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Alan turing

László Pecze
Digit formation requires a robust process. Both digit number and digit identity are precisely controlled. Alan Turing and Lewis Wolpert proposed two different mathematical processes for digit formation, yet neither of them is completely satisfactory. In this study, a process called "French-flag driven Turing patterning" is presented that takes the advantages of both previous systems. Four components have been considered: I) a short-range activator (diffusion factor), II.) a long-range inhibitor (diffusion factor) and III) a very-long acting diffusing inhibitor or "French-flag factor", as well as IV) a non-diffusing, cell-autonomous transcription factor...
May 2, 2018: Bio Systems
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Stuart A Newman, Tilmann Glimm, Ramray Bhat
The paired appendages (fins or limbs) of jawed vertebrates contain an endoskeleton consisting of nodules, bars and, in some groups, plates of cartilage, or bone arising from replacement of cartilaginous templates. The generation of the endoskeletal elements occurs by processes involving production and diffusion of morphogens, with, variously, positive and negative feedback circuits, adhesion, and receptor dynamics with similarities to the mechanism for chemical pattern formation proposed by Alan Turing. This review presents a unified interpretation of the evolution and functioning of these mechanisms...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Nature
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Andrew Thwaites, Andrew Soltan, Eric Wieser, Ian Nimmo-Smith
Describing the human brain in mathematical terms is an important ambition of neuroscience research, yet the challenges remain considerable. It was Alan Turing, writing in 1950, who first sought to demonstrate how time-consuming such an undertaking would be. Through analogy to the computer program, Turing argued that arriving at a complete mathematical description of the mind would take well over a thousand years. In this opinion piece, we argue that - despite seventy years of progress in the field - his arguments remain both prescient and persuasive...
August 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Benjamin Woods, Daniel J Lew
Cell polarity is fundamental to the function of most cells. The evolutionarily conserved molecular machinery that controls cell polarity is centered on a family of GTPases related to Cdc42. Cdc42 becomes activated and concentrated at polarity sites, but studies in yeast model systems led to controversy on the mechanisms of polarization. Here we review recent studies that have clarified how Cdc42 becomes polarized in yeast. On one hand, findings that appeared to support a key role for the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle traffic in polarity establishment now appear to reflect the action of stress response pathways induced by cytoskeletal perturbations...
March 28, 2017: Small GTPases
R Mrowka, A Freytag, S Reuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Acta Physiologica
Juan Manuel Fernandez Montenegro, Vasileios Argyriou
Alzheimer's screening tests are commonly used by doctors to diagnose the patient's condition and stage as early as possible. Most of these tests are based on pen-paper interaction and do not embrace the advantages provided by new technologies. This paper proposes novel Alzheimer's screening tests based on virtual environments and game principles using new immersive technologies combined with advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems. These new tests are focused on the immersion of the patient in a virtual room, in order to mislead and deceive the patient's mind...
May 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Nathaniel P Brooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
Rosario Maugeri, Francesca Graziano, Salvatore Arena, Giuseppe Roberto Giammalva, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
David Harel
Decades before the existence of anything resembling an artificial intelligence system, Alan Turing raised the question of how to test whether machines can think, or, in modern terminology, whether a computer claimed to exhibit intelligence indeed does so. This paper raises the analogous issue for olfaction: how to test the validity of a system claimed to reproduce arbitrary odours artificially, in a way recognizable to humans. Although odour reproduction systems are still far from being viable, the question of how to test candidates thereof is claimed to be interesting and non-trivial, and a novel method is proposed...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Ludmila Brochini, Ariadne de Andrade Costa, Miguel Abadi, Antônio C Roque, Jorge Stolfi, Osame Kinouchi
Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Reinhard Kopiez, Anna Wolf, Friedrich Platz, Jan Mons
Recently, musical sounds from pre-recorded orchestra sample libraries (OSL) have become indispensable in music production for the stage or popular charts. Surprisingly, it is unknown whether human listeners can identify sounds as stemming from real orchestras or OSLs. Thus, an internet-based experiment was conducted to investigate whether a classic orchestral work, produced with sounds from a state-of-the-art OSL, could be reliably discerned from a live orchestra recording of the piece. It could be shown that the entire sample of listeners (N = 602) on average identified the correct sound source at 72...
2016: PloS One
Virginie Gillet, Darel John Hunting, Larissa Takser
The prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) of prenatal origin suffers from the lack of objective tools for early detection of susceptible individuals and the long time lag, usually in years, between the neurotoxic exposure and the diagnosis of mental dysfunction. Human data on the effects of alcohol, lead, and mercury and experimental data from animals on developmental neurotoxins and their long-term behavioral effects have achieved a critical mass, leading to the concept of the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD)...
September 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
J E Herbert-Read, M Romenskyy, D J T Sumpter
A widespread problem in biological research is assessing whether a model adequately describes some real-world data. But even if a model captures the large-scale statistical properties of the data, should we be satisfied with it? We developed a method, inspired by Alan Turing, to assess the effectiveness of model fitting. We first built a self-propelled particle model whose properties (order and cohesion) statistically matched those of real fish schools. We then asked members of the public to play an online game (a modified Turing test) in which they attempted to distinguish between the movements of real fish schools or those generated by the model...
December 2015: Biology Letters
Christof Koch, Michael A Buice
The digital reconstruction of a slice of rat somatosensory cortex from the Blue Brain Project provides the most complete simulation of a piece of excitable brain matter to date. To place these efforts in context and highlight their strengths and limitations, we introduce a Biological Imitation Game, based on Alan Turing's Imitation Game, that operationalizes the difference between real and simulated brains.
October 8, 2015: Cell
Artem Blagodatski, Anton Sergeev, Mikhail Kryuchkov, Yuliya Lopatina, Vladimir L Katanaev
Nipple-like nanostructures covering the corneal surfaces of moths, butterflies, and Drosophila have been studied by electron and atomic force microscopy, and their antireflective properties have been described. In contrast, corneal nanostructures of the majority of other insect orders have either been unexamined or examined by methods that did not allow precise morphological characterization. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of corneal surfaces in 23 insect orders, revealing a rich diversity of insect corneal nanocoatings...
August 25, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
István Szalai, Judit Horváth, Patrick De Kepper
The British mathematician Alan Turing predicted, in his seminal 1952 publication, that stationary reaction-diffusion patterns could spontaneously develop in reacting chemical or biochemical solutions. The first two clear experimental demonstrations of such a phenomenon were not made before the early 1990s when the design of new chemical oscillatory reactions and appropriate open spatial chemical reactors had been invented. Yet, the number of pattern producing reactions had not grown until 2009 when we developed an operational design method, which takes into account the feeding conditions and other specificities of real open spatial reactors...
June 2015: Chaos
Cristóbal Quiñinao, Alain Prochiantz, Jonathan Touboul
Boundary formation in the developing neuroepithelium decides on the position and size of compartments in the adult nervous system. In this study, we start from the French Flag model proposed by Lewis Wolpert, in which boundaries are formed through the combination of morphogen diffusion and of thresholds in cell responses. In contemporary terms, a response is characterized by the expression of cell-autonomous transcription factors, very often of the homeoprotein family. Theoretical studies suggest that this sole mechanism results in the formation of boundaries of imprecise shapes and positions...
May 15, 2015: Development
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