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Opiate abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820934/supramolecular-sensors-for-opiates-and-their-metabolites
#1
Elena G Shcherbakova, Ben Zhang, Samer Gozem, Tsuyoshi Minami, Peter Y Zavalij, Mariia Pushina, Lyle Isaacs, Pavel Anzenbacher
The present work develops a sensing approach for opiates using acyclic cucurbituril (aCBs) sensors comprising four glycouril units terminated on both ends with naphthalene fluorophore walls. The connectivity between the glycourils and the naphthalene rings largely defines the opening size of the cucurbituril cavity and its diameter. The large hydrophobic binding cavity is flexible and is able to adapt to guests of various size and topology. The recognition event between the aCBs and guests results in modification of the fluorescence of the terminal walls, a fluorescence response that can be used to sense the drugs of abuse morphine, heroin and oxycodone as well as their metabolites...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#3
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768409/opiates-and-plasticity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#4
Ludovic D Langlois, Fereshteh S Nugent
Opioids are among the most effective pain relievers; however, their abuse has been on the rise worldwide evident from an alarming increase in accidental opioid overdoses. This demands for an urgent increase in scientific endeavors for better understanding of main cellular mechanisms and circuits involved in opiate addiction. Preclinical studies strongly suggest that memories associated with positive and negative opioid experiences are critical in promoting compulsive opiate-seeking and opiate-taking behaviors, and relapse...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752329/reward-and-punishment-based-compound-cue-learning-and-generalization-in-opiate-dependency
#5
Justin Mahlberg, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth, Kevin D Beck, Catherine E Myers, Ahmed A Moustafa
Substance dependence is thought to be mediated by abnormalities in cognitive abilities, but how this impacts decision-making remains unclear. This study aimed to test whether people who are opiate dependent differed from never-dependent controls in learning from reward and punishment or in the generalization of learning to novel conditions. Participants with opiate dependency consisted of 21 people who were outpatients in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 21 healthy participants with no histories of substance abuse...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735683/pain-management-in-penile-prosthetic-surgery-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Lael Reinstatler, Kevin Shee, Martin S Gross
INTRODUCTION: The literature on perioperative pain control and management in inflatable penile prosthesis placement is not firmly established. Because inflatable penile prosthesis placement is an elective procedure, pain can be one of the many issues that influence patient decision making. Pain control also presents a unique challenge to providers in an era of widespread opiate abuse. AIM: To review published data on pain management before, during, and after penile prosthetic surgery...
July 20, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729524/cardiac-arrest-following-drug-abuse-with-intravenous-tapentadol-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Misbahuddin Khaja, George Lominadze, Konstantin Millerman
BACKGROUND Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, with a dual mode of action, as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tapentadol is used for the management of musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman attended hospital for evaluation of an intractable headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative. She was found unresponsive in the bathroom on the day following hospital admission, and despite resuscitative measures, the patient died following cardiac arrest...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718268/oxymorphone-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-mimicking-atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#8
Amibhen Gandhi, Saad Ullah, Shani Kotadia, Samer Nasser
Atypical Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) is a rare life threatening entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and renal dysfunction. It is a thrombotic microangiopathy related to genetic mutations in the alternate complement pathway and has a distinct pathophysiology which makes it harder to distinguish from other microangiopathies. We present a case of a 25-year-old male patient with history of polysubstance abuse who presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. He admitted to using injectable oxymorphone (Opana) two weeks before presentation...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705744/the-relationship-between-ocular-trauma-and-substance-abuse-in-emergency-department-patients
#9
Sylvia L Chang, Vaama Patel, John Giltner, Richard Lee, Catherine A Marco
INTRODUCTION: Eye injury is the second most common cause of visual impairment and a leading cause of monocular blindness in the United States. There are approximately 6 million ED visits related to drug use annually, including misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals and illicit drug use. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ocular trauma and substance abuse among emergency department patients and to assess that relationship with demographic factors, including age and gender...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700791/efficacy-of-tramadol-extended-release-for-opioid-withdrawal-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Kelly E Dunn, D Andrew Tompkins, George E Bigelow, Eric C Strain
Importance: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690668/white-opioids-pharmaceutical-race-and-the-war-on-drugs-that-wasn-t
#11
Julie Netherland, Helena Hansen
The US 'War on Drugs' has had a profound role in reinforcing racial hierarchies. Although Black Americans are no more likely than Whites to use illicit drugs, they are 6-10 times more likely to be incarcerated for drug offenses. Meanwhile, a very different system for responding to the drug use of Whites has emerged. This article uses the recent history of White opioids - the synthetic opiates such as OxyContin(®) that gained notoriety starting in the 1990s in connection with epidemic prescription medication abuse among White, suburban and rural Americans and Suboxone(®) that came on the market as an addiction treatment in the 2000s - to show how American drug policy is racialized, using the lesser known lens of decriminalized White drugs...
