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Track and trigger

Bruno Branco Castro, Carlos Silva, Inês Patrunilho Efe Macário, Bruno Oliveira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana Luísa Pereira
Bivalves are commonly used in biomonitoring programs to track pollutants. Several features, including its filter-feeding abilities, cumulatively argue in favour of the use of the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) as a biosentinel and an ecotoxicological model. Filtration in bivalves is very sensitive to external stimuli and its control is dictated by regulation of the opening/closure of the valves, which may be used as an avoidance defence against contaminants. Here, we investigate the filter-feeding behaviour of the Asian clam as an endpoint for assessing exposure to pollutants, driven by two complementary goals: (i) to generate relevant and sensitive toxicological information based on the ability of C...
January 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Freya Davies, Fiona Wood, Alison Bullock, Carolyn Wallace, Adrian Edwards
CONTEXT: Accompanying the growing expectation of patient self-management is the need to ensure health care professionals (HCPs) have the required attitudes and skills to provide effective self-management support (SMS). Results from existing training interventions for HCPs in SMS have been mixed and the evidence base is weaker for certain settings, including supporting people with progressive neurological conditions (PNCs). We set out to understand how training operates, and to identify barriers and facilitators to training designed to support shifts in attitudes amongst HCPs...
January 4, 2018: Medical Education
H Paramesh
Air pollution, global warming and climate change are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic rhinitis and they will be the defining issues for health system in the twenty-first century. Asthma is an early onset non-communicable environmental disease with global epidemic and contributes a greatest psycho socio economic burden. Nearly 8 million global deaths are from air pollution. Over one billion population are the sufferers during 2015 and will increase to 4 billion by 2050...
January 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
John R Reimer, Chin H Wu, Kirsti K Sorsa
A Water Exclosure Treatment System (WETS) is developed and installed to minimize the occurrence of beach closures due to algae and Escherchia coli (E. coli) in an inland lake. WETS consists of an "exclosure" sub-system with a five-sided polypropylene, barrier that excludes offshore lake contaminated water from the swimming area. Inside the exclosure, water is pumped to a portable filtration-ultraviolet treatment sub-system with three components. First, heavy debris like aquatic plants are removed through a strainer...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Caroline Fouet, Peter Atkinson, Colince Kamdem
One of the most common strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases relies on the use of chemical pesticides to repel or kill the mosquito vector. Pesticide exposure interferes with several key biological functions in the mosquito and triggers a variety of adaptive responses whose underlying mechanisms are only partially elucidated. The availability of reference genome sequences opens up the possibility of tracking signatures of evolutionary changes, including the most recent, across the genomes of many vector species...
November 29, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
Michael F Bolus, Adam A Willats, Clarissa J Whitmire, Christopher J Rozell, Garrett B Stanley
Controlling neural activity enables the possibility of manipulating sensory perception, cognitive processes, and body movement, in addition to providing a powerful framework for functionally disentangling the neural circuits that underlie these complex phenomena. Over the last decade, optogenetic stimulation has become an increasingly important and powerful tool for understanding neural circuit function, owing to the ability to target specific cell types and bidirectionally modulate neural activity. To date, most stimulation has been provided in open-loop or in an on/off closed-loop fashion, where previously-determined stimulation is triggered by an event...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Lunara Teles Silva, Ana Carolina Figueiredo Modesto, Renato Rocha Martins, Gabriela Guimarães Bessa, Flavio Marques Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of translation, adaptation, and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Pediatric Trigger Toolkit: Measuring Adverse Drug Events in the Children's Hospital. METHODS: The validation process for the research instrument was carried out in five steps: (I) translation from English into Brazilian Portuguese by two independent translators; (II) synthesis of the translated versions; (III) adaptation of the triggers to the Brazilian context using a modified Delphi method carried out in two rounds; (IV) application of the research instrument in the review of 240 hospitalizations during 2014; and (V) back-translation from Brazilian Portuguese to English...
