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Carl J Meunier, James G Roberts, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for monitoring sub-second molecular fluctuations in live brain tissue, particularly when combined with principal component regression (PCR) for data analysis. Despite increasing utilization of FSCV, efforts to advance data analysis have been limited. It is clear that variable electrode performance renders calibration necessary for accurate quantification; however, the nature of in vivo measurements can make conventional post-calibration difficult, or even impossible...
January 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Wenwen Yi, Yuanyuan Yang, Parastoo Hashemi, Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
In this paper, we have fabricated 3D carbon nanofiber microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with highly reproducible and rich chemical surface areas for fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Carbon nanofibers are created from negative photoresist by a new process called dual O2 plasma-assisted pyrolysis. The proposed approach significantly improves film adhesion and increases surface reactivity. We showcase our sensor's compatibility with FSCV analysis by demonstrating highly sensitive and stable FSCV dopamine measurements on a prototype 4-channel array...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Pavithra Pathirathna, Thushani Siriwardhane, Shawn P McElmurry, Stephen L Morgan, Parastoo Hashemi
Speciation controls the chemical behavior of trace metals. Thus, there is great demand for rapid speciation analysis in a variety of fields. In this study, we describe the application of fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fast scan adsorption controlled voltammetry (FSCAV) to trace metal speciation analysis. We show that Cu(2+) can be detected using FSCAV in different matrices. We find that matrices with different Cu(2+) binding ability do not affect the equilibrium of Cu(2+) adsorption onto CFMs, and thus are an excellent predictor for free Cu(2+) ([Cu(2+)]free) in solution...
November 3, 2016: Analyst
Yoonbae Oh, Cheonho Park, Do Hyoung Kim, Hojin Shin, Yu Min Kang, Mark DeWaele, Jeyeon Lee, Hoon-Ki Min, Charles D Blaha, Kevin E Bennet, In Young Kim, Kendall H Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
Dopamine (DA) modulates central neuronal activity through both phasic (second to second) and tonic (minutes to hours) terminal release. Conventional fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes, has been used to measure phasic DA release in vivo by adopting a background subtraction procedure to remove background capacitive currents. However, measuring tonic changes in DA concentrations using conventional FSCV has been difficult because background capacitive currents are inherently unstable over long recording periods...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Giovanni Hernandez, Marie-Pierre Cossette, Peter Shizgal, Pierre-Paul Rompré
Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Courtney M Cameron, R Mark Wightman, Regina M Carelli
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that is difficult to treat in part because addicts relapse even after extended periods of abstinence. Given the importance of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in drug addiction, we sought to characterize cocaine abstinence induced changes in rapid DA signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 14 consecutive days, then divided into two groups. Day 1 rats (D1; n = 7) underwent 24 h of abstinence; Day 30 rats (D30; n = 7) underwent one month of abstinence...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
José A Ribeiro, Paula M V Fernandes, Carlos M Pereira, F Silva
This work describes the state of the art of electrochemical devices for the detection of an important class of neurotransmitters: the catecholamines. This class of biogenic amines includes dopamine, noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Researchers have focused on the role of catecholamine molecules within the human body because they are involved in many important biological functions and are commonly associated with several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Nathan T Rodeberg, Justin A Johnson, Elizabeth S Bucher, R Mark Wightman
The neurotransmitter dopamine is heavily implicated in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Many drugs of abuse that affect ICSS behavior target the dopaminergic system, and optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons is sufficient to support self-stimulation. However, the patterns of phasic dopamine release during ICSS remain unclear. Early ICSS studies using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) rarely observed phasic dopamine release, which led to the surprising conclusion that it is dissociated from ICSS...
November 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Pavithra Pathirathna, Thushani Siriwardhane, Stephen L Morgan, Shawn P McElmurry, Parastoo Hashemi
Metal speciation controls the behavior of aqueous metal ions. Fundamental thermodynamic parameters, such as the formation constant (Kf) of metal-ligand equilibria, provide useful speciation information. Although this information can be determined by spectroscopic techniques with high accuracy, it comes at the expense of time and cost. In this work, we studied Cu(2+) complexation with different ligands using an ultra-fast method, fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We observed a correlation between the FSCV response and the previously reported Cu(2+)-ligand equilibrium constants...
October 17, 2016: Analyst
Cheng Yang, Elefterios Trikantzopoulos, Michael D Nguyen, Christopher B Jacobs, Ying Wang, Masoud Mahjouri-Samani, Ilia N Ivanov, B Jill Venton
Carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs) exhibit rapid and selective detection of dopamine with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV); however, the sensitivity limits their application in vivo. In this study, we introduce laser treatment as a simple, reliable, and efficient approach to improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by three fold while maintaining high temporal resolution. The effect of laser treatment on the microelectrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and laser confocal microscopy...
May 27, 2016: ACS Sensors
Poojan Pyakurel, Eve Privman Champaloux, B Jill Venton
Octopamine is an endogenous biogenic amine neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator in invertebrates and has functional analogy with norepinephrine in vertebrates. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can detect rapid changes in neurotransmitters, but FSCV has not been optimized for octopamine detection in situ. The goal of this study was to characterize octopamine release in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila larvae for the first time. A FSCV waveform was optimized so that the potential for octopamine oxidation would not be near the switching potential where interferences can occur...
