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Track and trigger

Marija D Ivanovic, Jovana Petrovic, Andrej Savic, Goran Gligoric, Marjan Miletic, Miodrag Vukcevic, Bosko Bojovic, Ljupco Hadzievski, Tom D P Allsop, David J Webb
The ventilators involved in non-invasive mechanical ventilation commonly provide ventilator support via a facemask. The interface of the mask with a patient promotes air leaks that cause errors in the feedback information provided by a pneumatic sensor and hence patient-ventilator asynchrony with multiple negative consequences. Our objective is to test the possibility of using chest-wall motion measured by an optical fibre-grating sensor as a more accurate non-invasive ventilator triggering mechanism.
 Approach: The basic premise of our approach is that the measurement accuracy can be improved by using a triggering signal that precedes pneumatic triggering in the neuro-ventilatory coupling sequence...
March 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Huijuan Guo, Xueting Jia, Lu Liu, Xia Cao, Ning Wang, Zhong Lin Wang
Recent development of interactive motion-tracking and positioning technologies is attracting increased interests in the many areas, such as wearable electronics, intelligent electronic and internet of things. For example, the so-called somatosensory technology can afford users strong empathy of immersion and realism due to their consistent interaction with the game. Here, we report a noncontact self-powered positioning and motion-tracking system based on freestanding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The TENG was fabricated by nano-engineered surface in the contact-separation mode with the use of a free moving human body (hands or foot) as the trigger...
March 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Aleksandra S Chikina, Antonina Y Alexandrova
During the last few years, significant attention has been given to the plasticity of cell migration, i.e., the ability of individual cell to switch between different motility modes, in particular between mesenchymal and amoeboid motilities. This phenomenon is called the mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transition (MAT). Such a plasticity of cell migration is a mechanism, by which cancer cells can adapt their migration mode to different microenvironments and thus it may promote tumor dissemination. It was shown that interventions at certain regulatory points of mesenchymal motility as well as alterations of environmental conditions can trigger MAT...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Minu R Pilvankar, Michele A Higgins, Ashlee N Ford Versypt
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the primary cause of kidney failure. Diabetic hyperglycemia primarily damages podocyte cells. Podocytes express a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that produces angiotensin II (ANG II). ANG II levels are elevated by hyperglycemia, triggering podocyte injury. Quantitative descriptions of glucose dose dependency of ANG II are scarce in the literature. For better understanding of the mechanism of glycemic injury in DKD, a mathematical model is developed to describe the glucose-stimulated local RAS in podocytes...
March 8, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Paul J Sanstead, Andrei Tokmakoff
We have studied two model DNA oligonucleotide sequences which display contrasting degrees of heterogeneous melting using an optical temperature jump to trigger dehybridization and a nonlinear infrared (IR) spectroscopy probe to track the response of the helix ensemble. This approach offers base-sensitive structural insight through the unique vibrational fingerprint characteristic of each nucleobase as well as time resolution capable of following unfolding across nanoseconds to milliseconds. We observe pre-dissociation unzipping of the helical termini, loss of final dimer contacts, and rehybridization of the dissociated strands all in a single measurement...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Thomas A W Bolton, Delphine Jochaut, Anne-Lise Giraud, Dimitri Van De Ville
To refine our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), studies of the brain in dynamic, multimodal and ecological experimental settings are required. One way to achieve this is to compare the neural responses of ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals when viewing a naturalistic movie, but the temporal complexity of the stimulus hampers this task, and the presence of intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) may overshadow movie-driven fluctuations. Here, we detected inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) transients to disentangle movie-induced functional changes from underlying resting-state activity while probing FC dynamically...
