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Track and trigger

Emilie A Caspar, Andrea Desantis, Zoltan Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Patrick Haggard
Does sense of agency (SoA) arise merely from action-outcome associations, or does an additional real-time process track each step along the chain? Tracking control predicts that deviant intermediate steps between action and outcome should reduce SoA. In two experiments, participants learned mappings between two finger actions and two tones. In later test blocks, actions triggered a robot hand moving either the same or a different finger, and also triggered tones, which were congruent or incongruent with the mapping...
2016: PloS One
Xiuning Du, William Peterson, Jennifer Fisher, Matt Hunter, Jay Peterson
In spring/summer 2015, a toxic bloom by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) occurred along the west coast of the United States which led to closures of the harvest of razor clams and Dungeness crabs. Twice monthly observations of temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll and phytoplankton species composition allowed us to track oceanographic conditions preceding and during the development of the bloom. PN cells were first detected during late winter 2015. A PN bloom was initiated following the onset of coastal upwelling in mid-April; subsequent peaks in May and June were sustained by episodic upwelling events and reached magnitudes of 105 cells/L and 106 cells/L, 40% and 90% of the total diatom abundance, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Amelie Heuer-Jungemann, Afaf H El-Sagheer, Peter M Lackie, Tom Brown, Antonios G Kanaras
The design of nanoparticles that can selectively perform multiple roles is of utmost importance for the development of the next generation of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. So far most research studies are focused on the customization of nanoparticulate carriers to maximize their drug loading, enhance their optical signature for tracking in cells or provide photo-responsive effects for therapeutic purposes. However, a vital requirement of the new generation of drug carriers must be the ability to deliver their payload selectively only to cells of interest rather than the majority of various cells in the vicinity...
September 29, 2016: Nanoscale
Chaim A Schramm, Zizhang Sheng, Zhenhai Zhang, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong, Lawrence Shapiro
The rapid advance of massively parallel or next-generation sequencing technologies has made possible the characterization of B cell receptor repertoires in ever greater detail, and these developments have triggered a proliferation of software tools for processing and annotating these data. Of especial interest, however, is the capability to track the development of specific antibody lineages across time, which remains beyond the scope of most current programs. We have previously reported on the use of techniques such as inter- and intradonor analysis and CDR3 tracing to identify transcripts related to an antibody of interest...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jinming Li, Wayne Yuk-Wai Lee, Tianyi Wu, Jianbin Xu, Kunyu Zhang, Dexter Siu Hong Wong, Rui Li, Gang Li, Liming Bian
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold considerable potential for regenerative medicine, but their application is limited by the lack of an efficient method to control differentiation and track the migration of implanted cells in vivo. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocarrier based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for controlling differentiation and long-term tracking of hMSCs. The UCNPs are conjugated with the peptide (Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp, CRGD) and the differentiation-inducing kartogenin (KGN) via a photocaged linker on the surface, and the obtained UCNP nanocarrier can be efficiently uptaken by hMSCs...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Ji-Woon Park, Hyeong Rae Kim, Jungho Hwang
We present a methodology for continuous and real-time bioaerosol monitoring wherein an aerosol-to-hydrosol sampler is integrated with a bioluminescence detector. Laboratory test was conducted by supplying an air flow with entrained test bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis) to the inlet of the sampler. High voltage was applied between the discharge electrode and the ground electrode of the sampler to generate air ions by corona discharge. The bacterial aerosols were charged by the air ions and sampled in a flowing liquid containing both a cell lysis buffer and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence reagents...
October 19, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Clara Bourrelly, Julie Quinet, Patrick Cavanagh, Laurent Goffart
An object moving in the visual field triggers a saccade that brings its image onto the fovea. It is followed by a combination of slow eye movements and catch-up saccades that try to keep the target image on the fovea as long as possible. The accuracy of this ability to track the "here-and-now" location of a visual target contrasts with the spatiotemporally distributed nature of its encoding in the brain. We show in six experimentally naive monkeys how this performance is acquired and gradually evolves during successive daily sessions...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Julius Bogomolovas, Jennifer R Fleming, Brian R Anderson, Rhys Williams, Stephan Lange, Bernd Simon, Muzamil M Khan, Rüdiger Rudolf, Barbara Franke, Belinda Bullard, Daniel J Rigden, Henk Granzier, Siegfried Labeit, Olga Mayans
Missense single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mSNPs) in titin are emerging as a main causative factor of heart failure. However, distinguishing between benign and disease-causing mSNPs is a substantial challenge. Here, we research the question of whether a single mSNP in a generic domain of titin can affect heart function as a whole and, if so, how. For this, we studied the mSNP T2850I, seemingly linked to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We used structural biology, computational simulations and transgenic muscle in vivo methods to track the effect of the mutation from the molecular to the organismal level...
