#20
Sanjay S Mehta, Srinivasan Sattiraju
Computed tomography angiogram confirmed the anomalous right coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) in a patient who presented with altered mental status and hypoxia due to opiate drug abuse. ARCAPA is exceedingly rare, with reported incidence of 0.002% in the literature. We present clinical images and describe the case management.
September 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
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