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Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Walter Masson, Salvador De Francesca, Micaela Molinero, Daniel Siniawski, Andrés Mulassi, Frank Espinoza Morales, Melina Huerin, Martín Lobo, Graciela Molinero
Objectives: Cardiovascular risk estimated by several scores in patients with diabetes mellitus without a cardiovascular disease history and the association with carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: Cardiovascular risk was calculate using United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine, Framingham risk score for cardiovascular (FSCV) and coronary disease (FSCD), and the new score (NS) proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Terry E Robinson, Brandon J Aragona
Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Ryan P Borman, Ying Wang, Michael D Nguyen, Mallikarjunarao Ganesana, Scott T Lee, B Jill Venton
Spontaneous adenosine release events have been discovered in the brain that last only a few seconds. The identification of these adenosine events from fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) data is difficult due to the random nature of adenosine release. In this study, we develop an algorithm that automatically identifies and characterizes adenosine transient features, including event time, concentration, and duration. Automating the data analysis reduces analysis time from 10 to 18 h to about 40 min per experiment...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
C E Terrillion, D T Dao, R Cachope, M K Lobo, A C Puche, J F Cheer, T D Gould
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic-dopamine (ML-DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk...
February 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Nathan T Rodeberg, Stefan G Sandberg, Justin A Johnson, Paul E M Phillips, R Mark Wightman
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has been used for over 20 years to study rapid neurotransmission in awake and behaving animals. These experiments were first carried out with carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs) encased in borosilicate glass, which can be inserted into the brain through micromanipulators and guide cannulas. More recently, chronically implantable CFMs constructed with small diameter fused-silica have been introduced. These electrodes can be affixed in the brain with minimal tissue response, which permits longitudinal measurements of neurotransmission in single recording locations during behavior...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Carl J Meunier, James G Roberts, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for monitoring subsecond molecular fluctuations in live brain tissue. Despite increasing utilization of FSCV, efforts to improve the accuracy of quantification have been limited due to the complexity of the technique and the dynamic recording environment. It is clear that variable electrode performance renders calibration necessary for accurate quantification; however, the nature of in vivo measurements can make conventional postcalibration difficult, or even impossible...
January 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Wenwen Yi, Yuanyuan Yang, Parastoo Hashemi, Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
In this paper, we have fabricated 3D carbon nanofiber microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with highly reproducible and rich chemical surface areas for fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Carbon nanofibers are created from negative photoresist by a new process called dual O2 plasma-assisted pyrolysis. The proposed approach significantly improves film adhesion and increases surface reactivity. We showcase our sensor's compatibility with FSCV analysis by demonstrating highly sensitive and stable FSCV dopamine measurements on a prototype 4-channel array...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Pavithra Pathirathna, Thushani Siriwardhane, Shawn P McElmurry, Stephen L Morgan, Parastoo Hashemi
Speciation controls the chemical behavior of trace metals. Thus, there is great demand for rapid speciation analysis in a variety of fields. In this study, we describe the application of fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fast scan adsorption controlled voltammetry (FSCAV) to trace metal speciation analysis. We show that Cu(2+) can be detected using FSCAV in different matrices. We find that matrices with different Cu(2+) binding ability do not affect the equilibrium of Cu(2+) adsorption onto CFMs, and thus are an excellent predictor for free Cu(2+) ([Cu(2+)]free) in solution...
November 3, 2016: Analyst
Yoonbae Oh, Cheonho Park, Do Hyoung Kim, Hojin Shin, Yu Min Kang, Mark DeWaele, Jeyeon Lee, Hoon-Ki Min, Charles D Blaha, Kevin E Bennet, In Young Kim, Kendall H Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
Dopamine (DA) modulates central neuronal activity through both phasic (second to second) and tonic (minutes to hours) terminal release. Conventional fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes, has been used to measure phasic DA release in vivo by adopting a background subtraction procedure to remove background capacitive currents. However, measuring tonic changes in DA concentrations using conventional FSCV has been difficult because background capacitive currents are inherently unstable over long recording periods...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Giovanni Hernandez, Marie-Pierre Cossette, Peter Shizgal, Pierre-Paul Rompré
Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Courtney M Cameron, R Mark Wightman, Regina M Carelli
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that is difficult to treat in part because addicts relapse even after extended periods of abstinence. Given the importance of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in drug addiction, we sought to characterize cocaine abstinence induced changes in rapid DA signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 14 consecutive days, then divided into two groups. Day 1 rats (D1; n = 7) underwent 24 h of abstinence; Day 30 rats (D30; n = 7) underwent one month of abstinence...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
José A Ribeiro, Paula M V Fernandes, Carlos M Pereira, F Silva
This work describes the state of the art of electrochemical devices for the detection of an important class of neurotransmitters: the catecholamines. This class of biogenic amines includes dopamine, noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Researchers have focused on the role of catecholamine molecules within the human body because they are involved in many important biological functions and are commonly associated with several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Nathan T Rodeberg, Justin A Johnson, Elizabeth S Bucher, R Mark Wightman
The neurotransmitter dopamine is heavily implicated in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Many drugs of abuse that affect ICSS behavior target the dopaminergic system, and optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons is sufficient to support self-stimulation. However, the patterns of phasic dopamine release during ICSS remain unclear. Early ICSS studies using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) rarely observed phasic dopamine release, which led to the surprising conclusion that it is dissociated from ICSS...
