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Conditioned place preference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#1
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780436/fragranced-consumer-products-effects-on-asthmatic-australians
#2
Anne Steinemann, Amanda J Wheeler, Alexander Larcombe
Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780165/a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-acumens-corticotropin-releasing-factor-circuitry-for-neuropathic-pain-increased-susceptibility-to-opioid-reward
#3
Yuanzhong Kai, Yanhua Li, Tingting Sun, Weiwei Yin, Yu Mao, Jie Li, Wen Xie, Shi Chen, Likui Wang, Juan Li, Zhi Zhang, Wenjuan Tao
Recent studies have shown that persistent pain facilitates the response to morphine reward. However, the circuit mechanism underlying this process remains ambiguous. In this study, using chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, we found that persistent neuropathic pain reduced the minimum number of morphine conditioning sessions required to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. This dose of morphine had no effect on the pain threshold. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is involved in both pain and emotion processing, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expressing neuronal activity was increased in CCI mice...
May 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#4
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770352/context-driven-salt-seeking-test-rats
#5
Stephen E Chang, Kyle S Smith
Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770212/adolescent-thc-exposure-does-not-sensitize-conditioned-place-preferences-to-subthreshold-d-amphetamine-in-male-and-female-rats
#6
Robin J Keeley, Cameron Bye, Jan Trow, Robert J McDonald
The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and  adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770121/overexpression-of-thioredoxin-1-blocks-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-through-regulating-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-and-dopamine-systems
#7
Xiang Li, Mengbing Huang, Lihua Yang, Ningning Guo, Xiaoyan Yang, Zhimin Zhang, Ming Bai, Lu Ge, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Morphine is one kind of opioid, which is currently the most effective widely utilized pain relieving pharmaceutical. Long-term administration of morphine leads to dependence and addiction. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an important redox regulating protein and works as a neurotrophic cofactor. Our previous study showed that geranylgeranylaceton, an inducer of Trx-1 protected mice from rewarding effects induced by morphine. However, whether overexpression of Trx-1 can block morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice is still unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761086/aortic-brachial-pulse-wave-velocity-ratio-a-measure-of-arterial-stiffness-gradient-not-affected-by-mean-arterial-pressure
#8
REVIEW
Catherine Fortier, Marie-Pier Desjardins, Mohsen Agharazii
Background: Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. Summary: PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure...
March 2018: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760410/motivational-changes-that-develop-in-a-mouse-model-of-inflammation-induced-depression-are-independent-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase
#9
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Diana L Christian, Aaron J Grossberg, Darlene J Estrada, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer
Despite years of research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation induces depression is still limited. As clinical data points to a strong association between depression and motivational alterations, we sought to (1) characterize the motivational changes that are associated with inflammation in mice, and (2) determine if they depend on inflammation-induced activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated or spared nerve injured (SNI) wild type (WT) and Ido1 -/- mice underwent behavioral tests of antidepressant activity (e...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757885/maximizing-your-nutrition-minute-bridging-nutritional-gaps-across-the-life-span
#10
Wendy L Wright, Kathleen M Zelman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poor diet quality has been associated with increased mortality and an increased risk of chronic disease. Given the shortfalls in the typical American diet and the prevalence of nutrition-related chronic disease among US adults, the need for nutrition education is paramount. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are well placed to provide basic nutrition counseling but often face challenges to making this a reality. In a typical office visit, the time available to discuss diet and nutrition can be as little as one minute or less...
March 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755917/sharing-is-caring-minimizing-the-disruption-with-palliative-care
#11
EDITORIAL
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Robert P Shannon, Richard J Presutti
There is an upward trend incidence of multiple chronic life-limiting conditions with a well-documented associated impact on patients and their caregivers. When patients approach the end of life, they are often faced with a challenging multidimensional burden while navigating a complex health care system. Patients and families/caregivers are faced with daily decisions, often with little or no frame of reference or medical knowledge. The "what, how, when, and where" puzzle during this challenging time can be overwhelming for patients and their families, and when clinicians do not contemplate this associated workload's impact on patients and caregivers' capacity for self-care, patients and caregivers scramble to find compensatory solutions, often putting their health care at lower priority...
March 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754750/cocaine-place-conditioning-strengthens-location-specific-hippocampal-coupling-to-the-nucleus-accumbens
#12
Lucas Sjulson, Adrien Peyrache, Andrea Cumpelik, Daniela Cassataro, György Buzsáki
Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a widely used model of addiction-related behavior whose underlying mechanisms are not understood. In this study, we used dual site silicon probe recordings in freely moving mice to examine interactions between the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens in cocaine CPP. We found that CPP was associated with recruitment of D2-positive nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons to fire in the cocaine-paired location, and this recruitment was driven predominantly by selective strengthening of coupling with hippocampal place cells that encode the cocaine-paired location...
