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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148928/spatiotemporal-variations-and-relationship-of-pm-and-gaseous-pollutants-based-on-gray-correlation-analysis
#1
Yong Y Zhang, Ying Jia, Ming Li, Li A Hou
The present work characterizes the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution at four sites in Xi'an city. The investigations lasted for 1 year: January 1 through December 31, 2015. The concentrations of CO, NO2, O3, PM and SO2 were systematically monitored. The gray correlation analysis was used to correlate PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants. The formation mechanisms of sulfate and nitrate aerosols were discussed. Results clearly revealed severe air pollution by PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 at all four sites. Significant monthly variations were observed for PM2...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148753/kinetics-of-the-aqueous-phase-reactions-of-atmospherically-relevant-monoterpene-epoxides
#2
Diego A Cortes, Matthew J Elrod
Laboratory and field measurements have demonstrated that an isoprene-derived epoxide intermediate (IEPOX) is the origin of a wide range of chemical species found in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In order to explore the potential relevance of a similar mechanism for the formation of monoterpene-derived SOA, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to study kinetics and reaction products of the aqueous phase reactions of several monoterpene epoxides: β-pinene oxide, limonene oxide, and limonene dioxide...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148736/formation-of-metal-cyanide-complexes-in-deliquescent-airborne-particles-a-new-possible-sink-for-hcn-in-urban-environments
#3
Chiara Giorio, Daniele Marton, Gianni Formenton, Andrea Tapparo
Hydrogen cyanide is a ubiquitous gas in the atmosphere and a biomass burning tracer. Reactive gasses can be adsorbed onto aerosol particles where they can promote heterogeneous chemistry. In the present study, we report for the first time on the measurement and speciation of cyanides in atmospheric aerosol. Filter samples were collected at an urban background site in the city center of Padua (Italy), extracted and analyzed with headspace gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorous detection. The results showed that strongly bound cyanides were present in all aerosol samples at a concentration ranging between 0...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148717/raman-spectroscopy-of-single-light-absorbing-carbonaceous-particles-levitated-in-air-using-an-annular-laser-beam
#4
Masaru Uraoka, Keisuke Maegawa, Shoji Ishizaka
A laser trapping technique is a powerful means to investigate the physical and chemical properties of single aerosol particles in a non-contact manner. However, optical trapping of strongly light-absorbing particles such as black carbon or soot is quite difficult because the repulsive force caused by heat is orders of magnitude larger than the attractive force of radiation pressure. In this study, a laser trapping and Raman microspectroscopy system using an annular laser beam was constructed to achieve non-contact levitation of single light-absorbing particles in air...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145639/assessment-of-intake-according-to-ideas-guidance-case-study
#5
A Bitar, M Maghrabi
Estimation of radiation intake and internal dose can be carried out through direct or indirect measurements during routine or special monitoring program. In case of Iodine-131 contamination, direct measurements, such as thyroid counting, are fast and efficient to give quick results. Generally, the calculation method implements suitable values for known parameters whereas default values are used if no information is available. However, in view to avoid significant discrepancies, IDEAS guidelines put in route a comprehensive method to evaluate the monitoring data for one and different types of monitoring...
