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plant-based diet

Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
Jun S Lai, Shu E Soh, See Ling Loy, Marjorelee Colega, Michael S Kramer, Jerry K Y Chan, Thiam Chye Tan, Lynnette P C Shek, Fabian K P Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M Godfrey, Yap Seng Chong, Mary F F Chong
PURPOSE: To examine the associations of energy, macronutrient and food intakes with GWG on 960 pregnant women from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed at 26-28 weeks' gestation with a 24-hour recall and 3-day food diary. GWG z-scores were calculated from first (4-13 weeks' gestation) and last (30-40 weeks gestation) measured weights; inadequate and excessive GWG were defined using the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on weights between 15 and 35 weeks' gestation...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Quang Toan Dinh, Zewei Cui, Jie Huang, Thi Anh Thu Tran, Dan Wang, Wenxiao Yang, Fei Zhou, Mengke Wang, Dasong Yu, Dongli Liang
This paper reviewed the Se in the environment (including total Se in soil, water, plants, and food), the daily Se intake and Se content in human hair were also examined to elucidate Se distribution in the environment and its effects on human health in China. Approximately 51% of China is Se deficiency in soil, compared with 72% in the survey conducted in 1989. Low Se concentrations in soil, water, plants, human diet and thus human hair were found in most areas of China. The only significant difference was observed between Se-rich and Se-excessive areas for Se contents in water, staple cereal, vegetables, fruits, and animal-based food, no remarkable contrast was found among other areas (p>0...
February 9, 2018: Environment International
Bruce A Benner, Michele M Schantz, Carissa D Powers, Rosemary L Schleicher, Johanna E Camara, Katherine E Sharpless, James H Yen, Lorna T Sniegoski
Dietary fatty acids can be both beneficial and detrimental to human health depending on the degree and type of saturation. Healthcare providers and research scientists monitor the fatty acid content of human plasma and serum as an indicator of health status and diet. In addition, both the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health - Office of Dietary Supplements are interested in circulating fatty acids (FAs) because they may be predictive of coronary heart disease...
February 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
P Kairenius, H Leskinen, V Toivonen, S Muetzel, S Ahvenjärvi, A Vanhatalo, P Huhtanen, R J Wallace, K J Shingfield
Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hana Kahleova, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Richard Holubkov, Neal D Barnard
The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38) or to make no diet changes (n = 37) for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting...
February 9, 2018: Nutrients
Cristina Airoldi, Barbara La Ferla, Giuseppe D'Orazio, Carlotta Ciaramelli, Alessandro Palmioli
Flavonoids are phytochemicals present in almost all terrestrial plants and, as a consequence, in plant-based foods, and thus consumed by humans through the diet. Recent evidences suggest that several flavonoids have positive effects against dementia and Alzheimer's disease, reversing age-related declines in neurocognitive performances. In this review, we provide a general classification of natural and synthetic flavonoids, a description of their physico-chemical properties, in particular their redox properties and stability, and an extensive overview about their biological activities and structure-activity relationship in the field of neurodegenerative diseases...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Liwen He, Hao Wu, Guogen Wang, Qingxiang Meng, Zhenming Zhou
The effect of cattle feed on beef quality and oxidative stability was investigated. A corn silage (CS)-based finishing diet was compared with the diets based on corn stalk silage (SS) or corn stalk silage combined with its expected corn grain (SSC), containing a ratio of stalk to grain of corn plant of 1.5:1. Replacing CS with SS in the finishing diet had no effect on the proximate nutrients, cholesterol content, fatty acids profile, pH, color, water holding capacity, tenderness, texture profile, or oxidative stability of beef muscle...
January 31, 2018: Meat Science
Jiajie Liu, Salma A Abdelmagid, Christopher J Pinelli, Jennifer M Monk, Danyelle M Liddle, Lyn M Hillyer, Barbora Hucik, Anjali Silva, Sanjeena Subedi, Geoffrey A Wood, Lindsay E Robinson, William J Muller, David W L Ma
Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. However, evidence regarding plant-based α-linolenic acid (ALA), the major n-3 PUFA in the Western diet, remains equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of lifelong exposure to plant- or marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on pubertal mammary gland and tumor development in MMTV-neu(ndl)-YD5 mice. It is hypothesized that lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA reduces terminal end buds during puberty leading to delayed tumor onset, volume and multiplicity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Laura M Bolt, Amy L Schreier, Kristofor A Voss, Elizabeth A Sheehan, Nancy L Barrickman, Nathaniel P Pryor, Matthew C Barton
When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica...
February 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
P P Gokuldas, Sanjay K Singh, Madan K Tamuli, Soumen Naskar, Yoya Vashi, Rajendran Thomas, Keshab Barman, Seema R Pegu, Sharma G Chethan, Sudhir K Agarwal
The present investigation was designed to study the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 (n-3) PUFA on endometrial expression of fertility-related genes in breeding sows. Sixteen crossbred sows were randomized to receive diets containing 4% (wt/wt) flaxseed oil as n-3 PUFA source (TRT group) or iso-nitrogenous, iso-caloric standard control diet (CON group), starting from the first day of estrus up to 40 days and were artificially bred on the second estrus. Endometrial samples were collected during days 10-11 and 15-16 post-mating for studying relative expression profile of candidate genes viz...