August 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Luka R Srejic, Kevin M Wood, Anisa Zeqja, Parastoo Hashemi, William D Hutchison
The subcallosal cingulate (SCC) region, or its rodent homologue the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and midbrain dorsal raphe (DR) are crucial nodes of the widespread network implicated in emotional regulation. Stimulation of the SCC is being explored as a potential treatment for depression. Because modulation of the 5-HT system is the most common pharmacological means of treating depression, we sought to establish 5-HT's role in the mPFC-DR projection. Using anaesthetized mice, we recorded neuronal activity in 49 neurons of the DR before, during, and after high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the mPFC...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Thushani Siriwardhane, Audrey Sulkanen, Pavithra Pathirathna, Annette Tremonti, Shawn P McElmurry, Parastoo Hashemi
Aqueous metal behavior is strongly regulated by speciation, which in turn is highly dependent on complexation. Trace metal complexation is difficult to characterize in dynamically changing systems due to a lack of analytical methods that can rapidly report free-metal concentrations. In this paper, we perform proof-of-principle experiments that demonstrate the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for providing speciation information in real-time by characterizing dynamic Cu(II) binding. We study Cu(II) FSCV responses in 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffer and characterize the hydrodynamic aspects of our experimental setup (continuously stirred tank reactor)...
August 2, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
D C Kirkpatrick, C J McKinney, P B Manis, R M Wightman
Multi-modal recording describes the simultaneous collection of information across distinct domains. Compared to isolated measurements, such studies can more easily determine relationships between varieties of phenomena. This is useful for neurochemical investigations which examine cellular activity in response to changes in the local chemical environment. In this study, we demonstrate a method to perform simultaneous patch clamp measurements with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using optically isolated instrumentation...
August 2, 2016: Analyst
Sam V Kaplan, Ryan A Limbocker, Rachel C Gehringer, Jenny L Divis, Gregory L Osterhaus, Maxwell D Newby, Michael J Sofis, David P Jarmolowicz, Brooke D Newman, Tiffany A Mathews, Michael A Johnson
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, known also as "chemobrain", is a medical complication of cancer treatment that is characterized by a general decline in cognition affecting visual and verbal memory, attention, complex problem solving skills, and motor function. It is estimated that one-third of patients who undergo chemotherapy treatment will experience cognitive impairment. Alterations in the release and uptake of dopamine and serotonin, central nervous system neurotransmitters that play important roles in cognition, could potentially contribute to impaired intellectual performance in those impacted by chemobrain...
15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ken T Wakabayashi, Michael J Bruno, Caroline E Bass, Jinwoo Park
The olfactory tubercle (OT), as a component of the ventral striatum, serves as an important multisensory integration center for reward-related processes in the brain. Recent studies show that dense dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) into the OT may play an outsized role in disorders such as psychostimulant addiction and disorders of motivation, increasing recent scientific interest in this brain region. However, due to its anatomical inaccessibility, relative small size, and proximity to other dopamine-rich structures, neurochemical assessments using conventional methods cannot be readily employed...
June 21, 2016: Analyst
Dan P Covey, Kendra D Bunner, Douglas R Schuweiler, Joseph F Cheer, Paul A Garris
The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine...
June 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alexander F Hoffman, Charles E Spivak, Carl R Lupica
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using carbon fiber electrodes is widely used to rapidly monitor changes in dopamine (DA) levels in vitro and in vivo. Current analytical approaches utilize parameters such as peak oxidation current amplitude and decay times to estimate release and uptake processes, respectively. However, peak amplitude changes are often observed with uptake inhibitors, thereby confounding the interpretation of these parameters. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that a simple five-parameter, two-compartment model mathematically describes DA signals as a balance of release (r/ke) and uptake (ku), summed with adsorption (kads and kdes) of DA to the carbon electrode surface...
15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Kevin E Bennet, Jonathan R Tomshine, Hoon-Ki Min, Felicia S Manciu, Michael P Marsh, Seungleal B Paek, Megan L Settell, Evan N Nicolai, Charles D Blaha, Abbas Z Kouzani, Su-Youne Chang, Kendall H Lee
Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical technique to treat certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions, relies on pre-determined stimulation parameters in an open-loop configuration. The major advancement in DBS devices is a closed-loop system that uses neurophysiologic feedback to dynamically adjust stimulation frequency and amplitude. Stimulation-driven neurochemical release can be measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), but existing FSCV electrodes rely on carbon fiber, which degrades quickly during use and is therefore unsuitable for chronic neurochemical recording...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chia Li, Jonathan A Sugam, Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Zoe A McElligott, Nora M McCall, Alberto J Lopez, Jessica M McKlveen, Kristen E Pleil, Thomas L Kash
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a brain region involved in nociception modulation, and an important relay center for the descending nociceptive pathway through the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Given the dense expression of mu opioid receptors and the role of dopamine in pain, the recently characterized dopamine neurons in the ventral PAG (vPAG)/dorsal raphe (DR) region are a potentially critical site for the antinociceptive actions of opioids. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate synaptic modulation of the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons by mu opioid receptors and to (2) dissect the anatomy and neurochemistry of these neurons, in order to assess the downstream loci and functions of their activation...
July 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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