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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935864/high-levels-of-ammonia-do-not-raise-fine-particle-ph-sufficiently-to-yield-nitrogen-oxide-dominated-sulfate-production
#1
Hongyu Guo, Rodney J Weber, Athanasios Nenes
High levels of ammonia (NH3) have been suggested to elevate ambient particle pH levels to near neutral acidity (pH = 7), a condition that promotes rapid SO2 oxidation by NO2 to form aerosol sulfate concentration consistent with "London fog" levels. This postulation is tested using aerosol data from representative sites around the world to conduct a thorough thermodynamic analysis of aerosol pH and its sensitivity to NH3 levels. We find that particle pH, regardless of ammonia levels, is always acidic even for the unusually high NH3 levels found in Beijing (pH = 4...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935613/maternal-exposure-of-balb-c-mice-to-indoor-no2-and-allergic-asthma-syndrome-in-offspring-at-adulthood-with-evaluation-of-dna-methylation-associated-th2-polarization
#2
Huifeng Yue, Wei Yan, Xiaotong Ji, Rui Gao, Juan Ma, Ziyu Rao, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
BACKGROUND: Fetal stress has been proposed to be associated with diseases in both children and adults. Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of offspring with allergic asthma later in life. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test whether maternal NO2 exposure causes allergic asthma-related consequences in offspring absent any subsequent lung provocation and whether this exposure enhances the likelihood of developing allergic asthma or the intensity of developed allergic airway disease following postnatal allergic sensitization and challenge...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935575/non-pathological-infection-of-macaques-by-an-attenuated-mycobacterial-vaccine-is-not-reactivated-in-the-setting-of-hiv-coinfection
#3
Taylor Wayne Foreman, Ashley Victoria Veatch, Denae Nadine LoBato, Peter John Didier, Lara Angela Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Elizabeth Russell-Lodrigue, Andrew Alan Lackner, Konstantin Gus Kousoulas, Shabaana Abdul Khader, Deepak Kaushal, Smriti Mehra
Failure to replace BCG with efficacious anti-TB vaccines have prompted out-of-the-box thinking, including pulmonary vaccination in order to elicit local immunity. MtbΔsigH, a stress-response attenuated strain, protected against lethal TB when used to vaccinate macaques via inhalation. While live mycobacterial vaccines show promising efficacy, HIV co-infection and the resulting immunodeficiency prompts safety concerns about their use. We assessed the persistence and safety of MtbΔsigH, delivered directly to the lungs, in the setting of HIV coinfection...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935404/chemical-characteristics-and-sources-of-pm1-during-the-2016-summer-in-hangzhou
#4
Kangwei Li, Linghong Chen, Stephen J White, Xianjue Zheng, Biao Lv, Chao Lin, Zhier Bao, Xuecheng Wu, Xiang Gao, Fang Ying, Jiandong Shen, Merched Azzi, Kefa Cen
During the 2016 Hangzhou G20 Summit, the chemical composition of submicron particles (PM1) was measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with a suite of collocated instruments. The campaign was undertaken between August 5 and September 23, 2016. The impacts of emission controls and meteorological conditions on PM1 chemical composition, diurnal cycles, organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment, size distribution and elemental ratios were characterized in detail...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935254/design-of-gefitinib-loaded-poly-l-lactic-acid-microspheres-via-a-supercritical-anti-solvent-process-for-dry-powder-inhalation
#5
Qing Lin, Guijin Liu, Ziyi Zhao, Dongwei Wei, Jiafeng Pang, Yanbin Jiang
To develop a safer, more stable and potent formulation of gefitinib (GFB), micro-spheres of GFB encapsulated into poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) have been prepared by supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) technology in this study. Operating factors were optimized using a selected OA16 (4(5)) orthogonal array design, and the properties of the raw material and SAS processed samples were characterized by different methods The results show that the GFB-loaded PLLA particles prepared were spherical, having a smaller and narrower particle size compared with raw GFB...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935173/coxiella-burnetiias-a-useful-tool-to-investigate-bacteria-friendly-host-cell-compartments
#6
REVIEW
Julian Pechstein, Jan Schulze-Luehrmann, Anja Lührmann
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular and airborne pathogen which can cause the zoonotic disease Q fever. After inhalation of contaminated aerosols alveolar macrophages are taking up C. burnetii into a phagosome. This phagosome matures to a very large vacuole called the C. burnetii-containing vacuole (CCV). Host endogenous and bacterial driven processes lead to the biogenesis of this unusual compartment, which resembles partially a phagolysosome. However, there are several important differences to the classical phagolysosome, which are crucial for the ability of C...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934370/the-risk-of-sustained-sexual-transmission-of-zika-is-underestimated
#7
Antoine Allard, Benjamin M Althouse, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Samuel V Scarpino
Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933736/pulsed-polarization-based-nox-sensors-of-ysz-films-produced-by-the-aerosol-deposition-method-and-by-screen-printing
#8
Jörg Exner, Gaby Albrecht, Daniela Schönauer-Kamin, Jaroslaw Kita, Ralf Moos
The pulsed polarization technique on solid electrolytes is based on alternating potential pulses interrupted by self-discharge pauses. Since even small concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the ppm range significantly change the polarization and discharge behavior, pulsed polarization sensors are well suited to measure low amounts of NOx. In contrast to all previous investigations, planar pulsed polarization sensors were built using an electrolyte thick film and platinum interdigital electrodes on alumina substrates...
