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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773527/acceptability-and-feasibility-of-real-time-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-interventions-in-rural-uganda-mixed-method-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Angella Musiimenta, Esther C Atukunda, Wilson Tumuhimbise, Emily E Pisarski, Melanie Tam, Monique A Wyatt, Norma C Ware, Jessica E Haberer
BACKGROUND: Wireless electronic adherence monitors can detect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence lapses and trigger interventions in real time, thus potentially avoiding unnecessary HIV viremia. Evidence about the acceptability and feasibility of these monitors and associated interventions, however, is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of real-time adherence monitoring linked to text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders and notifications to support adherence among individuals living with HIV who are taking ART in rural southwestern Uganda...
May 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772166/pixel-counting-of-fluorescence-spots-triggered-by-dna-walkers-for-ultrasensitive-quantification-of-nucleic-acid
#2
Longyi Zhu, Qihui Liu, Bangyu Yang, Huangxian Ju, Jianping Lei
A pixel counting strategy is designed based on DNA walker-triggered fluorescence spots for ultrasensitive detection of nucleic acid. The two-dimensional DNA walker was constructed by hybridization of the dye-labeled hairpin structure (hDNA) as track and swing strand (sDNA) as DNAzyme with two types of capture DNAs covalently modified by click chemistry on glass slide. Introduction of target DNA unlocked the sDNA via strand displacement to form the activated DNAzyme, and the latter cut nearby hDNA with Mn2+ as cofactor, resulting in fluorescence recovery of dye-labeled hDNA on the substrate due to the separation from the quencher...
May 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#3
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766138/risk-stratification-tools-in-emergency-general-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Joaquim Michael Havens, Alexandra B Columbus, Anupamaa J Seshadri, Carlos V R Brown, Gail T Tominaga, Nathan T Mowery, Marie Crandall
The use of risk stratification tools (RST) aids in clinical triage, decision making and quality assessment in a wide variety of medical fields. Although emergency general surgery (EGS) is characterized by a comorbid, physiologically acute patient population with disparately high rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality, few RST have been explicitly examined in this setting. We examined the available RST with the intent of identifying a tool that comprehensively reflects an EGS patients perioperative risk for death or complication...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764611/regenerative-braking-failures-in-battery-electric-vehicles-and-their-impact-on-the-driver
#5
Peter Cocron, Isabel Neumann, Maria Kreußlein, Daniel Wanner, Maxim Bierbach, Josef F Krems
A unique feature of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is their regenerative braking system (RBS) to recapture kinetic energy in deceleration maneuvers. If such a system is triggered via gas pedal, most deceleration maneuvers can be executed by just using this pedal. This impacts the driving task as different deceleration strategies can be applied. Previous research has indicated that a RBS failure leading to a sudden reduced deceleration represents an adverse event for BEV drivers. In the present study, we investigated such a failure's impact on the driver's evaluation and behavior...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761772/-track-and-trigger-systems-in-denmark-small-country-great-variations
#6
Mads Lønnee, Ramin Brandt Bukan, Tina Waldau, Ann Merete Møller, Katrine Brandt Bukan
A track and trigger (TAT) system and mobile emergency team (MET) can aid observation and care for admitted patients in the hospital ward. We have examined the literature and find evidence, though not strong, that the introduction of TAT and MET systems reduce hospital mortality. However, in Denmark, many different TAT systems are used, and several hospitals do not have MET. We believe, that a standardised national TAT system could encourage interregional research and the investigation of system compliance, cost-benefit and impact on intensive care unit admissions...
May 7, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754954/the-polycomb-dependent-epigenome-controls-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-dedifferentiation-and-diabetes
#7
Tess Tsai-Hsiu Lu, Steffen Heyne, Erez Dror, Eduard Casas, Laura Leonhardt, Thorina Boenke, Chih-Hsiang Yang, Sagar, Laura Arrigoni, Kevin Dalgaard, Raffaele Teperino, Lennart Enders, Madhan Selvaraj, Marius Ruf, Sunil J Raja, Huafeng Xie, Ulrike Boenisch, Stuart H Orkin, Francis C Lynn, Brad G Hoffman, Dominic Grün, Tanya Vavouri, Adelheid M Lempradl, J Andrew Pospisilik
To date, it remains largely unclear to what extent chromatin machinery contributes to the susceptibility and progression of complex diseases. Here, we combine deep epigenome mapping with single-cell transcriptomics to mine for evidence of chromatin dysregulation in type 2 diabetes. We find two chromatin-state signatures that track β cell dysfunction in mice and humans: ectopic activation of bivalent Polycomb-silenced domains and loss of expression at an epigenomically unique class of lineage-defining genes...
