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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343359/characterization-of-pm2-5-chemical-composition-at-the-demokritos-suburban-station-in-athens-greece-the-influence-of-saharan-dust
#1
Vasiliki Vasilatou, Evangelia Diapouli, Dimitrios Abatzoglou, Evangelos B Bakeas, Michael Scoullos, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
The aim of this work is to study the atmospheric concentrations of selected major and trace elements and ions found in PM2.5, at a suburban site in Athens, Greece, and discuss on the impact of the different sources. Special focus is given to the influence of Saharan dust episodes. The seasonal variability in the metal and ion concentrations is also examined. The results show that PM2.5 mass concentrations are significantly influenced by Saharan dust events; it is observed that when the PM2.5 concentration is higher than 25 μg/m(3), five out of six times, the air mass crossed North Africa at an altitude within the boundary layer...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343037/concentration-and-sources-of-atmospheric-nitrous-acid-hono-at-an-urban-site-in-western-china
#2
Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Junji Cao, Qiyuan Wang, Xuexi Tie, Kin-Fai Ho, Zhenxing Shen, Renjian Zhang, Guohui Li, Chongshu Zhu, Ningning Zhang, Wenting Dai, Jiamao Zhou, Suixin Liu, Yang Chen, Jun Chen, Colin D O'Dowd
Highly time-resolved measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) were carried out with a highly sensitive long path absorption photometer (LOPAP) at an urban site of Xi'an in Western China from 24 July to 6 August 2015 to investigate the atmospheric variations, sources, and formation pathways of HONO. The concentrations of HONO vary from 0.02 to 4.3ppbv with an average of 1.12ppbv for the entire measurement period. The variation trends of HONO and NO2 are very similar and positively correlated which, together with the similar diurnal profiles of HONO/NO2 ratio and HONO, suggest the importance of heterogeneous conversion of HONO from NO2...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340484/engineering-of-layered-lipid-encapsulated-drug-nanoparticles-through-spray-drying
#3
Mahak Sapra, Y S Mayya, Chandra Venkataraman
Drug-containing nanoparticles have been synthesized through the spray-drying of submicron droplet aerosols by using matrix materials such as lipids and biopolymers. Understanding layer formation in composite nanoparticles is essential for the appropriate engineering of particle substructures. The present study developed a droplet-shrinkage model for predicting the solid-phase formation of two non-volatile solutes-stearic acid lipid and a set of drugs, by considering molecular volume and solubility. Nanoparticle formation was simulated to define the parameter space of material properties and process conditions for the formation of a layered structure with the preferential accumulation of the lipid in the outer layer...
March 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339192/a-novel-exposure-system-termed-navetta-for-in-vitro-laminar-flow-electrodeposition-of-nanoaerosol-and-evaluation-of-immune-effects-in-human-lung-reporter-cells
#4
Evelien Frijns, Sandra Verstraelen, Linda Corinna Stoehr, Jo van Laer, An Jacobs, Jan Peters, Kristof Tirez, Matthew Boyles, Mark Geppert, Pierre Madl, Inge Nelissen, Albert Duschl, Martin Himly
A new prototype air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cells exposed at the ALI. Electrostatic field assistance is applied to improve NP deposition efficiency. As proof-of-principle, cell viability and immune responses after short-term exposure to nano-copper oxide (CuO)-aerosol were determined...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337991/contrasting-influences-of-aerosols-on-cloud-properties-during-deficient-and-abundant-monsoon-years
#5
Nitin Patil, Prashant Dave, Chandra Venkataraman
Direct aerosol radiative forcing facilitates the onset of Indian monsoon rainfall, based on synoptic scale fast responses acting over timescales of days to a month. Here, we examine relationships between aerosols and coincident clouds over the Indian subcontinent, using observational data from 2000 to 2009, from the core monsoon region. Season mean and daily timescales were considered. The correlation analyses of cloud properties with aerosol optical depth revealed that deficient monsoon years were characterized by more frequent and larger decreases in cloud drop size and ice water path, but increases in cloud top pressure, with increases in aerosol abundance...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337913/selective-conversion-from-p-type-to-n-type-of-printed-bottom-gate-carbon-nanotube-thin-film-transistors-and-application-in-cmos-inverters
#6
Qiqi Xu, Jianwen Zhao, Vincenzo Pecunia, Wenya Xu, Chunshan Zhou, Junyan Dou, Weibing Gu, Jian Lin, Lixin Mo, Yanfei Zhao, Zheng Cui
The fabrication of printed high-performance and environmentally stable n-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors and their integration into complementary (i.e. CMOS) circuits are widely recognized as key to achieving the full potential of carbon nanotube electronics. Here, we report a simple, efficient, and robust method to convert the polarity of SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) using cheap and readily available ethanolamine as electron doping agent. Printed p-type bottom-gate SWCNT TFTs can be selectively converted into n-type by deposition of ethanolamine inks on the transistor active region via aerosol jet printing...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337465/inflammatory-response-and-barrier-dysfunction-by-different-e-cigarette-flavoring-chemicals-identified-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-e-liquids-and-e-vapors-on-human-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#7