April 28, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753117/pharmacological-inhibition-of-receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-ptprz1-modulates-behavioral-responses-to-ethanol
#13
Rosalía Fernández-Calle, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Miryam Pastor, Esther Gramage, Bruno Di Geronimo, José María Zapico, Claire Coderch, Carmen Pérez-García, Amy W Lasek, Beatriz de Pascual-Teresa, Ana Ramos, Gonzalo Herradón
Pleiotrophin (PTN) and Midkine (MK) are neurotrophic factors that are upregulated in the prefrontal cortex after alcohol administration and have been shown to reduce ethanol drinking and reward. PTN and MK are the endogenous inhibitors of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (RPTP) β/ζ (a.k.a. PTPRZ1, RPTPβ, PTPζ), suggesting a potential role for this phosphatase in the regulation of alcohol effects. To determine if RPTPβ/ζ regulates ethanol consumption, we treated mice with recently developed small-molecule inhibitors of RPTPβ/ζ (MY10, MY33-3) before testing them for binge-like drinking using the drinking in the dark protocol...
May 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748667/study-on-the-mechanism-of-platinum-ii-catalyzed-asymmetric-ring-opening-addition-of-oxabicyclic-alkenes-with-arylboronic-acids
#14
Sipeng Lin, Chao Xu, Daoling Peng, Liang Peng, Dingqiao Yang, Yuhua Long, Yu Chang, Feng Long Gu
The mechanism of an asymmetric ring-opening (ARO) addition of oxabicyclic alkenes catalyzed by a platinum(ii) catalyst was investigated by M06-2X/6-311G(d,p) using density functional theory (DFT). All the structures were optimized in the solvent model density (SMD) solvation model (solvation = the mixture of H2O/CH2Cl2 1 : 10, v/v) for consistence with experimental conditions. The overall mechanism is considered as a four-step reaction including transmetalation, carboplatinum, β-oxygen elimination, and hydrolysis...
May 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747224/balance-of-go1%C3%AE-and-go2%C3%AE-expression-regulates-motor-function-via-the-striatal-dopaminergic-system
#15
J Baron, A Bilbao, H Hörtnagl, L Birnbaumer, S Leixner, R Spanagel, G Ahnert-Hilger, I Brunk
The heterotrimeric G-protein Go with its splice variants, Go1α and Go2α, seems to be involved in the regulation of motor function but isoform specific effects are still unclear. We found that Go1α-/- knockouts performed worse on the rota-rod than Go2α-/- and wild type (WT) mice. In Go1+2α-/- mice motor function was partially recovered. Furthermore, Go1+2α-/- mice showed an increased spontaneous motor activity. Compared to wild types or Go2α-/- mice, Go1+2α-/- mice developed increased behavioural sensitization following repetitive cocaine treatment, but failed to develop conditioned place preference...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744823/incorporating-neighborhood-choice-in-a-model-of-neighborhood-effects-on-income
#16
Maarten van Ham, Sanne Boschman, Matt Vogel
Studies of neighborhood effects often attempt to identify causal effects of neighborhood characteristics on individual outcomes, such as income, education, employment, and health. However, selection looms large in this line of research, and it has been argued that estimates of neighborhood effects are biased because people nonrandomly select into neighborhoods based on their preferences, income, and the availability of alternative housing. We propose a two-step framework to disentangle selection processes in the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and earnings...
May 9, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744765/adaptation-acceptance-and-adaptive-preferences-in-health-and-capability-well-being-measurement-amongst-those-approaching-end-of-life
#17
Joanna Coast, Cara Bailey, Rosanna Orlando, Kathy Armour, Rachel Perry, Louise Jones, Philip Kinghorn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adaptive preferences occur when people subconsciously alter their views to account for the possibilities available to them. Adaptive preferences may be problematic where these views are used in resource allocation decisions because they may lead to underestimation of the true benefits of providing services. This research explored the nature and extent of both adaptation (changing to better suit the context) and adaptive preferences (altering preferences in response to restricted options) in individuals approaching the end of life (EoL)...
May 9, 2018: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741208/induction-of-labour-for-improving-birth-outcomes-for-women-at-or-beyond-term
#18
REVIEW
Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Beyond term, the risks of stillbirth or neonatal death increase. It is unclear whether a policy of labour induction can reduce these risks. This Cochrane review is an update of a review that was originally published in 2006 and subsequently updated in 2012 OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a policy of labour induction at or beyond term compared with a policy of awaiting spontaneous labour or until an indication for birth induction of labour is identified) on pregnancy outcomes for infant and mother...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741059/-effects-of-soil-water-condition-on-n-2-o-emission-and-its-sources-in-vegetable-farmland-of-north-china-plain
#19
Jun Jun Ding, Wei Zhang, Yu Zhong Li, Wei Lin, Chun Ying Xu, Qiao Zhen Li
To understand the mechanisms of agricultural N2 O emission, we investigated the N2 O emission dynamics, the N2 O isotope signatures, and the site preference value under different soil water conditions in the vegetable farmland of North China, by using the stable isotope technique and the acetylene inhibition method. The results demonstrated that N2 O emission was significantly affec-ted by the water condition, and N2 O emissions from soil with water-filled pore space (WFPS) of 70% were significantly higher than that with 50% WFPS...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740282/muscarinic-m4-receptors-on-cholinergic-and-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-have-opposing-functionality-for-positive-reinforcement-and-influence-impulsivity
#20
Anna M Klawonn, Daniel B Wilhelms, Sarah H Lindström, Anand Kumar Singh, Maarit Jaarola, Jürgen Wess, Michael Fritz, David Engblom
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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