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Opiate abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100012/characterization-and-management-of-patients-with-heroin-versus-non-heroin-opioid-overdoses-experience-at-an-academic-medical-center
#1
Kate M Morizio, Regan A Baum, Adam Dugan, Julia E Marin, Abby M Bailey
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To characterize the differences between patients who had heroin and non-heroin opioid overdoses and to determine whether there were any significant differences in their management with regard to the naloxone use. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, academic medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 923 patients admitted to the medical center who were identified for overdose by heroin or other opiate-related narcotics between January 2010 and September 2015; 480 patients experienced a non-heroin opioid overdose event, and 443 patients experienced a heroin overdose event...
January 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081197/morphine-withdrawal-modifies-prion-protein-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#2
Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059434/assessment-of-abuse-liability-of-tramadol-among-experienced-drug-users-double-blind-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Mrinmay Das, Raka Jain, Anju Dhawan, Amandeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. METHODS: A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes)...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050185/comparing-acceptance-and-commitment-group-therapy-and-12-steps-narcotics-anonymous-in-addict-s-rehabilitation-process-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Manoochehr Azkhosh, Ali Farhoudianm, Hemn Saadati, Fateme Shoaee, Leila Lashani
Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012859/endogenous-opiates-and-behavior-2015
#5
REVIEW
Richard J Bodnar
This paper is the thirty-eighth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2015 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia, stress and social status, tolerance and dependence, learning and memory, eating and drinking, drug abuse and alcohol, sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology, mental illness and mood, seizures and neurologic disorders, electrical-related activity and neurophysiology, general activity and locomotion, gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions, cardiovascular responses, respiration and thermoregulation, and immunological responses...
December 22, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979929/comparative-evaluation-of-drug-deposition-in-hair-samples-collected-from-different-anatomical-body-sites
#6
Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K Alegakis, Matthaios P Kavvalakis, Elena Vakonaki, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Katerina Kanaki, Alexander I Vardavas, Emmanouil G Barbounis, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974903/morphine-antidependence-of-erythroxylum-cuneatum-miq-kurz-in-neurotransmission-processes-in-vitro
#7
Noor Azuin Suliman, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Rusliza Basir, Zulkhairi Amom
Opiate abuse has been studied to cause adaptive changes observed in the presynaptic release and the mediated-synaptic plasticity proteins. The involvement of neuronal SNARE proteins reveals the role of the neurotransmitter release in expressing the opioid actions. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the alkaloid extract of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) against chronic morphine and the influences of E. cuneatum on neurotransmission processes observed in vitro. The human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was treated with the morphine, methadone, or E...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974484/buprenorphine-norbuprenorphine-r-methadone-and-s-methadone-upregulate-bcrp-abcg2-expression-by-activating-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-human-placental-trophoblasts
#8
Naveen K Neradugomma, Michael Z Liao, Qingcheng Mao
Opioid dependence during pregnancy is a rising concern. Maintaining addicted pregnant women on long-acting opioid receptor agonist is the most common strategy to manage pregnancy drug abuse. Methadone (MET) and Buprenorphine (BUP) are widely prescribed for opiate-maintenance therapy. Norbuprenorphine (NBUP) is the primary active metabolite of BUP. These medications can cross the placenta to the fetus, leading to postpartum neonatal abstinence syndrome. Despite their use during pregnancy, little is known about the cellular changes brought about by these drugs in the placenta...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959349/an-unusual-cause-of-falls-in-a-young-woman
#9
I Sleeman, L Wiblin, D Burn
Nitrous oxide is commonly used as an analgesic and anaesthetic agent. Nitrous oxide is also in use in industry as an aerosol propellant and is now recognised as a recreational drug whose use is growing, especially among the young. Nitrous oxide from whipped cream canisters is inhaled to produce a dissociative, intoxicated state. Nitrous oxide is known to inactivate vitamin B12 via oxidation, which can precipitate a demyelinating myelopathy akin to the classical B12 deficiency syndrome, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936337/alcohol-use-in-an-older-adult-referred-to-a-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service-a-case-report
#10
Adam Searby, Natalie van Swet, Phil Maude, Ian McGrath
Alcohol use disorder in older adults is associated with a number of substantial medical complications, including cognitive decline. Due to limited success and application of screening approaches in this cohort, older adults are more likely to present to general hospital settings with undiagnosed problematic alcohol use. Consultation-liaison psychiatry services operating in general hospital settings are likely to be referred older adults with alcohol use disorders for assessment and management. A 77-year-old female presented to a metropolitan hospital with symptoms including frequent falls, slurred speech, difficulty judging distance, hypersomnia, poor reasoning, and odd behaviours...