Janice Gerloff, Isaac K Sundar, Robert Freter, Emily R Sekera, Alan E Friedman, Risa Robinson, Todd Pagano, Irfan Rahman
Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
March 1, 2017: Appl In Vitro Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336883/evaluating-adverse-effects-of-inhaled-nanoparticles-by-realistic-in-vitro-technology
#8
REVIEW
Marianne Geiser, Natalie Jeannet, Martin Fierz, Heinz Burtscher
The number of daily products containing nanoparticles (NP) is rapidly increasing. NP in powders, dispersions, or sprays are a yet unknown risk for incidental exposure, especially at workplaces during NP production and processing, and for consumers of any health status and age using NP containing sprays. We developed the nano aerosol chamber for in vitro toxicity (NACIVT), a portable instrument for realistic safety testing of inhaled NP in vitro and evaluated effects of silver (Ag) and carbon (C) NP-which belong to the most widely used nanomaterials-on normal and compromised airway epithelia...
February 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335219/post-plasma-siox-coatings-of-metal-and-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-thermal-stability-and-tunable-photoactivity-applications
#9
Patrick Post, Nicolas Jidenko, Alfred P Weber, Jean-Pascal Borra
The plasma-based aerosol process developed for the direct coating of particles in gases with silicon oxide in a continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is presented. It is shown that non-thermal plasma filaments induced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure trigger post-DBD gas phase reactions. DBD operating conditions are first scanned to produce ozone and dinitrogen pentoxide. In the selected conditions, these plasma species react with gaseous tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) precursor downstream of the DBD...
May 13, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333705/inhaled-remimazolam-potentiates-inhaled-remifentanil-in-rodents
#10
Tatjana Bevans, Cassandra Deering-Rice, Chris Stockmann, Joseph Rower, Derek Sakata, Christopher Reilly
BACKGROUND: Remimazolam is an ester-based short-acting benzodiazepine currently in clinical trials for IV administration. This study explored the feasibility of delivering remimazolam alone and as an adjunct to remifentanil via inhalation in rodent models. METHODS: Mice were exposed to remimazolam via inhalation; sedation was assessed using time to movement outside a set perimeter. Rats were also exposed to remimazolam aerosol alone and in combination with inhaled remifentanil, and analgesia was quantified by using a tail flick meter...
March 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333468/alkyl-chain-length-dependent-structural-and-orientational-transformations-of-water-at-alcohol-water-interfaces-and-its-relevance-to-atmospheric-aerosols
#11
Jahur A Mondal, Vinu Namboodiri, Mathi Pandiyathuray, Ajay K Singh
Although the hydrophobic size of an amphiphile plays a key role in various chemical, biological, and atmospheric processes, its effect at macroscopic aqueous interfaces (e.g. air-water, oil-water, cell membrane-water, etc.) which are ubiquitous in nature is not well understood. Here we report the hydrophobic alkyl chain length dependent structural and orientational transformations of water at alcohol (CnH2n+1OH, n = 1-12)-water interfaces using interface-selective heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) and Raman multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR) spectroscopic techniques...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333457/two-dimensional-offline-chromatographic-fractionation-for-the-characterization-of-humic-like-substances-in-atmospheric-aerosol-particles
#12
Tobias Spranger, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann
Organic carbon in atmospheric particles comprises a large fraction of chromatographically unresolved compounds, often referred to as humic-like substances (HULIS), which influence particle properties and impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems. To better understand its composition, a two-dimensional (2D) offline method combining size-exclusion (SEC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using a new spiked gradient profile is presented. It separates HULIS into 55 fractions of different size and polarity, with estimated ranges of molecular weight and octanol/water partitioning coefficient (log P) from 160-900 g/mol and 0...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333451/aerosol-formation-from-oh-oxidation-of-the-volatile-cyclic-methyl-siloxane-cvms-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane
#13
Yue Wu, Murray V Johnston
Aerosol formation from OH oxidation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5, C10H30O5Si5), a cyclic volatile methyl siloxane (cVMS) found in consumer products, was studied in a flow-through photo chamber with and without the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. For the unseeded experiments, chemical characterization with high performance mass spectrometry showed that the molecular composition changed substantially with aerosol mass loading in the 1-12 μg/m3 range. Monomers (5 Si atoms/molecule) and dimers (10 Si atoms/molecule) dominated the mass spectra of aerosols at higher mass loadings while ring opened species (neither 5 nor 10 Si atoms/molecule) dominated the mass spectra of aerosols at lower mass loadings...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332899/in-vitro-tests-for-aerosol-deposition-v-using-realistic-testing-to-estimate-variations-in-aerosol-properties-at-the-trachea