July 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933562/protective-approaches-and-mechanisms-of-microencapsulation-to-the-survival-of-probiotic-bacteria-during-processing-storage-and-gastrointestinal-digestion-a-review
#9
Huan Liu, Steve W Cui, Maoshen Chen, Yue Li, Rong Liang, Feifei Xu, Fang Zhong
In recent years, there is a rising interest in the number of food products containing probiotic bacteria with favorable health benefit effects. However, the viability of probiotic bacteria is always questionable when they exposure to the harsh environment during processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. To overcome these problems, microencapsulation of cells is currently receiving considerable attention and has obtained valuable effects. According to the drying temperature, the commonly used technologies can be divided into two patterns: high temperature drying (spray drying, fluid bed drying) and low temperature drying (ultrasonic vacuum spray drying, spray chilling, electrospinning, supercritical technique, freeze drying, extrusion, emulsion, enzyme gelation and impinging aerosol technique)...
September 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933200/infrared-extinction-performance-of-randomly-oriented-microbial-clustered-agglomerate-materials
#10
Le Li, Yihua Hu, Youlin Gu, Xinying Zhao, Shilong Xu, Lei Yu, Zhi Ming Zheng, Peng Wang
In this study, the spatial structure of randomly distributed clusters of fungi An0429 spores was simulated using a cluster aggregation (CCA) model, and the single scattering parameters of fungi An0429 spores were calculated using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The transmittance of 10.6 µm infrared (IR) light in the aggregated fungi An0429 spores swarm is simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. Several parameters that affect the transmittance of 10.6 µm IR light, such as the number and radius of original fungi An0429 spores, porosity of aggregated fungi An0429 spores, and density of aggregated fungi An0429 spores of the formation aerosol area were discussed...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931527/sympathomimetic-effects-of-acute-e-cigarette-use-role-of-nicotine-and-non-nicotine-constituents
#11
Roya S Moheimani, May Bhetraratana, Kacey M Peters, Benjamin K Yang, Fen Yin, Jeffrey Gornbein, Jesus A Araujo, Holly R Middlekauff
BACKGROUND: Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three healthy volunteers who were not current e-cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied...
September 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930696/impact-of-a-newly-formed-periglacial-environment-and-other-factors-on-fresh-water-chemistry-at-the-western-shore-of-admiralty-bay-in-the-summer-of-2016-king-george-island-maritime-antarctica
#12
Małgorzata Szopińska, Danuta Szumińska, Robert Józef Bialik, Stanisław Chmiel, Joanna Plenzler, Żaneta Polkowska
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the inorganic chemistry of flowing water at the western shore of Admiralty Bay. In the water samples, ions, and major and trace metals (and B) were detected and quantified. Additionally, the parameters of pH, specific electrolytic conductivity (SEC25) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined. Moreover, multivariate data set was created and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed. Generally, the water has low total content of the measured mineral constituents <100mgL(-1)...