September 2016: Open Biology
K Kainz, S N Lim, A Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Robert Damm, Konrad Mohnike, Angelos Gazis, Bela Rogits, Max Seidensticker, Jens Ricke, Maciej Pech
BACKGROUND: As standard bolus triggering in the pulmonary trunk sometimes fails to achieve sufficient enhancement in the pulmonary arteries, the study investigates an alternative, 'delayed' position of the tracking ROI in the descending aorta. MATERIAL/METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 143 patients suspected of pulmonary embolism investigated with 3 different scanners (16 to 80 rows) in clinical routine. Bolus triggering with 120 hounsfield units (HU) was performed using the pulmonary trunk (n=70) or descending aorta (n=73) after application of 70 to 120 mL of contrast agent, Iomeprol 300...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Jie Zhou, Benjamin T Roembke, Gabor Paragi, Aurélien Laguerre, Herman O Sintim, Célia Fonseca Guerra, David Monchaud
A twice-as-smart ligand is a small molecule that experiences a structural switch upon interaction with its target (i.e., smart ligand) that concomitantly triggers its fluorescence (i.e., smart probe). Prototypes of twice-as-smart ligands were recently developed to track and label G-quadruplexes: these higher-order nucleic acid structures originate in the assembly of four guanine(G)-rich DNA or RNA strands, whose stability is imparted by the formation and the self-assembly of G-quartets. The first prototypes of twice-as-smart quadruplex ligands were designed to exploit the self-association of quartets, being themselves synthetic G-quartets...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lori Bruce
Legislative strategies for reducing infant abandonment and neonaticide developed in response to a series of sensational cases that occurred in Texas in 1999. The media coverage of these cases implied that the incidence of the crime was increasing, and Texas legislators responded with a law permitting parents to anonymously surrender their newborn at designated locations such as hospitals. This was the first "safe haven" law. Interest peaked nationwide, and by 2008 all states had a similar version of the law...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Julien Pottecher, François-Xavier Ageron, Clémence Fauché, Denis Chemla, Eric Noll, Jacques Duranteau, Laurent Chapiteau, Jean-François Payen, Pierre Bouzat
BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of severe hemorrhage is critical for a timely trigger of massive transfusion (MT). Hemodynamic indices combining heart rate (HR) and either systolic (shock index [SI]) or pulse pressure (PP) (PP/HR ratio) have been shown to track blood loss during hemorrhage. The present study assessed the accuracy of prehospital SI and PP/HR ratio to predict subsequent MT, using the gray-zone approach. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis (January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011) of a prospectively developed trauma registry (TRENAU), in which the triage scheme combines patient severity and hospital facilities...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Onno D Broekmans, Jarlath B Rodgers, William S Ryu, Greg J Stephens
We exploit the reduced space of C. elegans postures to develop a novel tracking algorithm which captures both simple shapes and also self-occluding coils, an important, yet unexplored, component of 2D worm behavior. We apply our algorithm to show that visually complex, coiled sequences are a superposition of two simpler patterns: the body wave dynamics and a head-curvature pulse. We demonstrate the precise Ω-turn dynamics of an escape response and uncover a surprising new dichotomy in spontaneous, large-amplitude coils; deep reorientations occur not only through classical Ω-shaped postures but also through larger postural excitations which we label here as δ-turns...
2016: ELife
Sheldon L Reeves, Kelsey E Fleming, Lin Zhang, Annalisa Scimemi
Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Vincent Aubanel, Chris Davis, Jeesun Kim
A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Feng Yang, Tai-Yen Chen, Łukasz Krzemiński, Ace George Santiago, Won Jung, Peng Chen
In bacteria, trigger factor (TF) is the molecular chaperone that interacts with the ribosome to assist the folding of nascent polypeptides. Studies in vitro have provided insights into the function and mechanism of TF. Much is to be elucidated, however, about how TF functions in vivo. Here we use single-molecule tracking, in combination with genetic manipulations, to study the dynamics and function of TF in living E. coli cells. We find that TF, besides interacting with the 70S ribosome, may also bind to ribosomal subunits and form TF-polypeptide complexes that may include DnaK/DnaJ proteins...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
J M Dyer, S R Haines, A Thomas, W Wang, R J Walls, S Clerens, D P Harland
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to UV in humans resulting in sunburn triggers a complex series of events that are a mix of immediate and delayed damage mediation and healing. While studies on the effects of UV exposure on DNA damage and repair have been reported, changes in the oxidative modification of skin proteins are poorly understood at the molecular level, despite the important role played by structural proteins in skin tissue, and the effect of the integrity of these proteins on skin appearance and health...
September 10, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Xiao-Ling Duan, Hua-Jie Chen, Jian-Yao Huang, Zhi-Fei Liu, Jin-Kuo Li, Zhi-Yong Yang, Wei-Feng Zhang, Gui Yu
Structural evolution of polymer (NTZ12) interface films during the process of annealing is revealed at the domain and single molecular levels using the statistical data measured from scanning tunneling microscopy images and through theoretical calculations. First, common features of the interface films are examined. Then, mean values of surface-occupied ratio, size and density of the domain are used to reveal the intrinsic derivation of the respective stages. Formation of new domains is triggered at 70 °C, but domain ripening is not activated...
September 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Rita Z Goldstein
Importance: A common trigger for relapse in drug addiction is the experience of craving via exposure to cues previously associated with drug use. Preclinical studies have consistently demonstrated incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking during the initial phase of abstinence, followed by a decline over time. In humans, the incubation effect has been shown for alcohol, nicotine, and methamphetamine addictions, but not for heroin or cocaine addiction. Understanding the trajectory of cue-induced craving during abstinence in humans is of importance for addiction medicine...
September 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
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