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Conditioned place preference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#1
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#2
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898427/cocaine-withdrawal-reduces-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-ergic-transmission-and-gephyrin-expression-at-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-rats-which-shows-increased-cocaine-seeking
#3
Wenqiong Yang, Hongsheng He, Yan Pan, Falan Duan, Dan Zhao, Bo Hu, Qingzhen Zhou, Wanhong Liu
AIMS: Chronic cocaine abuse decreases the inhibitory synaptic transmission via unknown mechanisms, while pharmacologically augmenting gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission attenuates cocaine craving. Here, we propose that prolonged cocaine withdrawal downregulates GABAergic transmission and its important regulator gephyrin in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in cocaine-conditioned place-preference (CPP) rats. METHODS: CPP test, patch clamp, and Western blot analysis are engaged to test this proposal...
November 30, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888283/retrograde-conditioning-of-place-preference-and-motor-activity-with-cocaine-in-mice
#4
Ritu A Shetty, Margaret A Rutledge, Michael J Forster
RATIONALE: In order to improve understanding of the nature of drug-associated memory, the current studies addressed whether conditioned place preference (CPP) could develop under conditions in which there was a delay between presentation of context and drug exposure (i.e., retrograde or trace conditioning). OBJECTIVES: The objective was to assess development of CPP when cocaine or methamphetamine was injected simultaneously with exposure to a salient context (S+), or after delays differing in length...
November 25, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884588/colour-preference-between-adults-and-children-during-a-dental-treatment-session
#5
Magrur Kazak
BACKGROUND: It is evidently shown that colour has physical, psychological and sociological effects on human beings. There are many studies showing the effects of colours on brain activity. Colour preferences may change from childhood to adulthood and are significantly different in various age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adults and children in their preference for mouthrinses in various colours under stress condition during a dental treatment session. METHODS: 240 adults and 263 children were included in the study...
November 21, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881347/-effect-of-rhynchophylline-on-behaviors-of-methamphetamine-dependent-zebrafish-and-the-mechanism
#6
Yi-Fei Chen, Ju Peng, Miao Fang, Yi Liu, Ling-Hui Nie, Zhi-Xian Mo, Ling-Ling Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-dependent zebrafish and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Zebrafish were divided into control group, amphetamine group, low- (50 mg/kg) and high (100 mg/kg)-dose rhynchophylline groups, and ketamine (150 mg/kg) group. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced in zebrafish with methamphetamine, and the staying time in the drug box and the tracking map of the zebrafish were observed with Noldus Ethovision XT system...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872695/reduction-of-the-morphine-maintenance-by-blockade-of-the-nmda-receptors-during-extinction-period-in-conditioned-place-preference-paradigm-of-rats
#7
Ali Siahposht-Khachaki, Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast
INTRODUCTION: Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens is a component of drug-induced reward mechanism. In addition, NMDA receptors play a major role in brain reward system and activation of these receptors can change firing pattern of dopamine neurons. Blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission reduces the expression of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine. Therefore, in this study, by using an NMDA receptor antagonist, DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid sodium salt (AP5), the role of NMDA receptors on the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-CPP was investigated...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871230/effect-of-the-ifenprodil-administered-into-rostral-anterior-cingulate-cortex-on-pain-related-aversion-in-rats-with-bone-cancer-pain
#8
Hao Feng, Zhaowei Chen, Gongming Wang, Xin Zhao, Zhonghao Liu
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) administration with ifenprodil (NR2B receptor blocker) on bone cancer pain (BCP)-related aversion sentiment using the conditioned place avoidance experiments in rats. METHODS: A total of 30 male Wistar rats without place preference were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (Group C, n = 10), BCP group (Group P, n = 10) and ifenprodil group (Group Ifen, n = 10). Three microliter MADB-106 cells were inoculated into right tibia bone marrow cavity in group P and Ifen, while the same dose of normal saline in group C as a control...
November 21, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870848/genetically-blocking-the-zebrafish-pineal-clock-affects-circadian-behavior
#9
Zohar Ben-Moshe Livne, Shahar Alon, Daniela Vallone, Yared Bayleyen, Adi Tovin, Inbal Shainer, Laura G Nisembaum, Idit Aviram, Sima Smadja-Storz, Michael Fuentes, Jack Falcón, Eli Eisenberg, David C Klein, Harold A Burgess, Nicholas S Foulkes, Yoav Gothilf
The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870459/sex-differences-in-nicotine-preference
#10
REVIEW
Sakire Pogun, Gorkem Yararbas, Tanseli Nesil, Lutfiye Kanit
Smoking is the major cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and although there is a decline in overall smoking prevalence in developed countries, the decline in women is less pronounced than in men. Women become dependent faster and experience greater difficulties in quitting. Similar trends have been observed in animal models of nicotine/tobacco addiction. Individual differences in vulnerability to drug abuse are also observed in nicotine/tobacco addiction and point to the importance of sex differences. This Review, summarizes findings from three experimental approaches used to depict nicotine preference in animal models, intravenous and oral nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866960/ethanol-seeking-behavior-is-expressed-directly-through-an-extended-amygdala-to-midbrain-neural-circuit
#11
Melanie M Pina, Christopher L Cunningham
Abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals experience an enduring sensitivity to cue-induced craving and relapse to drinking. There is considerable evidence indicating that structures within the midbrain and extended amygdala are involved in this process. Individually, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) have been shown to modulate cue-induced ethanol-seeking behavior. It is hypothesized that cue-induced seeking is communicated through a direct projection from the BNST to VTA...
