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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724206/vital-signs-health-care-associated-legionnaires-disease-surveillance-data-from-20-states-and-a-large-metropolitan-area-united-states-2015
#1
EDITORIAL
E A Soda, A E Barskey, P P Shah, S Schrag, C G Whitney, M J Arduino, S C Reddy, J M Kunz, C M Hunter, B H Raphael, L A Cooley
BACKGROUND: Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, is typically acquired through inhalation of aerosolized water containing Legionella bacteria. Legionella can grow in the complex water systems of buildings, including health care facilities. Effective water management programs could prevent the growth of Legionella in building water systems. METHODS: Using national surveillance data, Legionnaires' disease cases were characterized from the 21 jurisdictions (20 U...
August 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723191/highly-enriched-controllable-continuous-aerosol-sampling-using-inertial-microfluidics-and-its-application-to-real-time-detection-of-airborne-bacteria
#2
Jeongan Choi, Seung Chan Hong, Woojin Kim, Jae Hee Jung
We report a novel microfluidic technique for sampling of aerosols into liquids. The two-phase fluid, sampling air and collecting liquid, forms a stratified flow in the curved microchannel. By passing fluids through the curved region, the particles are transferred from air into the liquid phase by the particle centrifugal and drag forces. This microfluidic-based aerosol-into-liquid sampling system, called the MicroSampler, is driven by particle inertial differences. To evaluate the physical particle collection efficiency of the MicroSampler, we used standard polystyrene-latex (PSL) particles ranging in size from 0...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723156/effect-of-drying-rate-on-aerosol-particle-morphology
#3
Muhammad Bilal Altaf, Miriam Arak Freedman
The morphology of aerosol particles impacts their role in the climate system. In the submicron size regime, the morphology of particles that undergo liquid-liquid phase separation is dependent on their size, where for some systems, small particles are homogeneous and large particles are phase separated. We use cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy to probe the morphology of model organic aerosol systems. We observe that the transition region (where both homogeneous and phase separated morphologies are seen) spans 121 nm at the fastest drying rates with a midpoint diameter > 170 nm...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722808/an-examination-of-the-effect-of-aerosolized-permanone-insecticide-on-zebra-finch-susceptibility-to-west-nile-virus
#4
Mark D Jankowski, Murray E Moore, Erik K Hofmeister
West Nile virus is primarily maintained cryptically primarily in avian (Passerine) populations where it is transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. Mosquito control measures currently include physical activities to reduce mosquito breeding sites, the application of mosquito larvicides, or aerosolized insecticides to kill adults (adulticides) when arboviral diseases such as West Nile virus (WNV) or Zika virus are detected in mosquito populations. Organochlorine, organohosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides are often used...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720799/reduced-ultrafine-particle-levels-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-s-atmosphere-during-shifts-from-gasoline-to-ethanol-use
#5
Alberto Salvo, Joel Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Franz M Geiger
Despite ethanol's penetration into urban transportation, observational evidence quantifying the consequence for the atmospheric particulate burden during actual, not hypothetical, fuel-fleet shifts, has been lacking. Here we analyze aerosol, meteorological, traffic, and consumer behavior data and find, empirically, that ambient number concentrations of 7-100-nm diameter particles rise by one-third during the morning commute when higher ethanol prices induce 2 million drivers in the real-world megacity of São Paulo to substitute to gasoline use (95% confidence intervals: +4,154 to +13,272 cm(-3))...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720675/the-effect-of-nebulizer-position-on-aerosolized-epoprostenol-delivery-in-an-adult-lung-model
#6
Allison C Anderson, Meagan N Dubosky, Kelly A Fiorino, Vanessa Quintana, Carl A Kaplan, David L Vines
BACKGROUND: Aerosolized epoprostenol is an alternative for inhaled nitric oxide in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension and possibly acute hypoxemia. Our objective was to determine differences in drug deposition based on different nebulizer positions in the ventilator circuit, using a vibrating mesh nebulizer. METHODS: An 8.0-mm inner diameter endotracheal tube (ETT) was connected to a training test lung, compliance of 30 mL/cm H2O, with a collecting filter placed at the ETT-test lung junction...