March 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Martijn Wehrens, Dmitry Ershov, Rutger Rozendaal, Noreen Walker, Daniel Schultz, Roy Kishony, Petra Anne Levin, Sander J Tans
Our understanding of bacterial cell size control is based mainly on stress-free growth conditions in the laboratory [1-10]. In the real world, however, bacteria are routinely faced with stresses that produce long filamentous cell morphologies [11-28]. Escherichia coli is observed to filament in response to DNA damage [22-25], antibiotic treatment [11-14, 28], host immune systems [15, 16], temperature [17], starvation [20], and more [18, 19, 21], conditions which are relevant to clinical settings and food preservation [26]...
February 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Tony Rosen, Nisha Mehta-Naik, Alyssa Elman, Mary R Mulcare, Michael E Stern, Sunday Clark, Rahul Sharma, Veronica M LoFaso, Risa Breckman, Mark Lachs, Nancy Needell
PROBLEM DEFINITION: Hospitals have an opportunity to improve the quality of care provided to a particularly vulnerable population: victims of elder mistreatment. Despite this, no programs to prevent or stop elder abuse in the acute care hospital have been reported. An innovative, multidisciplinary emergency department (ED)-based intervention for elder abuse victims, the Vulnerable Elder Protection Team (VEPT), was developed at NewYork-Presbyterian / Weill Cornell Medical Center (New York City)...
March 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Suad Mohammmed Iddrisu, Ana F Hutchinson, Yasmin Sungkar, Julie Considine
BACKGROUND: Clinical deterioration is a significant problem in acute care settings. Nurses play a vital role in postoperative patient monitoring, however, there is limited understanding of the nurses' role in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration in surgical patients. AIM: To explore nurse' role in recognising and responding to deteriorating postoperative patients. METHODS: This qualitative exploratory study was conducted at a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Maria J Gomez-Lamarca, Julia Falo-Sanjuan, Robert Stojnic, Sohaib Abdul Rehman, Leila Muresan, Matthew L Jones, Zoe Pillidge, Gustavo Cerda-Moya, Zhenyu Yuan, Sarah Baloul, Phillippe Valenti, Kerstin Bystricky, Francois Payre, Kevin O'Holleran, Rhett Kovall, Sarah J Bray
A key feature of Notch signaling is that it directs immediate changes in transcription via the DNA-binding factor CSL, switching it from repression to activation. How Notch generates both a sensitive and accurate response-in the absence of any amplification step-remains to be elucidated. To address this question, we developed real-time analysis of CSL dynamics including single-molecule tracking in vivo. In Notch-OFF nuclei, a small proportion of CSL molecules transiently binds DNA, while in Notch-ON conditions CSL recruitment increases dramatically at target loci, where complexes have longer dwell times conferred by the Notch co-activator Mastermind...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Cell
Isabel Ferreira, Ana Silva, João Demétrio Martins, Bruno Miguel Neves, Maria Teresa Cruz
Low molecular weight reactive chemicals causing skin and respiratory allergies are known to activate dendritic cells (DC), an event considered to be a key step in both pathologies. Although generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered a major danger signal responsible for DC maturation, the mechanisms leading to cellular redox imbalance remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to unveil the origin and kinetics of redox imbalance elicited by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) and trimellitic anhydride chloride (TMAC), two golden standards of skin and chemical respiratory allergy, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Redox Biology
M Petrelli, K El Omari, L Spina, Y Le Guer, G La Spina, D Perugini
Water plays a key role in magma genesis, differentiation, ascent and, finally, eruption. Despite the recognized crucial function of water, there are still several issues that continue to blur our view about its role in magmatic systems. What are the timescales of H2 O accumulation in crystallizing magmas? What are the ascent rates of water-rich residual melts leading to explosive eruptions? Here, we track the timescale of water accumulation in a residual melt resulting from crystallization of a hydrous CO2 -bearing magmatic mass stored at mid- to deep-crustal levels in a subduction-related geodynamic setting...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Emily F Ruff, Joseph M Muretta, Andrew R Thompson, Eric W Lake, Soreen Cyphers, Steven K Albanese, Sonya M Hanson, Julie M Behr, David D Thomas, John D Chodera, Nicholas M Levinson
Many eukaryotic protein kinases are activated by phosphorylation on a specific conserved residue in the regulatory activation loop, a post-translational modification thought to stabilize the active DFG-In state of the catalytic domain. Here we use a battery of spectroscopic methods that track different catalytic elements of the kinase domain to show that the ~100-fold activation of the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AurA) by phosphorylation occurs without a population shift from the DFG-Out to the DFG-In state, and that the activation loop of the activated kinase remains highly dynamic...