#14
Xiangyin Wei, Michael Hindle, Renishkumar R Delvadia, Peter R Byron
BACKGROUND: The dose and aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug aerosols' exiting models of the mouth and throat (MT) during a realistic inhalation profile (IP) may be estimated in vitro and designated Total Lung Dose, TLDin vitro, and APSDTLDin vitro, respectively. These aerosol characteristics likely define the drug's regional distribution in the lung. METHODS: A general method was evaluated to enable the simultaneous determination of TLDin vitro and APSDTLDin vitro for budesonide aerosols' exiting small, medium and large VCU-MT models...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332500/cardiovascular-effects-of-electronic-cigarettes
#15
REVIEW
Neal L Benowitz, Joseph B Fraiman
Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331493/feasibility-and-safety-of-pressurized-intraperitoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-for-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Martin Hübner, Hugo Teixeira Farinha, Fabian Grass, Anita Wolfer, Patrice Mathevet, Dieter Hahnloser, Nicolas Demartines
Background. Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) has been introduced as a novel repeatable treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis. The available evidence from the pioneer center suggests good tolerance and high response rates, but independent confirmation is needed. A single-center cohort was analyzed one year after implementation for feasibility and safety. Methods. PIPAC was started in January 2015, and every patient was entered into a prospective database. This retrospective analysis included all consecutive patients operated until April 2016 with emphasis on surgical feasibility and early postoperative outcomes...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330429/effects-of-inhaled-aerosolized-carfentanil-on-real-time-physiological-responses-in-mice-a-preliminary-evaluation-of-naloxone
#17
Benjamin Wong, Michael W Perkins, Justin Tressler, Ashley Rodriguez, Jennifer Devorak, Alfred M Sciuto
This study examined the real-time exposure-response effects of aerosolized carfentanil (CRF) on opioid-induced toxicity, respiratory dynamics and cardiac function in mice. Unrestrained, conscious male CD-1 mice (25-30 g) were exposed to 0.4 or 4.0 mg/m(3) of aerosolized CRF for 15 min (Ct = 6 or 60 mg min/m(3)) in a whole-body plethysmograph chamber. Minute volume (MV), core body temperature (Tc), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in animals exposed to CRF or sterile H2O...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329234/revaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vaccine-mtbvac-improves-bcg-s-protection-against-tuberculosis
#18
Simon Clark, Faye Lanni, Dessislava Marinova, Emma Rayner, Carlos Martin, Ann Williams
Background.: The need for an effective vaccine against human tuberculosis has driven the development of different candidates and vaccination strategies. Novel live attenuated vaccines are being developed that promise greater safety and efficacy than BCG against tuberculosis. We combined BCG with the vaccine MTBVAC to evaluate whether the efficacy of either vaccine would be affected upon revaccination. Methods.: In a well-established guinea pig model of aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG and MTBVAC delivered via various prime-boost combinations or alone were compared...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326308/infection-sources-of-a-common-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pathogen-mycobacterium-avium-complex
#19
REVIEW
Yukiko Nishiuchi, Tomotada Iwamoto, Fumito Maruyama
Numerous studies have revealed a continuous increase in the worldwide incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases, especially pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) diseases. Although it is not clear why NTM diseases have been increasing, one possibility is an increase of mycobacterial infection sources in the environment. Thus, in this review, we focused on the infection sources of pathogenic NTM, especially MAC. The environmental niches for MAC include water, soil, and dust...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323102/preparation-of-core-crosslinked-linear-dendritic-copolymer-micelles-with-enhanced-stability-and-their-application-for-drug-solubilisation
#20
Zhengyuan Zhou, Robert T Forbes, Antony D'Emanuele
In this study we explore the preparation of core-crosslinked micelles of linear-dendritic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-co-poly(ester-sulfide) (PES) polymers to improve the stability of such polymeric micelle systems against premature disintegration and drug release. A series of MPEG-PES copolymers were synthesised via stepwise reactions of acetylation and thiol-ene photoreaction. Surface tension measurement showed that the copolymers with ethenyl surface groups could self-associate in dilute aqueous solutions to form micelles...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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