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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040838/nutrient-sensing-and-metabolic-changes-after-methionine-deprivation-in-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l
#1
Haowen Jiang, Fuyun Bian, Huihui Zhou, Xuan Wang, Kaidi Wang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
The low methionine content in plant-based diets is a major limiting factor for feed utilization by animals. However, the molecular consequences triggered by methionine deficiency have not been well characterized, especially in fish species, whose metabolism is unique in many aspects and important for aquaculture industry. In the present study, the primary muscle cells of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) were isolated and treated with or without methionine for 12 h in culture. The responses of nutrient sensing pathways, the proteomic profiling of metabolic processes, and the expressions of key metabolic molecules were systematically examined...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037416/the-diet-of-open-habitat-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#2
Alex K Piel, Paolo Strampelli, Emily Greathead, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Jim Moore, Fiona A Stewart
Comparative data on the diets of extant primates inform hypotheses about hominin resource use. Historically, data describing chimpanzee diets stem primarily from forest-dwelling communities, and we lack comparative data from chimpanzees that live in mosaic habitats that more closely resemble those reconstructed for Plio-Pleistocene hominins. We present data on the diet of a partially-habituated community of open habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from the Issa valley, western Tanzania, collected over a four-year period...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035182/induction-with-infliximab-and-a-plant-based-diet-as-first-line-ipf-therapy-for-crohn-disease-a-single-group-trial
#3
Mitsuro Chiba, Tsuyotoshi Tsuji, Kunio Nakane, Satoko Tsuda, Hajime Ishii, Hideo Ohno, Kenta Watanabe, Mai Ito, Masafumi Komatsu, Takeshi Sugawara
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with Crohn disease (CD) are unresponsive to biologics. No previous study has focused on a plant-based diet in an induction phase of CD treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the remission rate of infliximab combined with a plant-based diet as first-line (IPF) therapy for CD. METHODS: This was a prospective single-group trial conducted at tertiary hospitals. Subjects included consecutive adults with a new diagnosis (n = 26), children with a new diagnosis (n = 11), and relapsing adults (n = 9) with CD who were naïve to treatment with biologics...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034184/understanding-nutrition-and-immunity-in-disease-management
#4
REVIEW
Edwin L Cooper, Melissa J Ma
As we search for answers to modern medicine's most prevalent and challenging problems, the relationship between nutrition, immunity, and biological function of various natural compounds are preimminent. Nutritional research involving genomics provides rational capabilities for preventing disease. Scientific advances in genomic sequencing reveal opportunities for exploring diet-health relationships and potential for individual, genotype based dietary recommendations. Utilizing molecular and genetic technology to analyze impact of nutrition on genomics and metabolism reveals that nutrients may influence certain innate and/or acquired immune functions...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032907/pharmaceuticals-in-water-fish-and-osprey-nestlings-in-delaware-river-and-bay
#5
Thomas G Bean, Barnett A Rattner, Rebecca S Lazarus, Daniel D Day, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Samuel P Haddad, William W Bowerman
Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2-3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC)...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028822/serial-omics-characterization-of-equine-urine
#6
Min Yuan, Susanne B Breitkopf, John M Asara
Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025793/time-for-change-benefits-of-a-plant-based-diet
#7
John D Grant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024237/sterol-content-in-the-artificial-diet-of-mythimna-separata-affects-the-metabolomics-of-arma-chinensis-fallou-as-determined-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022103/antidiabetic-plant-derived-nutraceuticals-a-critical-review
#9
REVIEW
Jayapal Naveen, Vallikannan Baskaran
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major health problems in the world, especially amongst the urban population. Chemically synthesized drugs used to decrease the ill effects of DM and its secondary complications cause adverse side effects, viz., weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and heart failure. Currently, various other approaches, viz., diet control, physical exercise and use of antidiabetic plant-derived molecules/foods are advocated to manage DM, as they are economical with fewer or no side effects...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992007/effects-of-diet-complexity-and-multicarbohydrase-supplementation-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-blood-profile-intestinal-morphology-and-fecal-score-in-newly-weaned-pigs
#10
B Koo, J W Kim, C F M de Lange, M M Hossain, C M Nyachoti
To study the effects of diet complexity and multicarbohydrase (MC) supplementation, 144 piglets (6.70 ± 0.81 kg of BW) weaned at 21 ± 2 d of age (1:1 male to female ratio) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement based on diet complexity (complex1, complex2, and simple) and MC addition (0 vs. 0.1% of MC). Diets were provided in a 2-phase feeding program with phase I (d 1 to 14) and phase II diets (d 15 to 28). Complex1 was formulated to mimic a conventional weaner diet with blood plasma, fish meal, dried whey, and skim milk powder, whereas complex2 partially or totally replaced these ingredients with various plant-based ingredients...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991998/effects-of-feeding-ground-redberry-juniper-juniperus-pinchotii-to-gestating-ewes-on-pre-and-postpartum-performance-serum-metabolites-and-hormones-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-progeny-preweaning-performance
#11
W C Stewart, T R Whitney, E J Scholljegerdes, D M Hallford, J W Walker, R P Adams, H D Naumann
The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991997/substituting-ground-woody-plants-for-cottonseed-hulls-in-lamb-feedlot-diets-growth-performance-blood-serum-chemistry-and-rumen-fluid-parameters
#12
T R Whitney, J L Glasscock, J P Muir, W C Stewart, E J Scholljegerdes
Effects of using ground woody plants in Rambouillet wether lamb feedlot diets on growth performance, blood serum, and rumen parameters were evaluated. A randomized design study was used with 2 feeding periods (70% concentrate diet from d 0 to 27 [Period 1] and 86% concentrate diet from d 28 to 57 [Period 2]); the concentrate portion of the diets mainly consisted of dried distiller's grains with solubles and sorghum grain. Lambs were individually fed 6 diets that differed only by roughage source ( = 8 animals/treatment; 32...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990541/associations-of-dietary-patterns-with-bone-mass-muscle-strength-and-balance-in-a-cohort-of-australian-middle-aged-women
#13
Feitong Wu, Karen Wills, Laura L Laslett, Brian Oldenburg, Graeme Jones, Tania Winzenberg
Influences of dietary patterns on musculoskeletal health are poorly understood in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional analysis from a cohort of 347 women (aged 36-57 years) aimed to examine associations between dietary patterns and musculoskeletal health outcomes in middle-aged women. Diet was measured by the Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ. Total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower limbs muscle strength (LMS) and balance tests (timed up and go test, step test, functional reach test (FRT) and lateral reach test) were also measured...