May 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751658/electrochemically-triggered-co-conformational-switching-in-a-2-catenane-comprising-a-non-symmetric-calix-6-arene-wheel-and-a-two-station-oriented-macrocycle
#8
Valeria Zanichelli, Luca Dallacasagrande, Arturo Arduini, Andrea Secchi, Giulio Ragazzon, Serena Silvi, Alberto Credi
Catenanes with desymmetrized ring components can undergo co-conformational rearrangements upon external stimulation and can form the basis for the development of molecular rotary motors. We describe the design, synthesis and properties of a [2]catenane consisting of a macrocycle-the 'track' ring-endowed with two distinct recognition sites (a bipyridinium and an ammonium) for a calix[6]arene-the 'shuttle' ring. By exploiting the ability of the calixarene to thread appropriate non-symmetric axles with directional selectivity, we assembled an oriented pseudorotaxane and converted it into the corresponding oriented catenane by intramolecular ring closing metathesis...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742584/predictive-validity-of-sepsis-3-definitions-and-sepsis-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients-a-cohort-study-in-49-icus-in-argentina
#9
Elisa Estenssoro, Vanina S Kanoore Edul, Cecilia I Loudet, Javier Osatnik, Fernando G Ríos, Daniela N Vázquez, Mario O Pozo, Bernardo Lattanzio, Fernando Pálizas, Francisco Klein, Damián Piezny, Paolo N Rubatto Birri, Graciela Tuhay, Anatilde Díaz, Analía Santamaría, Graciela Zakalik, Arnaldo Dubin
OBJECTIVES: The new Sepsis-3 definitions have been scarcely assessed in low- and middle-income countries; besides, regional information of sepsis outcomes is sparse. Our objective was to evaluate Sepsis-3 definition performance in Argentina. DESIGN: Cohort study of 3-month duration beginning on July 1, 2016. SETTINGS: Forty-nine ICUs. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with suspected infection that triggered blood cultures and antibiotic administration...
May 8, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741115/the-role-of-biomaterials-in-implantation-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#10
Yu-Shuan Chen, Horng-Jyh Harn, Tzyy-Wen Chiou
Permanent deficits that occur in memory, sensation, and cognition can result from central nervous system (CNS) trauma that causes dysfunction and/or unregulated CNS regeneration. Some therapeutic approaches are preferentially applied to the human body. Therefore, cell transplantation, one of the therapeutic strategies, may be used to benefit people. However, poor cell viability and low efficacy are the limitations to cell transplantation strategies. Biomaterials have been widely used in several fields (e.g...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734344/performance-of-a-wearable-acoustic-system-for-fetal-movement-discrimination
#11
Jonathan Lai, Richard Woodward, Yuriy Alexandrov, Qurratul Ain Munnee, Christoph C Lees, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Niamh C Nowlan
Fetal movements (FM) are a key factor in clinical management of high-risk pregnancies such as fetal growth restriction. While maternal perception of reduced FM can trigger self-referral to obstetric services, maternal sensation is highly subjective. Objective, reliable monitoring of fetal movement patterns outside clinical environs is not currently possible. A wearable and non-transmitting system capable of sensing fetal movements over extended periods of time would be extremely valuable, not only for monitoring individual fetal health, but also for establishing normal levels of movement in the population at large...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733199/nanosystems-based-on-magnetic-nanoparticles-and-thermo-or-ph-responsive-polymers-an-update-and-future-perspectives
#12
Binh T Mai, Soraia Fernandes, Preethi B Balakrishnan, Teresa Pellegrino
Combining hard matter, like inorganic nanocrystals, and soft materials, like polymers, can generate multipurpose materials with a broader range of applications with respect to the individual building blocks. Given their unique properties at the nanoscale, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have drawn a great deal of interest due to their potential use in the biomedical field, targeting several applications such as heat hubs in magnetic hyperthermia (MHT, a heat-damage based therapy), contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery...
May 7, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729975/event-triggered-decentralized-adaptive-fault-tolerant-control-of-uncertain-interconnected-nonlinear-systems-with-actuator-failures
#13
Yun Ho Choi, Sung Jin Yoo
This paper investigates the event-triggered decentralized adaptive tracking problem of a class of uncertain interconnected nonlinear systems with unexpected actuator failures. It is assumed that local control signals are transmitted to local actuators with time-varying faults whenever predefined conditions for triggering events are satisfied. Compared with the existing control-input-based event-triggering strategy for adaptive control of uncertain nonlinear systems, the aim of this paper is to propose a tracking-error-based event-triggering strategy in the decentralized adaptive fault-tolerant tracking framework...