November 14, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144986/decadal-changes-in-emissions-of-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-from-on-road-vehicles-with-intensified-automobile-pollution-control-case-study-in-a-busy-urban-tunnel-in-south-china
#6
Yanli Zhang, Weiqiang Yang, Isobel Simpson, Xinyu Huang, Jianzhen Yu, Zhonghui Huang, Zhaoyi Wang, Zhou Zhang, Di Liu, Zuzhao Huang, Yujun Wang, Chenglei Pei, Min Shao, Donald R Blake, Junyu Zheng, Zhijiong Huang, Xinming Wang
In the efforts at controlling automobile emissions, it is important to know in what extent air pollutants from on-road vehicles could be truly reduced. In 2014 we conducted tests in a heavily trafficked tunnel in south China to characterize emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from on-road vehicle fleet and compared our results with those obtained in the same tunnel in 2004. Alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes had average emission factors (EFs) of 338, 63, and 42 mg km(-1) in 2014 against that of 194, 129, and 160 mg km(-1) in 2004, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144737/infant-and-adult-inhalation-exposure-to-resuspended-biological-particulate-matter
#7
Tianren Wu, Martin Taubel, Rauno Holopainen, Anna-Kaisa Viitanen, Sinikka Vainiotalo, Timo Tuomi, Jorma Keskinen, Anne Hyvärinen, Kaarle Hämeri, Sampo Saari, Brandon Boor
Human-induced resuspension of floor dust is a dynamic process that can serve as a major indoor source of biological particulate matter (bioPM). Inhalation exposure to the microbial content of indoor dust is associated with adverse and protective health effects. This study evaluates infant and adult inhalation exposures and respiratory tract deposited dose rates of resuspended bioPM from carpets. Chamber experiments were conducted with a robotic crawling infant and an adult performing a walking sequence. Breathing zone (BZ) size distributions of resuspended fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs), a bioPM proxy, were monitored in real-time...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142002/toll-like-receptor-2-has-a-prominent-but-nonessential-role-in-innate-immunity-to-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#8
Shawn J Skerrett, Marissa H Braff, H Denny Liggitt, Craig E Rubens
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of acute bacterial pneumonia. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes multiple components of the bacterial cell wall and activates innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteria. We hypothesized that TLR2 would have an important role in pulmonary host defense against S. aureus TLR null (TLR2(-/-)) mice and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 controls were challenged with aerosolized S. aureus at a range of inocula for kinetic studies of cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression, lung inflammation, bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages, and bacterial clearance...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140324/method-to-retrieve-the-nocturnal-aerosol-optical-depth-with-a-ccd-laser-aerosol-detective-system
#9
Yuxuan Bian, Chunsheng Zhao, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Gang Zhao, Hongjian Liu
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a crucial parameter in describing the atmospheric pollution and analyzing the influences of aerosol on the radiative equilibrium. Currently, no method can precisely and continuously measure the nocturnal AOD. In this study, a novel method was developed to retrieve the nocturnal AOD based on a remote sensing instrument called the charge-coupled device-laser aerosol detective system (CCD-LADS). CCD-LADS consists of a CCD camera, a continuous laser, a fisheye lens, and related filters...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140131/effects-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-on-the-expression-of-tnf-family-molecules-in-murine-model-of-allergic-asthma
#10
Fei Shi, Yarui Zhang, Chen Qiu, Yi Xiong, Manhui Li, Aijun Shan, Ying Yang, Binbin Li
BACKGROUND: The tumor necrosis factor superfamily member LIGHT (the official gene symbol approved by NCBI Gene Database), an inflammatory factor secreted by T cells after allergen exposure, recently discovered to play crucial roles in asthmatic airway remodeling. However, it is unclear whether LIGHT could be controlled by inhaled corticosteroids, a key component of asthma management. This study was to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of inhaled budesonide on the expressions of LIGHT and its receptors (LTβR and HVEM) of lung tissues in ovalbumin-sensitized mice...