January 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#11
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888955/emotion-dysregulation-mediates-between-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-motives-for-substance-use
#12
Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin
The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and motives for opiate use. Seventy four adolescent users of Tramadol, a synthetic opiate, were recruited from a boot camp for de-addiction and rehabilitation services for the study. Data were collected between May, 2014 and November, 2014. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, difficulties regulating emotions, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884570/a-gc-ms-method-for-the-detection-and-quantitation-of-ten-major-drugs-of-abuse-in-human-hair-samples
#13
A Orfanidis, O Mastrogianni, A Koukou, G Psarros, H Gika, G Theodoridis, N Raikos
A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864947/determining-the-toxicological-significance-of-pregabalin-in-fatalities
#14
Simon P Elliott, Timothy Burke, Christopher Smith
Pregabalin has become more widely prescribed and abused in recent years but is still not always included in laboratory analysis. An LC-MS-MS method has been developed and applied to measure pregabalin in 93 postmortem cases, including drug-related deaths, alternative causes of death, and fatalities where pregabalin was likely to have contributed to death. Other drugs or alcohol was detected, and the most common drug types (in decreasing frequency) were antidepressants, opioids, benzodiazepines, opiates, alcohol, antipsychotics, cocaine, cardiac drugs, amphetamines, cannabis, anticonvulsants, and antihistamines...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863698/striatal-h3k27-acetylation-linked-to-glutamatergic-gene-dysregulation-in-human-heroin-abusers-holds-promise-as-therapeutic-target
#15
Gabor Egervari, Joseph Landry, James Callens, John F Fullard, Panos Roussos, Eva Keller, Yasmin L Hurd
BACKGROUND: Opiate abuse and overdose reached epidemic levels in the United States. However, despite significant advances in animal and in vitro models, little knowledge has been directly accrued regarding the neurobiology of the opiate-addicted human brain. METHODS: We used postmortem human brain specimens from a homogeneous European Caucasian population of heroin users for transcriptional and epigenetic profiling, as well as direct assessment of chromatin accessibility in the striatum, a brain region central to reward and emotion...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853327/the-effects-of-maternal-opium-abuse-on-fetal-heart-rate-using-non-stress-test
#16
Fatemeh Keikha, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh Vahdani, Sahar Latifi
BACKGROUND: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833235/an-unusual-case-of-baclofen-abuse
#17
Soumitra Das, Dhanya Sasidharan Palappalllil, Sumesh Thoppil Purushothaman, Varun Rajan
Baclofen was initially used for the treatment of spastic conditions. Last decade has seen its emergence as a treatment of profound interest in alcohol dependence, opiates and cocaine abuse, and tobacco addiction. However, the published literature on baclofen abuse is sparse. Here, we report a patient with baclofen abuse.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803502/effect-of-intravenous-acetaminophen-on-postoperative-opioid-consumption-in-adult-orthopedic-surgery-patients
#18
Nwamaka Nwagbologu, Preeyaporn Sarangarm, Richard D'Angio
Background: Postoperative pain is managed with opioids, which are associated with adverse effects. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen in reducing opioid consumption has been studied with inconsistent results. The primary outcome of this study was to assess the effect of IV acetaminophen on opioid consumption 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the opiate consumption at 48 hours after the operation, opioid-related side effects 72 hours after the operation, discharge disposition, and length of stay...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767406/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-substance-use-diagnoses-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-and-treatment-initiation-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-an-integrated-health-plan
#19
Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729240/transgenerational-attenuation-of-opioid-self-administration-as-a-consequence-of-adolescent-morphine-exposure
#20
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
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