December 29, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
M Giulbudagian, G Yealland, S Hönzke, A Edlich, B Geisendörfer, B Kleuser, S Hedtrich, M Calderón
Topical administration permits targeted, sustained delivery of therapeutics to human skin. Delivery to the skin, however, is typically limited to lipophilic molecules with molecular weight of < 500 Da, capable of crossing the stratum corneum. Nevertheless, there are indications protein delivery may be possible in barrier deficient skin, a condition found in several inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, using novel nanocarrier systems. METHODS: Water in water thermo-nanoprecipitation; dynamic light scattering; zeta potential measurement; nanoparticle tracking analysis; atomic force microscopy; cryogenic transmission electron microscopy; UV absorption; centrifugal separation membranes; bicinchoninic acid assay; circular dichroism; TNFα binding ELISA; inflammatory skin equivalent construction; human skin biopsies; immunohistochemistry; fluorescence microscopy; western blot; monocyte derived Langerhans cells; ELISA Results: Here, we report the novel synthesis of thermoresponsive nanogels (tNG) and the stable encapsulation of the anti-TNFα fusion protein etanercept (ETR) (~150 kDa) without alteration to its structure, as well as temperature triggered release from the tNGs...
2018: Theranostics
Yann Gambin, Nichole Giles, Ailís O'Carroll, Mark Polinkovsky, Dominic Hunter, Emma Sierecki
Single-molecule fluorescence has the unique ability to quantify small oligomers and track conformational changes at a single protein level. Here we tackled one of the most extreme protein behaviour, found recently in an inflammation pathway. Upon danger recognition in the cytosol, NLRP3 recruits its signalling adaptor, ASC. ASC start polymerising in a prion-like manner and the system goes in "overdrive" by producing a single micron-sized "speck". By precisely controlling protein expression levels in an in vitro translation system, we could trigger the polymerization of ASC and mimic formation of specks in the absence of inflammasome nucleators...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
J F McEvoy, R F H Ribot, J C Wingfield, A T D Bennett
Understanding of avian nocturnal flight comes mainly from northern hemisphere species in seasonal temperate ecosystems where nocturnal flight is often precisely timed and entrained by annual photoperiod. Here we investigate patterns of nocturnal flight in waterbirds of Australian desert ecosystems that fly considerable distances to find temporary water bodies formed from rainfall which is highly unpredictable seasonally and spatially, and when there is sufficient water, they then breed. How they perform these feats of navigation and physiology remain poorly known...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arun Anandanarayanan, Opinder Krishen Raina, Hniang Lalrinkima, Ajayta Rialch, Muthu Sankar, Anju Varghese
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica is a neglected tropical disease but a constraint on the growth and productivity of cattle, buffaloes and sheep in the tropical countries of Asia and Africa. Resistance to commonly used anthelmintics in Fasciola has increased the need to search for alternative therapeutic targets. RNA interference is the current tool of choice in the search for such targets in Fasciola. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds) RNA induced RNAi has been established but in F...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ulrich S Schubert, Christoph Englert, Ivo Nischang, Cornelia Bader, Philipp Borchers, Julien Alex, Michael Proehl, Martin Hentschel, Matthias Hartlieb, Anja Traeger, Georg Pohnert, Stephanie Schubert, Michael Gottschaldt
A benzoin-derived diol linker was synthesized and used to create biocompatible polyesters, which can be fully decomposed on demand triggered by UV light. Extensive structural optimization of the linker unit was performed to enable a defined encapsulation of structurally diverse organic compounds in polymeric structures and a well-controllable polymer cleavage process. Selective tracking of release kinetics of encapsulated model compounds from the polymeric nano- and microparticle containers was enabled by confocal laser scanning microscopy as a proof-of-principle for desired applications...
December 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Uwe Hamsen, Thomas A Schildhauer, Christian Waydhas
Medical emergency teams (MET) were implemented in many hospitals worldwide in order to identify patients at risk on normal wards and to initiate diagnostics and therapy without delay. Ideally, the implementation leads to prevention of cardiac arrests and unexpected deaths on normal wards, reduced rates of admissions to intensive care units and hospital mortality. Various track and trigger systems are available to identify such patients and for them to be assessed and treated within 30-45 min by the MET. The ideal personnel composition of METs has not yet been established...