July 18, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720537/inhaled-powder-formulation-of-naked-sirna-using-spray-drying-technology-with-l-leucine-as-dispersion-enhancer
#7
Michael Y T Chow, Yingshan Qiu, Fiona F K Lo, Hinson H S Lin, Hak-Kim Chan, Philip C L Kwok, Jenny K W Lam
Pulmonary delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely studied in both animal and clinical studies to treat various respiratory diseases by gene silencing through RNA interference. Some of these studies showed that the administration of naked siRNA (without the use of any delivery vectors) could achieve satisfactory gene silencing effect, a unique feature to pulmonary delivery. Liquid aerosols were mostly used with very limited studies on the use of powder aerosols for siRNA. In this study, siRNA was co-spray dried with mannitol and L-leucine, the latter being a dispersion enhancer...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720220/application-of-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-the-characterization-of-organic-aerosol-searching-for-naphthenic-acids
#8
Mahmoud M Yassine, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska
Naphthenic acids (NAs) are naturally occurring constituents of hydrocarbon deposits (petroleum, oil sands bitumen, and crude oils), and present in any facilities that extract, process or use crude oil or bitumen for manufacturing. In the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada, this diverse group of saturated acyclic, monocyclic, and polycyclic carboxylic acids is present in bitumen and in tailing ponds. Little is known about the occurrence of residual oil sands derived organic material, including NAs, in atmospheric particulate matter (PM)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718891/mk-reduces-inhaled-chlorine-triggered-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-the-mouse
#9
Yoichiro Hamamoto, Satoshi Ano, Benoit Allard, Michael O'Sullivan, Toby K McGovern, James G Martin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are pro-inflammatory lipid mediators that exacerbate disease state in several asthma phenotypes including asthma induced by allergen, virus and exercise. However, the role of CysLTs in irritant-induced airway disease is not well characterized. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of montelukast (MK), a CysLT1R antagonist, on parameters of irritant-induced asthma (IIA) induced by inhalation of chlorine (Cl2 ) in the mouse...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718049/good-things-in-small-packages-an-innovative-delivery-approach-for-inhaled-insulin
#10
James B Fink, Lisa Molloy, John S Patton, Valdecir Castor Galindo-Filho, Jacqueline de Melo Barcelar, Luciana Alcoforado, Simone Cristina Soares Brandão, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade
PURPOSE: The design development of a small, hand held, battery operated, breath actuated inhaler as a drug/device platform for inhaled insulin posed a number of technical challenges. Our goal was to optimize lung deposition and distribution with aerosol generators producing 3-6 μm particle size distribution. METHODS: In silico modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro testing of device components were assessed using an Alberta idealized adult airway (Copley, UK) to optimize mouthpiece and aerosol path design for dose delivered distal to the trachea...
July 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717881/a-retrospective-comparison-of-inhaled-milrinone-and-iloprost-in-post-bypass-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Kassiani Theodoraki, Apostolos Thanopoulos, Panagiota Rellia, Evangelos Leontiadis, Dimitrios Zarkalis, Konstantinos Perreas, Theophani Antoniou
During cardiac operations, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may prove challenging as a result of superimposed acute right ventricular dysfunction in the setting of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of inhaled milrinone versus inhaled iloprost in patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension following discontinuation of CPB. Eighteen patients with elevated PVR post-bypass were administered inhaled milrinone at a cumulative dose of 50 μg kg(-1)...
July 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716940/reassessing-the-atmospheric-oxidation-mechanism-of-toluene
#12
Yuemeng Ji, Jun Zhao, Hajime Terazono, Kentaro Misawa, Nicholas P Levitt, Yixin Li, Yun Lin, Jianfei Peng, Yuan Wang, Lian Duan, Bowen Pan, Fang Zhang, Xidan Feng, Taicheng An, Wilmarie Marrero-Ortiz, Jeremiah Secrest, Annie L Zhang, Kazuhiko Shibuya, Mario J Molina, Renyi Zhang
Photochemical oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons leads to tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, with profound implications for air quality, human health, and climate. Toluene is the most abundant aromatic compound under urban environments, but its detailed chemical oxidation mechanism remains uncertain. From combined laboratory experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we show a toluene oxidation mechanism that is different from the one adopted in current atmospheric models...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715770/influence-of-flue-gas-desulfurization-fgd-installations-on-emission-characteristics-of-pm2-5-from-coal-fired-power-plants-equipped-with-selective-catalytic-reduction-scr
#13
Zhen Li, Jingkun Jiang, Zizhen Ma, Oscar A Fajardo, Jianguo Deng, Lei Duan
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs). Field measurements of emission characteristics of four conventional CFPPs indicated a significant increase in particulate ionic species, increasing PM2.5 emission with FGD and SCR installations. The mean concentrations of PM2.5 from all CFPPs tested were 3.79 ± 1.37 mg/m(3) and 5.02 ± 1...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715183/dimethyl-sulfoxide-complexes-detected-at-ambient-conditions
#14
Anne Schou Hansen, Henrik Grum Kjaergaard
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an important intermediate in the atmospheric oxi- dation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS, emitted from the ocean, is the main natural sulfur source and its oxidation products are essential in the formation of sulfate aerosols. The high atmospheric concentration of water makes hydrogen bonding with DMS and its oxidation products likely. Through hydrogen bonding, water can potentially cat- alyze and affect the steps of the oxidation. We investigate binary hydrogen bound complexes involving DMSO...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712862/determination-of-7-be-and-22-na-activity-in-air-and-rainwater-samples-by-gamma-ray-spectrometry
#15
M I Savva, D J Karangelos, M J Anagnostakis
Natural radionuclides, such as short lived radon daughters and (7)Be, have been analyzed in aerosols at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since many years, with high accuracy and precision. During this research, an effort to detect (22)Na and determine (7)Be/(22)Na ratio in aerosols is presented. In order to study the role of precipitation in surface air (7)Be and (22)Na activity concentration, a procedure for collecting and analyzing rainwater was developed...