June 2017: BioSocieties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690665/use-of-integrative-medicine-in-the-united-states-military-health-system
#12
REVIEW
Cathaleen Madsen, Megan Vaughan, Tracey Pérez Koehlmoos
Integrative medicine (IM) is a model of care which uses both conventional and nonconventional therapies in a "whole person" approach to achieve optimum mental, physical, emotional, spiritual, and environmental health, and is increasingly popular among patients and providers seeking to relieve chronic or multifactorial conditions. The US Department of Defense (DoD) shows particular interest in and usage of IM for managing chronic conditions including the signature "polytrauma triad" of chronic pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among its beneficiaries in the Military Health System (MHS)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681463/confirmation-of-recent-heroin-abuse-accepting-the-challenge
#13
REVIEW
Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (e.g. 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (e.g. 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine glucuronides). Though, the presence of most of these biomarkers cannot solely be attributed to a previous heroin administration but can, among other things, also be due to consumption of poppy seed products ('poppy seed defense'), opium preparations or specific medications, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657183/a-matter-of-life-and-death-substance-caused-and-substance-related-fatalities-in-ibiza-in-2015
#14
Rita Santacroce, Claudia Ruiz Bennasar, Juan Ramon Sancho Jaraiz, Federica Fiori, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Angelini, Gabriella Catalano, Maria Luisa Carenti, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Giovanni Martinotti
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In the framework of the EU-funded project "EU-Madness," we collected and analysed all the reports of fatalities directly or indirectly related to substances of abuse registered in Ibiza from January to September 2015, in order to analyse the characteristics of the sample, the identified substances, and the nature of deaths associated with their consumption. RESULTS: A significant increase of substance-caused deaths with respect to the previous 4 years has been highlighted...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642642/access-to-and-payment-for-office-based-buprenorphine-treatment-in-ohio
#15
Theodore V Parran, Joseph Z Muller, Elina Chernyak, Chris Adelman, Christina M Delos Reyes, Douglas Rowland, Mykola Kolganov
IMPORTANCE: Office-based opiate agonist therapy has dramatically expanded access to medication-assisted treatment over the past decade but has also led to increased buprenorphine diversion. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to characterize physicians who participate in office-based therapy (OBT) to assess patient access to OBT in Ohio 10 years after its introduction. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of Drug Addiction Treatment Act-waivered physicians in Ohio listed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640990/opiate-antagonists-do-not-interfere-with-the-clinical-benefits-of-stimulants-in-adhd-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone
#16
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate activates μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. μ-Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential. This study assessed whether the combination of naltrexone with methylphenidate is well-tolerated while preserving the clinical benefits of stimulants in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate from January 2013 to July 2015...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622135/the-case-for-implementing-the-levels-of-prevention-model-opiate-abuse-on-american-college-campuses
#17
Quri Daniels-Witt, Amy Thompson, Tavis Glassman, Sara Federman, Katie Bott
Opiate abuse in the United States is on the rise among the college student population. This public health crisis requires immediate action from professionals and stakeholders who are committed to addressing the needs of prospective, current, and recovering opiate users using comprehensive prevention methods. Such approaches have been used to deliver primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention to alcohol and other drug users but are underutilized in the case of opiate abuse among college students in the United States...
June 16, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618285/belgian-experience-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#18
Rob Bielen, Christophe Moreno, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Stefan Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre Mulkay, Thomas Vanwolleghem, Wim Verlinden, Christian Brixko, Jochen Decaestecker, Chantal De Galocsy, Filip Janssens, Mike Cool, Lode Van Overbeke, Christophe Van Steenkiste, François D'heygere, Wilfried Cools, Frederik Nevens, Geert Robaeys
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) has become a curable disease due to the development of direct acting antivirals (DAA). The WHO has set a target to eliminate HCV completely. Therefore, people who inject drugs (PWID) also need to be treated. In this study, we compared the real-life uptake and outcome of DAA treatment for HCV in PWID and non-PWID. METHODS: We performed a nation-wide, retrospective cohort study in 15 hospitals. All patients who were treated with simeprevir-sofosbuvir, daclatasvir-sofosbuvir, or ombitasvir/paritaprevir ritonavir-dasabuvir between December 2013 and November 2015 were included...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610451/cognitive-function-is-largely-intact-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients
#19
Odelia Elkana, Miriam Adelson, Glen M Doniger, Anat Sason, Einat Peles
OBJECTIVES: To confirm our previous findings of less cognitive impairments (based on cognitive screening tools) among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients who achieved take-home dose (THD) privileges. METHODS: a random sample of 65 Israeli MMT patients were studied using computerised, age and education standardised, cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, motor skills), and non-computerised phonetic and semantic verbal fluency. RESULTS: Cognitive scores were within ±1 standard deviation (SD) of average for most domains, including non-verbal IQ, attention and motor skills...
July 5, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605020/report-of-increasing-overdose-deaths-that-include-acetyl-fentanyl-in-multiple-counties-of-the-southwestern-region-of-the-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania-in-2015-2016
#20
Jessica B Dwyer, Jennifer Janssen, Todd M Luckasevic, Karl E Williams
Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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