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Conditioned place preference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432007/caloric-compensation-in-preschool-children-relationships-with-body-mass-and-differences-by-food-category
#1
S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427996/no-evidence-that-environmental-enrichment-during-rearing-protects-against-cocaine-behavioral-effects-but-as-an-intervention-reduces-an-already-established-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#2
E Galaj, A Shukur, M Manuszak, K Newman, R Ranaldi
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether EE introduced during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determinant. METHODS: In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#3
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426670/mice-expressing-a-hyper-sensitive-form-of-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-show-modestly-enhanced-alcohol-preference-and-consumption
#4
David J Marcus, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Maciej Gonek, Michael L Zee, Jill C Farnsworth, Randa A Amin, Mary-Jeanette Andrews, Brian J Davis, Ken Mackie, Daniel J Morgan
We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#5
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419642/nicotine-induced-molecular-alterations-are-modulated-by-gabab-receptor-activity
#6
Andres P Varani, Valeria T Pedrón, Amira J Aon, Christian Höcht, Gabriela B Acosta, Bernhard Bettler, Graciela N Balerio
It has been demonstrated that GABAB receptors modulate nicotine (NIC) reward effect; nevertheless, the mechanism implicated is not well known. In this regard, we evaluated the involvement of GABAB receptors on the behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical and molecular alterations associated with the rewarding effects induced by NIC in mice, from a pharmacological and genetic approach. NIC-induced rewarding properties (0.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously, sc) were evaluated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417320/patient-reporting-in-the-eu-analysis-of-eudravigilance-data
#7
Marin Banovac, Gianmario Candore, Jim Slattery, Francois Houÿez, David Haerry, Georgy Genov, Peter Arlett
INTRODUCTION: New pharmacovigilance legislation was adopted in the EU in 2010 and became operational in July 2012. The legislation placed an obligation on all national competent authorities (NCAs) and marketing authorisation holders (MAHs) to record and report cases of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) received from patients. OBJECTIVES: This descriptive study aims to provide insight into patient reporting for the totality of the EU by querying the EudraVigilance (EV) database for the period of 3 years before the new pharmacovigilance legislation became operational and the 3 years after as well as comparing patient reports with those from healthcare professionals (HCPs) where feasible...
April 17, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417080/applying-a-systems-approach-to-thyroid-physiology-looking-at-the-whole-with-a-mitochondrial-perspective-instead-of-judging-single-tsh-values-or-why-we-should-know-more-about-mitochondria-to-understand-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Roy Moncayo, Helga Moncayo
Classical thinking in endocrine physiology squeezes our diagnostic handling into a simple negative feedback mechanism with a controller and a controlled variable. In the case of the thyroid this is reduced to TSH and fT3 and fT4, respectively. The setting of this tight notion has no free space for any additions. In this paper we want to challenge this model of limited application by proposing a construct based on a systems approach departing from two basic considerations. In first place since the majority of cases of thyroid disease develop and appear during life it has to be considered as an acquired condition...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408331/evaluation-of-effect-of-minocycline-on-rewarding-potential-and-alcohol-relapse-in-place-preference-model-in-mice
#9
Snehalata V Gajbhiye, Raakhi K Tripathi, Bharat Salve, Anup Petare, Anirudha V Potey
INTRODUCTION: Medical management for alcohol abuse has limitations. Alcohol consumption activates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and release of nitric oxide which can be inhibited by minocycline as it readily crosses blood brain barrier and may have effect on alcohol consumption. Thus, study objective is to evaluate the effect of minocycline on rewarding property, extinction and the reinstatement phenomenon induced by alcohol in a model of conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. METHODOLOGY: To evaluate rewarding effects of alcohol, CPP procedure consisted of 4 parts, including adaptation (day 1), pre-conditioning test (day 2), conditionings with alcohol (days 3, 5, 7 and 9) or saline (days 4, 6, 8 and 10) and postconditioning test (day 11) conducted on 11 consecutive days...