July 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712592/risk-factors-for-youth-e-cigarette-vape-trick-behavior
#16
Jessica K Pepper, Youn Ok Lee, Kimberly A Watson, Annice E Kim, James M Nonnemaker, Matthew C Farrelly
PURPOSE: Some adolescent users of e-cigarettes and other electronic vaping products (EVPs) report performing "vape tricks" (exhaling aerosol to make shapes). However, little is known about this behavior. We examined the frequency of performing and watching vape tricks and the characteristics of those most likely to perform vape tricks among a sample of adolescent EVP users. METHODS: We used social media ads to recruit a national convenience sample of U.S. adolescents (n = 1,729) to participate in an online survey in September 2016...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711833/assessment-of-nanoparticles-release-into-the-environment-during-drilling-of-carbon-nanotubes-epoxy-and-carbon-nanofibres-epoxy-nanocomposites
#17
Kristof Starost, Evelien Frijns, Jo Van Laer, Nadimul Faisal, Ainhoa Egizabal, Cristina Elizextea, Maria Blazquez, Inge Nelissen, James Njuguna
The risk assessment, exposure and understanding of the release of embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from commercial high performance composites during machining processes are yet to be fully evaluated and quantified. In this study, CNTs and CNFs were dispersed in epoxy matrix through calendaring process to form nanocomposites. The automated drilling was carried out in a specially designed drilling chamber that allowed elimination of background noise from the measurements. Emission measurements were taken using condensed particle counter (CPC), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and DMS50 Fast Particulate Size Spectrometer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710211/occupational-risk-for-legionella-infection-among-dental-healthcare-workers-meta-analysis-in-occupational-epidemiology
#18
Stefano Petti, Matteo Vitali
OBJECTIVE: The occupational risk for Legionella infection among dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) is conjectured because of the risk of routine inhalation of potentially contaminated aerosols produced by the dental instruments. Nevertheless, occupational epidemiology studies are contrasting. This meta-analysis assessed the level of scientific evidence regarding the relative occupational risk for Legionella infection among DHCWs. METHODS: Literature search was performed without time and language restrictions, using broad data banks (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, GOOGLE Scholar) and generic keywords ('legionella' AND 'dent*')...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709940/investigation-of-l-leucine-in-reducing-the-moisture-induced-deterioration-of-spray-dried-salbutamol-sulfate-power-for-inhalation
#19
Liang Li, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Thomas Gengenbach, Jiaqi Yu, Ge Fiona Gao, Patricia Tang, Qi Tony Zhou, Hak-Kim Chan
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of L-leucine (LL) in preventing moisture-induced deterioration in the in vitro aerosolization performance of spray-dried (SD) salbutamol sulfate (SS). Increasing mass fraction of LL (5-80%) were co-spray dried with SS, and the physicochemical properties of the powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Furthermore, the surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709369/deposition-and-light-absorption-characteristics-of-precipitation-dissolved-organic-carbon-doc-at-three-remote-stations-in-the-himalayas-and-tibetan-plateau-china
#20
Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Pengfei Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaowen Han, Guoshuai Zhang, Shaopeng Gao, Bin Qu, Mika Sillanpää
The concentrations, depositions and optical properties of precipitation DOC at three remote stations (Nam Co, Lulang and Everest) were investigated in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The results showed that their volume-weighted mean DOC concentrations were 1.05±1.01mgCL(-1), 0.83±0.85mgCL(-1) and 0.86±0.91mgCL(-1), respectively, close to those of other remote areas in the world and lower than those of typical polluted urban cities. Combined with precipitation amounts, the DOC depositions at these three stations were calculated to be 0...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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