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Fast scan cyclic voltammetry

Ishan Gupta, Andrew M J Young
The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). This study sought to investigate the effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment on modulation of dopamine neurotransmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 5 (mGluR2 and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens shell in vitro, with the hypothesis that phencyclidine pretreatment would disrupt the mGluR-mediated modulation of dopamine release...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Yuan-Hao Chen, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathon Miller
Background: Traumatic brain injury is associated with substantial alterations in reward processing, but underlying mechanisms are controversial. Objective: A better understanding of alterations in dopamine (DA) release patterns from the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) may provide insights into posttraumatic reward pathology. Materials and Methods: The patterns of DA release with or without exposure to nicotine in brain slices with striatum and NAc, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 psi fluid percussion (FPI) or sham injury were analysis by using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Dénes Budai, Attila D Vizvári, Zsolt K Bali, Balázs Márki, Lili V Nagy, Zoltán Kónya, Dániel Madarász, Nóra Henn-Mike, Csaba Varga, István Hernádi
Optical microelectrodes (optrodes) are used in neuroscience to transmit light into the brain of a genetically modified animal to evoke and record electrical activity from light-sensitive neurons. Our novel micro-optrode solution integrates a light-transmitting 125 micrometer optical fiber and a 9 micrometer carbon monofilament to form an electrical lead element, which is contained in a borosilicate glass sheathing coaxial arrangement ending with a micrometer-sized carbon tip. This novel unit design is stiff and slender enough to be used for targeting deep brain areas, and may cause less tissue damage compared with previous models...
2018: PloS One
Premlal Balakrishna Pillai, Ashwani Kumar, Xiaoyao Song, Maria Merlyne De Souza
An electrochemical device capable of manifesting reversible charge storage at the interface of an active layer offers formidable advantages, such as low switching energy and long retention time, in realizing synaptic behavior for ultralow power neuromorphic systems. Contrary to a supercapacitor-based field-effect device that is prone to low memory retention due to fast discharge, a solid electrolyte-gated ZnO thin-film device exhibiting a battery-controlled charge storage mechanism via mobile charges at its interface with tantalum oxide is demonstrated...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gulcin Bolat, Serdar Abaci
Malathion (MLT) is an organophosphorous type pesticide and having seriously high toxicity and electrochemical platforms for rapid, simple, inexpensive and sensitive determination of pesticides is still a special concern. This paper describes a simple preparation of a composite film consisting of ionic liquid (IL), chitosan (CS) and electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on single use pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs). The microscopic and electrochemical characterization of AuNP-CS-IL/PGE was studied using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
March 4, 2018: Sensors
Young Hwi Kwon, Sunil Kumar, Joonho Bae, Yongho Seo
Reduced equivalent series resistance (ESR) is necessary, particularly at high current density, for the high performance of the supercapacitors, and interface resistance between current collector and electrode material is one of the main components of ESR. In this report, we have optimized the chemical-vapor-deposition grown graphene (CVD-G) on the current collector (nickel-foil), using reduced graphene oxide as an active electrode material, to fabricate electric double layer capacitor with reduced ESR. The CVD-G was grown at different cooling rates: 20, 40 and 100 0C/min...
February 26, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jian-Feng Liu, Robert Seaman, Justin N Siemian, Rohan Bhimani, Bernard Johnson, Yanan Zhang, Qing Zhu, Marius C Hoener, Jinwoo Park, David M Dietz, Jun-Xu Li
Nicotine addiction and abuse remains a global health issue. To date, the fundamental neurobiological mechanism of nicotine addiction remains incompletely understood. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is thought to directly modulate dopaminergic system and are thought to be a neural substrate underlying addictive-like behaviors. We aimed to investigate the role of TAAR1 in nicotine addictive-like behaviors. TAAR1 expression after nicotine treatment was evaluated by western blotting. c-Fos immunofluorescence and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry were used to examine the activation of brain regions and dopamine release, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yağmur Koskun, Aysun Şavk, Betül Şen, Fatih Şen
Glucose enzyme biosensors have been used for a variety of applications such as medical diagnosis, bioprocess engineering, beverage industry and environmental scanning etc. and there is still a growing interest in glucose sensors. For this purpose, addressed herein, as a novel glucose sensor, highly sensitive activated carbon (AC) decorated monodisperse nickel and palladium alloy nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (Ni-Pd@AC/GCE NCs) have been synthesized by in-situ reduction technique. Raman Spectroscopy (RS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used for the characterization of the prepared non-enzymatic glucose sensor...
June 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Rafael Koerich Varaschin, Guillaume Osterstock, Charles Ducrot, Sakari Leino, Marie-Josée Bourque, Marco A M Prado, Vania Ferreira Prado, Outi Salminen, Saara Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Louis-Eric Trudeau
Histamine H3 receptors are widely distributed Gi-coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
January 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Matthew R Bailey, Olivia Goldman, Estefanía P Bello, Muhammad O Chohan, Nuri Jeong, Vanessa Winiger, Eileen Chun, Elke Schipani, Abigail Kalmbach, Joseph F Cheer, Peter D Balsam, Eleanor H Simpson
The functionally selective 5HT-2C receptor ligand SB242084 can increase motivation and have rapid onset anti-depressant like effects. We sought to identify the specific behavioural effects of SB242084 treatment and elucidate the mechanism in female and male mice. Using a quantitative behavioural approach we determined that SB242084 increases the vigor and persistence of goal-directed activity across different types of physical work, particularly when work requirements are demanding. We found this influence of SB242084 on effort, rather than reward to be reflected in striatal dopamine measured during behavior...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nam Jun Kim, Yeonhee Ryu, Bong Hyo Lee, Suchan Chang, Yu Fan, Young S Gwak, Chae Ha Yang, Kyle B Bills, Scott C Steffensen, Jin Suk Koo, Eun Young Jang, Hee Young Kim
Methamphetamine (METH) increases metabolic neuronal activity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and mediates the reinforcing effect. To explore the underlying mechanism of acupuncture intervention in reducing METH-induced behaviors, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, extracellular DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcs) using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and alterations of brain temperature (an indicator of local brain metabolic activity) produced by METH administration...