October 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983192/the-role-of-polyphenols-in-modern-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
G Williamson
Polyphenols are found in plant-based foods and beverages, notably apples, berries, citrus fruit, plums, broccoli, cocoa, tea and coffee and many others. There is substantial epidemiological evidence that a diet high in polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetables, cocoa and beverages protects against developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been well described and, for many, the gut microbiota play a critical role in absorption; taking into consideration the parent compound and the metabolites from colon bacteria catabolism, more than 80% of a dose can be absorbed and ultimately excreted in the urine...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980207/soil-eaten-by-chacma-baboons-adsorbs-polar-plant-secondary-metabolites-representative-of-those-found-in-their-diet
#15
Chieu Anh Kim Ta, Paula A Pebsworth, Rui Liu, Stephen Hillier, Nia Gray, John T Arnason, Sera L Young
Geophagy, the deliberate consumption of earth materials, is common among humans and animals. However, its etiology and function(s) remain poorly understood. The major hypotheses about its adaptive functions are the supplementation of essential elements and the protection against temporary and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Because much less work has been done on the protection hypothesis, we investigated whether soil eaten by baboons protected their GI tract from plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) and described best laboratory practices for doing so...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978677/rye-bran-modified-with-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-influences-the-kinetics-of-plant-lignans-but-not-of-enterolignans-in-multicatheterized-pigs
#16
Anne K Bolvig, Natalja P Nørskov, Sophie van Vliet, Leslie Foldager, Mihai V Curtasu, Mette S Hedemann, Jens F Sørensen, Helle N Lærke, Knud E Bach Knudsen
Background: Whole-grain intake is associated with a lower risk of chronic Western-style diseases, possibly brought about by the high concentration of phytochemicals, among them plant lignans (PLs), in the grains.Objective: We studied whether treatment of rye bran with cell wall-degrading enzymes changed the solubility and kinetics of PLs in multicatheterized pigs.Methods: Ten female Duroc × Danish Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (60.3 ± 2.3 kg at surgery) fitted with permanent catheters were included in an incomplete crossover study...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974735/control-of-western-corn-rootworm-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera-reproduction-through-plant-mediated-rna-interference
#17
Xiping Niu, Adane Kassa, Xu Hu, Jonathan Robeson, Mollie McMahon, Nina M Richtman, Joseph P Steimel, Bliss M Kernodle, Virginia C Crane, Gary Sandahl, Julie L Ritland, James K Presnail, Albert L Lu, Gusui Wu
RNA interference (RNAi) in transgenic maize has recently emerged as an alternative mode of action for western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) control which can be combined with protein-based rootworm control options for improved root protection and resistance management. Currently, transgenic RNAi-based control has focused on suppression of genes that when silenced lead to larval mortality. We investigated control of western corn rootworm reproduction through RNAi by targeting two reproductive genes, dvvgr and dvbol, with the goal of reducing insect fecundity as a new tool for pest management...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942318/detection-of-terrigenous-and-marine-organic-matter-flow-into-a-eutrophic-semi-enclosed-bay-by-%C3%AE-13-c-and-%C3%AE-15-n-of-intertidal-macrobenthos-and-basal-food-sources
#18
Iman Arbi, Songlin Liu, Jingping Zhang, Yunchao Wu, Xiaoping Huang
The pathways of terrigenous and marine organic matter originating into Daya Bay intertidal habitats were investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Spatiotemporal (sites, seasons and tidal levels) variations in isotopic ratios of basal food sources and macrobenthic consumers, and also the contribution of sources to the diet of representative species and the whole macrobenthic biomass were estimated using Isosource mixing model. Results showed the anthropogenic impacts on benthic and pelagic organic matter as well as macrobenthos, depending on the spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938794/association-between-plant-based-diets-and-plasma-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Yoko Yokoyama, Susan M Levin, Neal D Barnard
Context: Although a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that adoption of a vegetarian diet reduces plasma lipids, the association between vegetarian diets and long-term effects on plasma lipids has not been subjected to meta-analysis. Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that have examined associations between plant-based diets and plasma lipids. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in English until June 2015...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931545/regulation-of-genes-related-to-cholesterol-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fed-plant-based-diet
#20
Tengfei Zhu, Genevieve Corraze, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Edwige Quillet, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy
Compared to fishmeal and fish oil, plant ingredients differ not only in the protein content, amino acid and fatty acid profiles but are also devoid of cholesterol, the major component of cell membrane and precursor of several bioactive compounds. Based on these nutritional characteristics, plant-based diets can affect fish physiology and cholesterol metabolism. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying cholesterol homeostasis, rainbow trout were fed from 1g body weight during six months with a totally plant-based diet (V), a marine diet (M) and a marine restricted diet (MR) with feed intake adjusted to that of the V group...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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