November 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Pavithra Pathirathna, Thushani Siriwardhane, Stephen L Morgan, Shawn P McElmurry, Parastoo Hashemi
Metal speciation controls the behavior of aqueous metal ions. Fundamental thermodynamic parameters, such as the formation constant (Kf) of metal-ligand equilibria, provide useful speciation information. Although this information can be determined by spectroscopic techniques with high accuracy, it comes at the expense of time and cost. In this work, we studied Cu(2+) complexation with different ligands using an ultra-fast method, fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We observed a correlation between the FSCV response and the previously reported Cu(2+)-ligand equilibrium constants...
October 17, 2016: Analyst
Cheng Yang, Elefterios Trikantzopoulos, Michael D Nguyen, Christopher B Jacobs, Ying Wang, Masoud Mahjouri-Samani, Ilia N Ivanov, B Jill Venton
Carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs) exhibit rapid and selective detection of dopamine with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV); however, the sensitivity limits their application in vivo. In this study, we introduce laser treatment as a simple, reliable, and efficient approach to improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by three fold while maintaining high temporal resolution. The effect of laser treatment on the microelectrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and laser confocal microscopy...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
Poojan Pyakurel, Eve Privman Champaloux, B Jill Venton
Octopamine is an endogenous biogenic amine neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator in invertebrates and has functional analogy with norepinephrine in vertebrates. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can detect rapid changes in neurotransmitters, but FSCV has not been optimized for octopamine detection in situ. The goal of this study was to characterize octopamine release in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila larvae for the first time. A FSCV waveform was optimized so that the potential for octopamine oxidation would not be near the switching potential where interferences can occur...
August 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Luka R Srejic, Kevin M Wood, Anisa Zeqja, Parastoo Hashemi, William D Hutchison
The subcallosal cingulate (SCC) region, or its rodent homologue the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and midbrain dorsal raphe (DR) are crucial nodes of the widespread network implicated in emotional regulation. Stimulation of the SCC is being explored as a potential treatment for depression. Because modulation of the 5-HT system is the most common pharmacological means of treating depression, we sought to establish 5-HT's role in the mPFC-DR projection. Using anaesthetized mice, we recorded neuronal activity in 49 neurons of the DR before, during, and after high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the mPFC...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Thushani Siriwardhane, Audrey Sulkanen, Pavithra Pathirathna, Annette Tremonti, Shawn P McElmurry, Parastoo Hashemi
Aqueous metal behavior is strongly regulated by speciation, which in turn is highly dependent on complexation. Trace metal complexation is difficult to characterize in dynamically changing systems due to a lack of analytical methods that can rapidly report free-metal concentrations. In this paper, we perform proof-of-principle experiments that demonstrate the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for providing speciation information in real-time by characterizing dynamic Cu(II) binding. We study Cu(II) FSCV responses in 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffer and characterize the hydrodynamic aspects of our experimental setup (continuously stirred tank reactor)...
August 2, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
D C Kirkpatrick, C J McKinney, P B Manis, R M Wightman
Multi-modal recording describes the simultaneous collection of information across distinct domains. Compared to isolated measurements, such studies can more easily determine relationships between varieties of phenomena. This is useful for neurochemical investigations which examine cellular activity in response to changes in the local chemical environment. In this study, we demonstrate a method to perform simultaneous patch clamp measurements with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using optically isolated instrumentation...
August 2, 2016: Analyst
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