May 2, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723616/image-guided-thermosensitive-liposomes-for-focused-ultrasound-drug-delivery-using-nirf-labelled-lipids-and-topotecan-to-visualise-the-effects-of-hyperthermia-in-tumours
#14
Miguel N Centelles, Michael Wright, Po-Wah So, Maral Amrahli, Xiao Yun Xu, Justin Stebbing, Andrew D Miller, Wladyslaw Gedroyc, Maya Thanou
Image guided drug delivery using imageable thermosensitive liposomes (iTSLs) and high intensity focused ultrasound (FUS or HIFU) has attracted interest as a novel and non-invasive route to targeted delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics. FUS-induced hyperthermia is used as an externally applied "trigger" for the release of a drug cargo from within thermosensitive drug carriers. It is suggested that sub-ablative hyperthermia significantly modifies the permeability of tumour vasculature and enhances nanoparticle uptake...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713588/three-parallel-information-systems-for-malaria-elimination-in-swaziland-2010-2015-are-the-numbers-the-same
#15
Z Zulu, S Kunene, N Mkhonta, P Owiti, W Sikhondze, M Mhlanga, Z Simelane, E Geoffroy, R Zachariah
Background: To be able to eliminate malaria, accurate, timely reporting and tracking of all confirmed malaria cases is crucial. Swaziland, a country in the process of eliminating malaria, has three parallel health information systems. Design: This was a cross-sectional study using country-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Methods: The Malaria Surveillance Database System (MSDS) is a comprehensive malaria database, the Immediate Disease Notification System (IDNS) is meant to provide early warning and trigger case investigations to prevent onward malaria transmission and potential epidemics, and the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) reports on all morbidity at health facility level...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710833/social-sentiment-sensor-in-twitter-for-predicting-cyber-attacks-using-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-regularization
#16
Aldo Hernandez-Suarez, Gabriel Sanchez-Perez, Karina Toscano-Medina, Victor Martinez-Hernandez, Hector Perez-Meana, Jesus Olivares-Mercado, Victor Sanchez
In recent years, online social media information has been the subject of study in several data science fields due to its impact on users as a communication and expression channel. Data gathered from online platforms such as Twitter has the potential to facilitate research over social phenomena based on sentiment analysis, which usually employs Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning techniques to interpret sentimental tendencies related to users’ opinions and make predictions about real events...
April 29, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709179/probing-cytochrome-c-folding-transitions-upon-photo-triggered-environmental-perturbations-using-time-resolved-x-ray-scattering
#17
Dolev Rimmerman, Denis Leshchev, Darren J Hsu, Jiyun Hong, Baxter Abraham, Robert W Henning, Irina Kosheleva, Lin X Chen
Direct tracking of protein structural dynamics during folding-unfolding processes is important for understanding roles of hierarchic structural factors in the formation of functional proteins. Using cytochrome c as a platform, we investigated its structural dynamics during folding processes triggered by local environmental changes (i.e., pH, or heme iron center oxidation/spin/ligation states) with time-resolved x-ray solution scattering measurements. Starting from partially unfolded cyt c, a sudden pH drop initiated by light excitation of a photoacid caused a structural contraction in microseconds, followed by active site restructuring and unfolding in milliseconds...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708719/targetable-mesoporous-silica-nanoprobes-for-mapping-the-subcellular-distribution-of-h2se-in-cancer-cells
#18
Bo Hu, Ranran Cheng, Xiaonan Gao, Xiaohong Pan, Fanpeng Kong, Xiaojun Liu, Kehua Xu, Bo Tang
Hydrogen selenide (H2Se), as a highly-active reductant, is believed as a key molecule in the cytotoxicity of inorganic selenium compounds. However, the detail mechanism has hardly been studied, since the distribution of H2Se in the subcellular organelles remains unclear. Herein, we exploited a series of novel targetable mesoporous silica nanoplatforms to map the distribution of H2Se in cytoplasm, lysosome and mitochondria of cancer cells. The subcellular targeting moiety conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were assembled with a small-molecule fluorescent probe (NIR-H2Se) for imaging endogenous H2Se in the corresponding organelles...
April 30, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703852/evaluation-of-the-feasibility-and-performance-of-early-warning-scores-to-identify-patients-at-risk-of-adverse-outcomes-in-a-low-middle-income-country-setting
#19
Abi Beane, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Nirodha De Silva, Jayasingha A Sujeewa, R M Dhanapala Rathnayake, P Chathurani Sigera, Priyantha Lakmini Athapattu, Palitha G Mahipala, Aasiyah Rashan, Sithum Bandara Munasinghe, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Arjen M Dondorp, Rashan Haniffa
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the availability of core parameters for Early Warning Scores (EWS), evaluates the ability of selected EWS to identify patients at risk of death or other adverse outcome and describes the burden of triggering that front-line staff would experience if implemented. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. SETTING: District General Hospital Monaragala. PARTICIPANTS: All adult (age >17 years) admitted patients...
April 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700420/exposure-to-toxic-metals-triggers-unique-responses-from-the-rat-gut-microbiota
#20
Joshua B Richardson, Blair C R Dancy, Cassandra L Horton, Young S Lee, Michael S Madejczyk, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Gail Ackermann, Gregory Humphrey, Gustavo Palacios, Rob Knight, John A Lewis
Our understanding of the interaction between the gut microbiota and host health has recently improved dramatically. However, the effects of toxic metal exposure on the gut microbiota remain poorly characterized. As this microbiota creates a critical interface between the external environment and the host's cells, it may play an important role in host outcomes during exposure. We therefore used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing to track changes in the gut microbiota composition of rats exposed to heavy metals...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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