January 23, 2018: Addiction Biology
Zahra Mofidi, Parviz Norouzi, Masumeh Sajadian, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
A novel, simple and inexpensive analytical technique based on flat sheet supported liquid membrane microextraction coupled with fast Fourier transform stripping cyclic voltammetry on a reduced graphene oxide carbon paste electrode was used for the extraction and online determination of diclofenac in whole blood. First, diclofenac was extracted from blood samples using a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with 1-octanol and then into an acceptor solution, subsequently it was oxidized on a carbon paste electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide nano-sheets...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Hossein Zamani, Hamid Reza Bahrami, Preeti Chalwadi, Paul A Garris, Pedram Mohseni
This paper presents a novel compressive sensing framework for recording brain dopamine levels with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode. Termed compressive FSCV (C-FSCV), this approach compressively samples the measured total current in each FSCV scan and performs basic FSCV processing steps, e.g., background current averaging and subtraction, directly with compressed measurements. The resulting background-subtracted faradaic currents, which are shown to have a block-sparse representation in the discrete cosine transform domain, are next reconstructed from their compressively sampled counterparts with the block sparse Bayesian learning algorithm...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Alex L Deal, Joanne K Konstantopoulos, Jeff L Weiner, Evgeny A Budygin
The current study aimed to explore how presynaptic dopamine (DA) function is altered following brief stress episodes and chronic ethanol self-administration and whether these neuroadaptations modify the acute effects of ethanol on DA dynamics. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to evaluate changes in DA release and uptake parameters in rat nucleus accumbens brain slices by analyzing DA transients evoked through single pulse electrical stimulation. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: ethanol-naïve or ethanol drinking (six week intermittent two-bottle choice) and stressed (mild social defeat) or nonstressed...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Samantha K Smith, Leyda Z Lugo-Morales, Christina Tang, Saahj P Gosrani, Christie A Lee, James G Roberts, Stephen W Morton, Gregory S McCarty, Saad A Khan, Leslie A Sombers
Electrochemical monitoring of non-electroactive species requires a biosensor that is stable and selective, with sensitivity to physiological concentrations of targeted analytes. We have combined glucose oxidase-modified carbon-fiber microelectrodes with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry for real-time measurements of glucose fluctuations in brain tissue. Work presented herein quantitatively compares three approaches to enzyme immobilization on the microelectrode surface - physical adsorption, hydrogel entrapment, and entrapment in electrospun nanofibers...
January 9, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Poojan Pyakurel, Mimi Shin, B Jill Venton
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of insects and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a target for neonicotinoid insecticides. Functional insect nAChRs are difficult to express in host cells, and hence difficult to study. In mammals, acetylcholine and nicotine evoke dopamine release, but the extent to which this mechanism is conserved in insects is unknown. In intact larval ventral nerve cords (VNCs), we studied dopamine evoked by acetylcholine, nicotine, or neonicotinoids...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Chang-Seuk Lee, Su Hwan Yu, Tae Hyun Kim
Here, we introduce the preparation of the hybrid nanocomposite-modified electrode consisting of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using the one-step electrochemical method, allowing for the simultaneous and individual detection of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA). RGO/AuNPs nanocomposite was formed on a glassy carbon electrode by the co-reduction of GO and Au3+ using the potentiodynamic method. The RGO/AuNPs nanocomposite-modified electrode was produced by subjecting a mixed solution of GO and Au3+ to cyclic sweeping from -1...
December 30, 2017: Nanomaterials
Rosalyn J Moran, Kenneth T Kishida, Terry Lohrenz, Ignacio Saez, Adrian W Laxton, Mark R Witcher, Stephen B Tatter, Thomas L Ellis, Paul Em Phillips, Peter Dayan, P Read Montague
The role of serotonin in human brain function remains elusive due, at least in part, to our inability to measure rapidly the local concentration of this neurotransmitter. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to infer serotonergic signaling from the striatum of fourteen brains of human patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we report these novel measurements and show that they correlate with outcomes and decisions in a sequential investment game. We find that serotonergic concentrations transiently increase as a whole following negative reward prediction errors, while reversing when counterfactual losses predominate...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Brandon M Fritz, Braulio Muñoz, Fuqin Yin, Casey Bauchle, Brady K Atwood
Understanding neuroadaptations involved in obesity is critical for developing new approaches to treatment. Diet-induced neuroadaptations within the dorsal striatum have the capacity to drive excessive food seeking and consumption. Five week old C57BL/6J mice consumed a high-fat, high-sugar 'western diet' (WD) or a control 'standard diet' (SD) for 16 weeks. Weight gain, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were measured to confirm an obese-like state. Following these 16 weeks, electrophysiological recordings were made from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) portions of dorsal striatum to evaluate diet effects on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
Allison M Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A Beeler
The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
2017: PloS One
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