November 17, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862708/the-role-of-ca3-ls-vta-loop-in-the-formation-of-conditioned-place-preference-induced-by-context-associated-reward-memory-for-morphine
#12
Jin-Xiang Jiang, Huan Liu, Zhen-Zhen Huang, Yue Cui, Xue-Qin Zhang, Xiao-Long Zhang, Yu Cui, Wen-Jun Xin
Addiction-related behaviors, such as conditioned place preference (CPP), require animals to remember an association between environmental cue and drug treatment, and exposure to environmental cue is one of the key contributing factors to relapse. However, how central neural circuit participates in the formation of CPP induced by stimulus of morphine-paired environment remains unknown. In the present study, we found that reexposure to morphine-paired environment significantly increased the activity of hippocampal CA3 neurons, increased the excitability of GABAergic neurons and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 in the caudal lateral septum (LSc) and decreased the activity of GABAergic neurons and GAD65/67 expression in ventral tegmental area (VTA), leading to activation (disinhibition) of dopaminergic neurons...
November 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860052/the-postrhinal-cortex-is-not-necessary-for-landmark-control-in-rat-head-direction-cells
#13
James R Peck, Jeffery S Taube
The rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homologous to primate areas TH/TF and the human 'parahippocampal place area', has been implicated in processing visual landmark and contextual information about the environment. Head direction (HD) cells are neurons that encode allocentric head direction, independent of the animal's location or behavior, and are influenced by manipulations of visual landmarks. The present study determined whether the POR plays a role in processing environmental information within the HD circuit...
November 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845826/withdrawn-interventions-for-ear-discharge-associated-with-grommets-ventilation-tubes
#14
REVIEW
Louise Vaile, Tim Williamson, Angus Waddell, Gordon J Taylor
BACKGROUND: The insertion of grommets (also known as ventilation or tympanostomy tubes) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on children. Postoperative otorrhoea (discharge) is the most common complication with a reported incidence ranging from 10% to 50%. In the UK, many ENT surgeons treat with topical antibiotics/steroid combinations, but general practitioners, mainly through fears of ototoxicity, are unlikely to prescribe these and choose systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics...
November 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845187/basolateral-amygdalar-d2-receptor-activation-is-required-for-the-companions-exerted-suppressive-effect-on-the-cocaine-conditioning
#15
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chian-Fang G Cherng, Lung Yu, Ching-Yi Wang
The presence of companions renders decreases in cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) magnitude. Limbic systems are widely believed to underlie the modulation of accumbal dopamine release and cocaine conditioning. Thus, this study aimed to assess whether intact basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), dorsal hippocampus (DH), and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP...
November 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830371/discrimination-between-lineage-specific-shelters-by-bat-and-human-associated-bed-bugs-does-not-constitute-a-stable-reproductive-barrier
#16
Ondřej Balvín, Tomáš Bartonička, Kateřina Pilařová, Zachary DeVries, Coby Schal
The common bed bug Cimex lectularius, has been recently shown to constitute two host races, which are likely in the course of incipient speciation. The human-associated lineage splits from the ancestral bat-associated species deep in the history of modern humans, likely even prior to the Neolithic Period and establishment of the first permanent human settlements. Hybridization experiments between these two lineages show that post-mating reproductive barriers are incomplete due to local variation. As mating takes place in off-host refugia marked by aggregation semiochemicals, the present investigation tested the hypothesis that bed bugs use these semiochemicals to differentiate between refugia marked by bat- and human-associated bed bugs; this would constitute a pre-copulation isolation mechanism...
November 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829374/the-role-of-prezygotic-isolation-mechanisms-in-the-divergence-of-two-parasite-species
#17
Tina Henrich, Martin Kalbe
BACKGROUND: The formation of reproductive barriers in diverging lineages is a prerequisite to complete speciation according to the biological species concept. In parasites with complex life cycles, speciation may be driven by adaptation to different intermediate hosts, yet diverging lineages can still share the same definitive host where reproduction takes place. In these cases, prezygotic isolation mechanisms should evolve very early and be particularly strong, preventing costly unfavourable matings...
November 9, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826280/is-mixed-practice-more-effective-than-physical-practice-alone-for-the-acquisition-of-non-dominant-side-kicking-performance
#18
Kylie A Steel, Eathan Ellem
Perceiving and executing unfamiliar movements, such as left handed/footed movement skills in sports, places additional demands on the perceptual-cognitive system of players that may increase errors. The video self-modeling (VSM) method may provide an accessible solution to this issue, therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the VSM method on the improvement of a non-preferred side kicking task. N = 28 participants engaged in one of three conditions; Mirror reversed/ physical practice (PP), best-of/ PP, or physical practice only...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819207/autecology-feeding-preferences-and-reproductive-biology-of-chorthippus-glyptobothrus-vagans-eversmann-1848-orthoptera-gomphocerinae-in-mediterranean-ecosystems
#19
A M Cárdenas, P Gallardo, L Moyano, J J Presa
Chorthippus vagans is a common species of Gomphocerinae (Orthoptera) on the Iberian Peninsula. It is endangered in Central Europe where information about its ecological requirements is available; however, aspects of its biology are almost unknown in Mediterranean ecosystems, where it is widespread and common. The focus of this study was to determine how C. vagans adjusts its biology to environmental features of this ecosystem and to interpret how it may be affected by the ecological changes related to the re-vegetation programme linked to the construction of the Breña dam (SW Spain)...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799081/do-rats-have-orgasms
#20
James G Pfaus, Tina Scardochio, Mayte Parada, Christine Gerson, Gonzalo R Quintana, Genaro A Coria-Avila
BACKGROUND: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. METHOD: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
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