January 29, 2018: Theriogenology
Candace L Williams, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Darrell L Sparks, Andrew J Kouba, Scott T Willard, Garret Suen, Ashli E Brown
Mammalian herbivores have developed numerous adaptations to utilize their plant-based diets including a modified gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and symbiosis with a GIT microbiota that plays a major role in digestion and the maintenance of host health. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a herbivorous carnivore that lacks the specialized GIT common to other herbivores but still relies on microorganisms for survival on its almost entirely bamboo diet. The GIT microbiota is of further importance in young red pandas, as high cub mortality is problematic and has been attributed to failure to meet nutritional requirements...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Eileen Knorr, Elane Fishilevich, Linda Tenbusch, Meghan L F Frey, Murugesan Rangasamy, Andre Billion, Sarah E Worden, Premchand Gandra, Kanika Arora, Wendy Lo, Greg Schulenberg, Pablo Valverde-Garcia, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kenneth E Narva
RNAi shows potential as an agricultural technology for insect control, yet, a relatively low number of robust lethal RNAi targets have been demonstrated to control insects of agricultural interest. In the current study, a selection of lethal RNAi target genes from the iBeetle (Tribolium castaneum) screen were used to demonstrate efficacy of orthologous targets in the economically important coleopteran pests Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Meligethes aeneus. Transcript orthologs of 50 selected genes were analyzed in D...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wen-Harn Pan, Nai-Hua Yeh, Ray-Yu Yang, Wei-Hsuan Lin, Wan-Chen Wu, Wen-Ting Yeh, Mi-Kyung Sung, Haeng-Shin Lee, Sue-Joan Chang, Ching-Jang Huang, Bi-Fong Lin, Meng-Tsan Chiang
Phytonutrients may play important roles in human health and yet only recently a few studies have described phytonutrient consumption patterns, using data obtained from daily consumption methods. We aimed to estimate the phytonutrient content in Taiwanese diets and analyzed main food sources of 10 major phytonutrients. In this study, food items and dietary data gathered with the 24-hour dietary recall from 2908 participants in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan were used to create a food phytonutrient database with 933 plant-based foods through integrating database, literature search, and chemical analysis and to appraise phytonutrient consumption status of participants...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Iriny M Ayoub, Michal Korinek, Tsong-Long Hwang, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Abdel Nasser B Singab
Dietes bicolor (Iridaceae) is an ornamental plant used by African local healers to treat diarrhea and dysentery. A new dihydroflavonol, (2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone (1); two known dihydroflavonols, trans-3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavanone (2) and trans-3-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (3); the known isoflavone orobol 7,3'-di-O-methyl ether (4); the known biflavones lanaroflavone (5), robustaflavone (6), and amentoflavone (7); and β-sitosterol (8) were isolated from the CH2Cl2 fraction of D...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Matteo Serino
Alterations of both ecology and functions of gut microbiota are conspicuous traits of several inflammatory pathologies, notably metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the proliferation of enterobacteria, subdominant members of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, has been shown to be favoured by western diet, the strongest inducer of both metabolic diseases and gut microbiota dysbiosis. The inner interdependence between the host and the gut microbiota is based on a plethora of molecular mechanisms by which host and intestinal microbes modify each other...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
James Burhop, Jennifer Gibson, Justin de Boer, Cyrus Heydarian
Scurvy in modern times may not be as rare as previously thought. The link between adequate intake of vitamin C and scurvy has been known since ancient times and is recorded in Ebers Papyrus. Recent reports indicate that, with restricted diets, vitamin C deficiency is being seen in infants exclusively fed plant-based formula and children with oral aversion, autism, restricted diets, and cerebral palsy. Additional at-risk groups include the older adults and patients having alcoholism. Often costly, emergency department visits and elaborate diagnostic studies lead to fruitless results when a simple diet history is often overlooked...
January 23, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
A Castellano-Hinojosa, V Pérez-Tapia, E J Bedmar, N Santillana
AIMS: Purple corn (Zea mays var. purple amylaceum) is a native variety of the Peruvian Andes, cultivated at 3000 m since pre-Inca times without N fertilization. We aimed to isolate and identify native plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for future microbial-based inoculants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of purple corn plants grown without N-fertilization in Ayacucho (Peru). The 16S rRNA gene clustered the 18 strains into 9 groups that contained species of Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas and Lysinibacillus...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Viviana Lazzarotto, Françoise Médale, Laurence Larroquet, Geneviève Corraze
The effects of replacing fishmeal and fish oil with a plant-based diet were studied in juvenile (10g) and ongrowing (250-350g) rainbow trout from first-feeding. Feed-related differences in the intestinal and hepatic transcriptome were examined in juveniles after 7 months of feeding at 7°C. Based on microarray results obtained for juveniles, the expression of selected genes related to lipid, cholesterol and energy metabolisms, was assessed by RT-qPCR in ongrowing trout after 6 additional months of feeding at 17°C...
2018: PloS One
Bess L Caswell, Sameera A Talegawkar, Ward Siamusantu, Keith P West, Amanda C Palmer
Inadequate nutrient intakes put children at risk for impaired growth and development. We described diet, usual intakes of energy and macro- and micronutrients and prevalence of nutrient intake adequacies among 4-8-year-old Zambian children. Children not yet in school and living in Mkushi District, Central Province, Zambia were enrolled into an efficacy trial of pro-vitamin A biofortified maize. Children in the non-intervened arm were included in this analysis (n 202). Dietary intake data were collected by tablet-based 24-h recall on a monthly basis over the 6-month trial...
January 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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