September 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930641/face-masks-and-cough-etiquette-reduce-the-cough-aerosol-concentration-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Michelle E Wood, Rebecca E Stockwell, Graham R Johnson, Kay A Ramsay, Laura J Sherrard, Nassib Jabbour, Emma Ballard, Peter O'Rourke, Timothy J Kidd, Claire E Wainwright, Luke D Knibbs, Peter D Sly, Lidia Morawska, Scott C Bell
RATIONALE: People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimise pathogen transmission between CF patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. aeruginosa aerosolised during cough. METHODS: Twenty-five adults with CF and chronic P. aeruginosa infection were recruited. Participants performed six talking and coughing maneuvers, with or without face masks (surgical and N95) and hand covering the mouth when coughing (cough etiquette) in an aerosol-sampling device...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930472/light-absorption-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-composition-and-contribution-of-nitro-aromatic-compounds
#14
Mingjie Xie, Xi Chen, Michael D Hays, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Tadeusz Edward Kleindienst, Amara Holder
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collected during individual chamber experiments with three biogenic and eight aromatic volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors in the presence of NOX and H2O2. Compared with the SOA generated using the aromatic precursors, biogenic SOA in general exhibits negligible light absorption above 350 nm; the aromatic SOA generated in the presence of NOX showed stronger light absorption than that generated with H2O2...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930287/exposure-to-human-alveolar-lining-fluid-enhances-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-cd8-t-cell-dependent-manner
#15
J I Moliva, A P Hossfeld, C H Canan, V Dwivedi, M D Wewers, G Beamer, J Turner, J B Torrelles
Current tuberculosis (TB) treatments include chemotherapy and preventative vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In humans, however, BCG vaccination fails to fully protect against pulmonary TB. Few studies have considered the impact of the human lung mucosa (alveolar lining fluid (ALF)), which modifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall, revealing alternate antigenic epitopes on the bacterium surface that alter its pathogenicity. We hypothesized that ALF-induced modification of BCG would induce better protection against aerosol infection with M...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929816/which-inhaled-corticosteroid-and-long-acting-%C3%AE-agonist-combination-is-better-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-asthma-a-dry-powder-inhaler-or-a-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler
#16
Masato Muraki, Kyuya Gose, Soichiro Hanada, Hirochiyo Sawaguchi, Yuji Tohda
Two main types of devices are used to facilitate the administration of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β-agonist (LABA) in combination, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs). There are few reports comparing the effects of the two devices, and it is unknown which should be recommended for asthma patients with given sets of characteristics. In the current study, the beneficial effects and side effects associated with DPIs and pMDIs were compared, and the question of which device should be recommended for asthma patients was investigated...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928312/getting-real-with-the-upcoming-challenge-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-the-way-forward-for-the-south-east-asia-region
#17
REVIEW
Jagdish Kaur, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927548/pulmonary-injury-from-waterproofing-spray-during-a-hike
#18
Tomonori Harada, Yukio Hirabayashi, Yuriko Takayama-Isagawa, Hiroto Sakamoto, Makoto Kawaishi, Hiroyuki Hara, Shin Aizawa
A 48-year-old man developed general fatigue, dyspnea, and fever at an altitude of 1562 m from the morning of the first day of a 3-day hike. Despite pharyngeal discomfort and mild general fatigue, he felt that the symptoms were not sufficient to abandon his plan. He usually required 1.5 hours to reach Tokusawa (6.4 km from the starting point at an altitude of 1500 m), but this time he required 2.5 hours and slept briefly upon arrival at Tokusawa due to extreme fatigue and respiratory discomfort. His symptoms became aggravated, so he presented at a mountain clinic with oxygen saturation at 80% and body temperature of 37...
September 15, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927166/experimental-evaluation-of-respirable-dust-and-crystalline-silica-controls-during-simulated-performance-of-stone-countertop-fabrication-tasks-with-powered-hand-tools
#19
David L Johnson, Margaret L Phillips, Chaolong Qi, Anthony T Van, Danielle A Hawley
Objectives: Workers who fabricate stone countertops using hand tools are at risk of silicosis from overexposure to respirable crystalline silica. This study explored the efficacy of simple engineering controls that can be used for dust suppression during use of hand tools by stone countertop fabricators. Methods: Controlled experiments were conducted to measure whether wet methods and on-tool local exhaust ventilation (LEV) reduced respirable dust (RD) exposures during use of various powered hand tools on quartz-rich engineered stone...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926789/profiling-quinones-in-ambient-air-samples-collected-from-the-athabasca-region-canada
#20
Andrzej Wnorowski, Jean-Pierre Charland
This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night)...
September 5, 2017: Chemosphere
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