February 21, 2018: ELife
Xiaoguang Tian, Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are systematically modulated by peripheral spatial cues, and these eye movements have been implicated in perceptual and motor performance changes in cueing tasks. However, an additional oculomotor factor that may also influence performance in these tasks, fixational eye position itself, has been largely neglected so far. Using precise eye tracking and real-time retinal-image stabilization, we carefully analyzed fixational eye position dynamics and related them to microsaccade generation during spatial cueing...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Xiaomin Xing, Chun-Fang Wu
GCaMP is an optogenetic Ca2+ sensor widely used for monitoring neuronal activities but the precise physiological implications of GCaMP signals remain to be further delineated among functionally distinct synapses. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a powerful genetic system for studying synaptic function and plasticity, consists of tonic and phasic glutamatergic and modulatory aminergic motor terminals of distinct properties. We report a first simultaneous imaging and electric recording study to directly contrast the frequency characteristics of GCaMP signals of the three synapses for physiological implications...
January 2018: ENeuro
Armin Feist, Nara Rubiano da Silva, Wenxi Liang, Claus Ropers, Sascha Schäfer
The control of optically driven high-frequency strain waves in nanostructured systems is an essential ingredient for the further development of nanophononics. However, broadly applicable experimental means to quantitatively map such structural distortion on their intrinsic ultrafast time and nanometer length scales are still lacking. Here, we introduce ultrafast convergent beam electron diffraction with a nanoscale probe beam for the quantitative retrieval of the time-dependent local deformation gradient tensor...
January 2018: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
Gaia Dell'Ariccia, Simon Benhamou, Maria P Dias, José P Granadeiro, Joël Sudre, Paulo Catry, Francesco Bonadonna
Wind conditions strongly affect migratory costs and shape flyways and detours for many birds, especially soaring birds. However, whether winds also influence individual variability in migratory choices is an unexplored question. Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris borealis) exhibit migratory flexibility, changing non-breeding destination across the Atlantic Ocean within and between years. Here, we investigated how wind dynamics affect the spatiotemporal migratory behaviour and whether they influence individual choices of non-breeding destination...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giuseppe Boniello, Christophe Tribet, Emmanuelle Marie, Vincent Croquette, Dražen Zanchi
Immediately before adsorption to a horizontal substrate, sinking polymer-coated colloids can undergo a complex sequence of landing, jumping, crawling, and rolling events. Using video tracking, we studied the soft adhesion to a horizontal flat plate of micron-size colloids coated by a controlled molar fraction f of the poly(lysine)-grafted-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PLL-g-PNIPAM) which is a temperature-sensitive polymer. We ramp the temperature from below to above T_{c}=32±1^{∘}C, at which the PNIPAM polymer undergoes a transition, triggering attractive interaction between microparticles and surface...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Stephan Skornitzke, Franziska Fritz, Philipp Mayer, Marco Koell, Jens Hansen, Gregor Pahn, Thilo Hackert, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Wolfram Stiller
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative evaluation of different bolus-tracking trigger delays for acquisition of dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) iodine maps as an alternative to CT perfusion. METHODS: Prior to this retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data, DECT perfusion sequences were dynamically acquired in 22 patients with pancreatic carcinoma using dual-source CT at 80/140kVp with tin filtration. After deformable motion-correction, perfusion maps of blood flow (BF) were calculated from 80kVp image series of DECT, and iodine maps were calculated for each of the 34 DECT acquisitions per patient...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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