April 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404688/brain-disposition-of-cis-para-methyl-4-methylaminorex-cis-4-4-dmar-and-its-potential-metabolites-after-acute-and-chronic-treatment-in-rats-correlation-with-central-behavioral-effects
#10
Jacopo Lucchetti, Claudio Marcello Marzo, Alice Passoni, Angelo Di Clemente, Federico Moro, Renzo Bagnati, Marco Gobbi, Luigi Cervo
Para-methyl-4-methylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a phenethylamine derivative with psychostimulant activity, whose abuse has been associated with several deaths and a wide range of adverse effects. We recently validated an HPLC-MS/MS method to measure the compound's concentrations in plasma, and applied it to describe the pharmacokinetic properties after single dose in rats. In this study we investigated the brain disposition and metabolism of cis-4,4'-DMAR after intraperitoneal injection, and its central behavioral effects...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401925/menthol-enhances-nicotine-reward-related-behavior-by-potentiating-nicotine-induced-changes-in-nachr-function-nachr-upregulation-and-da-neuron-excitability
#11
Brandon J Henderson, Teagan R Wall, Beverley M Henley, Charlene H Kim, Sheri McKinney, Henry A Lester
Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates nAChR number and function on midbrain DA neurons more than nicotine alone...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400844/effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-methamphetamine-induced-behavioral-changes-in-mice
#12
Tsung-Jung Ho, Chiang-Wen Lee, Zi-Yun Lu, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Ming-Horng Tsai, Ing-Kang Ho, Chieh-Liang Huang, Yao-Chang Chiang
Methamphetamine (METH) is a major drug of abuse worldwide, and no efficient therapeutic strategies for treating METH addiction are currently available. Continuous METH use can cause behavioral upregulation or psychosis. The dopaminergic pathways, particularly the neural circuitry from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have a critical role in this behavioral stage. Acupuncture has been used for treating diseases in China for more than 2000 years. According to a World Health Organization report, acupuncture can be used to treat several functional disorders, including substance abuse...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397015/influence-of-ionization-source-conditions-on-the-gas-phase-protomer-distribution-of-anilinium-and-related-cations
#13
Athula B Attygalle, Hanxue Xia, Julius Pavlov
The gas-phase-ion generation technique and specific ion-source settings of a mass spectrometer influence heavily the protonation processes of molecules and the abundance ratio of the generated protomers. Hitherto that has been attributed primarily to the nature of the solvent and the pH. By utilizing electrospray ionization and ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we demonstrate, even in the seemingly trivial case of protonated aniline, that the protomer ratio strongly depends on the source conditions. Under low in-source ion activation, nearly 100% of the N-protomer of aniline is produced, and it can be subsequently converted to the C-protomer by collisional activation effected by increasing the electrical potential difference between the entrance and exit orifices of the first vacuum region...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391207/evaluation-of-wearable-haptic-systems-for-the-fingers-in-augmented-reality-applications
#14
Maurizio Maisto, Claudio Pacchierotti, Francesco Chinello, Gionata Salvietti, Alessandro De Luca, Domenico Prattichizzo
Although Augmented Reality (AR) has been around for almost five decades, only recently we have witnessed AR systems and applications entering in our everyday life. Representative examples of this technological revolution are the smartphone games "Pok´emon GO" and "Ingress" or the Google Translate real-time sign interpretation app. Even if AR applications are already quite compelling and widespread, users are still not able to physically interact with the computer-generated reality. In this respect, wearable haptics can provide the compelling illusion of touching the superimposed virtual objects without constraining the motion or the workspace of the user...
April 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390969/environmental-enrichment-reduces-chronic-psychosocial-stress-induced-anxiety-and-ethanol-related-behaviors-in-mice
#15
Amine Bahi
Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse...
April 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389340/genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-affects-behavioural-traits-including-food-reward-and-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats
#16
Heike Vogel, Maria Kraemer, Cristina Rabasa, Kaisa Askevik, Roger A H Adan, Suzanne L Dickson
Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alters-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#17
Christopher P King, Leah Militello, Amy Hart, Celine L St Pierre, Emily Leung, Cassandra L Versaggi, Nathaniel Roberson, James Catlin, Abraham A Palmer, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knock-out rats and AdipoQ knock-out mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and knock-out (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared to wild-type rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376107/carbon-dioxide-sensing-in-an-obligate-insect-fungus-symbiosis-co2-preferences-of-leaf-cutting-ants-to-rear-their-mutualistic-fungus
#18
Daniela Römer, Martin Bollazzi, Flavio Roces
Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371737/place-preferences-associated-with-pups-or-cocaine-change-the-expression-of-d2r-v1ar-and-otr-in-the-nacc-and-mea-and-the-levels-of-plasma-avp-ot-t-and-e2-in-mandarin-vole-fathers
#19
Qianqian Fang, Jianli Wang
Drug abuse often has negative impacts on parenting behavior. The dopamine (DA), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) systems are involved in paternal behavior and drug-induced behaviors. Mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) are socially monogamous rodents with high levels of paternal behavior. The aims of this study were to examine the protein expression levels of the DA 2-type receptor (D2R), AVP receptor 1A(V1aR) and OT receptor (OTR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial amygdala (MeA) as well as the plasma hormone responses after mandarin vole fathers were conditioned with their pups or cocaine...
March 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366864/dopamine-dependent-setting-of-a-circadian-oscillator-underlying-the-memory-for-time-of-day
#20
Sean W Cain, Omar A Rawashdeh, Michael Siu, Seung Cheol Kim, Martin R Ralph
Animals learn and remember the time of day that significant conditions occur, and anticipate recurrence at 24-h intervals, even after only one exposure to the condition. On several place-conditioning tasks, animals show context avoidance or preference only near the time of day of the experience. The memory for time of day is registered by a circadian oscillator that is set at the time of the training. We show that manipulations of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission can set a time memory in place preference and avoidance tasks, indicating that time of day is part of the context that is learned...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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