December 6, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
Francesca Wuytack, Pauline Meskell, Aislinn Conway, Fiona McDaid, Nancy Santesso, Fergal G Hickey, Paddy Gillespie, Adam J N Raymakers, Valerie Smith, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Changes to physiological parameters precede deterioration of ill patients. Early warning and track and trigger systems (TTS) use routine physiological measurements with pre-specified thresholds to identify deteriorating patients and trigger appropriate and timely escalation of care. Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) are undiagnosed, undifferentiated and of varying acuity, yet the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using early warning systems and TTS in this setting is unclear...
December 6, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
Govindan Ravikumar, Meisam Bagheri, Deepak Kumar Saini, Harinath Chakrapani
Thera/NO - a small molecule that is activated by hydrogen peroxide to generate nitric oxide (NO) and a fluorescence signal is reported. Using cancer and primary cells, we show that Thera/NO preferentially releases NO in cancer cells, which can trigger DNA damage and cell death in them. The coupled fluorescence signal facilitated tracking the NO release in living cells without collateral consumption of NO.
December 1, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
John Asger Petersen, Lars S Rasmussen, Susan Rydahl-Hansen
BACKGROUND: The early warning score (EWS) was developed to identify deteriorating patients early. It is a track-and-trigger system based on vital signs designed to direct appropriate clinical responses based on the seriousness and nature of the underlying condition. Despite its wide dissemination, serious adverse events still occur, often due to failure among staff on general wards to follow the EWS protocol. The purpose of the study was to determine barriers and facilitating factors related to three aspects of the EWS protocol: 1) adherence to monitoring frequency, 2) call for junior doctors to patients with an elevated EWS, and 3) call for the medical emergency team...
December 1, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
Sudheer K Tungtur, Natsuko Nishimune, Jeff Radel, Hiroshi Nishimune
Analysis of mouse behavior often requires expensive equipment and transfer of the mice to new test environments, which could trigger confounding behavior alterations. Here, we describe a system for tracking mouse behavior in home cages using a low-cost USB webcam and free software (Fiji and wrMTrck). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by tracking differences in distance traveled, speed, and movement tracks between wild-type mice and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model mice (SOD1G93A).
November 1, 2017: BioTechniques
Duncan Smith, Tracey Bowden
Patients who deteriorate without recognition or timely interventions are at risk of critical care admission and increased morbidity or mortality. This article outlines the systematic ABCDE (airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure) approach to patient assessment, which enables healthcare practitioners to identify and respond to life-threatening conditions in order of priority. The patient's vital signs should be measured as part of the ABCDE assessment and recorded using a track and trigger tool to enhance recognition of physiological abnormalities that signal deterioration...
November 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
Fergal Connolly, Dara Byrne, Sinéad Lydon, Chloe Walsh, Paul O'Connor
Purpose: To identify the barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of physiological track and trigger systems (PTTSs), perceived by healthcare workers, through a systematic review of the extant qualitative literature. Data sources: Searches were performed in PUBMED, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The reference lists of included studies were also screened. Study selection: The electronic searches yielded 2727 papers...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Andre Dias, Emiliana Franco, Manolo Rubio, Vikas Bhalla, Gregg S Pressman, Sarah Amanullah, Kathy Hebert, Vincent M Figueredo
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is peculiar clinical condition often resembling an acute coronary syndrome and mostly affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. TTS was initially thought to be a relatively benign condition. However, current data have shown it may be associated with considerable inpatient morbidity and carry a small, but important, mortality risk. METHODS: We hypothesized that left ventricular (LV) regional and global longitudinal strain (GLS) assessed with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography could identify early systolic functional impairment and predict in-hospital cardiovascular events...
November 24, 2017: Echocardiography
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