October 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140072/novel-aerosol-phase-extraction-method-for-the-determination-of-ca-k-mg-and-na-in-biodiesel-through-inductively-coupled-plasma-atomic-emission-spectrometry
#11
Raquel Sanchez, Salvador Maestre, Maria Soledad Prats Moya, José Luis Todoli
A novel extraction method was developed, optimized and validated for the elemental analysis of organic samples. The method, called aerosol phase extraction (APE), was based on the nebulization of the extracting aqueous solution (0.1 mol L-1 nitric acid) on the sample. The extraction was performed at the interface of each generated extractant droplets as they entered in contact with the samples. Afterwards, the phases were allowed to separate and Ca, K, Na and Mg were determined in aqueous phase by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES)...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138402/impacts-of-hemispheric-solar-geoengineering-on-tropical-cyclone-frequency
#12
Anthony C Jones, James M Haywood, Nick Dunstone, Kerry Emanuel, Matthew K Hawcroft, Kevin I Hodges, Andy Jones
Solar geoengineering refers to a range of proposed methods for counteracting global warming by artificially reducing sunlight at Earth's surface. The most widely known solar geoengineering proposal is stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), which has impacts analogous to those from volcanic eruptions. Observations following major volcanic eruptions indicate that aerosol enhancements confined to a single hemisphere effectively modulate North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the following years. Here we investigate the effects of both single-hemisphere and global SAI scenarios on North Atlantic TC activity using the HadGEM2-ES general circulation model and various TC identification methods...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138047/antibacterial-effect-and-dna-delivery-using-a-combination-of-an-arsonium-containing-lipophosphoramide-with-an-n-heterocyclic-carbene-silver-complex-potential-benefits-for-cystic-fibrosis-lung-gene-therapy
#13
Angélique Mottais, Mathieu Berchel, Yann Sibiril, Véronique Laurent, Deborah Gill, Stephen Hyde, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Tristan Montier, Tony Le Gall
Cystic Fibrosis (CF), the most common chronic genetic disorder among the Caucasian population, is a life-threatening disease mainly due to respiratory failures resulting from chronic infections and inflammation. Although research in the pharmacological field has recently made significant progress, gene therapy still remains a promising strategy to cure CF, especially because it should be applicable to any patient whatever the mutation profile. Until now, little attention has been paid to bacterial lung infections with regard to gene delivery to the airways; yet, this could greatly impact on the success of gene therapy...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137148/a-miniaturized-nickel-oxide-thermistor-via-aerosol-jet-technology
#14
Chia Wang, Guan-Yi Hong, Kuan-Ming Li, Hong-Tsu Young
In this study, a miniaturized thermistor sensor was produced using the Aerosol Jet printing process for temperature sensing applications. A nickel oxide nanoparticle ink with a large temperature coefficient of resistance was fabricated. The thermistor was printed with a circular NiO thin film in between the two parallel silver conductive tracks on a cutting tool insert. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a submillimeter scale, operates over a range of 30-250 °C sensitively (B value of ~4310 K) without hysteretic effects...
November 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136898/aerosol-dilution-as-a-simple-strategy-for-analysis-of-complex-samples-by-icp-ms
#15
Ariane I Barros, Fernanda C Pinheiro, Clarice D B Amaral, Rodolfo Lorençatto, Joaquim A Nóbrega
This study investigated the capability of High Matrix Introduction (HMI) strategy for analysis of dialysis solution and urine samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The use of HMI enables the direct introduction of urine samples and dialysis solutions 2-fold diluted with 0.14molL(-1) HNO3. Bismuth, Ge, Ir, Li, Pt, Rh, Sc and Tl were evaluated as internal standards for Al, Ag, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, and Hg determination in dialysis solution and As, Cd, Hg and Pb determination in urine samples...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136418/nano-object-release-during-machining-of-polymer-based-nanocomposites-depends-on-process-factors-and-the-type-of-nanofiller
#16
Yaobo Ding, Wendel Wohlleben, Mael Boland, Klaus Vilsmeier, Michael Riediker
We tested the nanomaterial release from composites during two different mechanical treatment processes, automated drilling and manual sawing. Polyurethane (PU) polymer discs (1-cm thickness and 11-cm diameter) were created using different nanomaterial fillers: multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), carbon black (CB), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and an unfilled PU control. Drilling generated far more submicron range particles than sawing. In the drilling experiments, none of the tested nanofillers showed a significant influence on particle number concentrations or sizes, except for the PU/MWCNT samples, from which larger particles were released than from control samples...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136129/comparison-of-respirable-mass-concentrations-measured-by-a-personal-dust-monitor-and-a-personal-dataram-to-gravimetric-measurements
#17
Andrew Halterman, Sinan Sousan, Thomas M Peters
In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135682/occupationally-induced-allergic-contact-dermatitis-to-aerosolized-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#18
Brandon G Shutty, Pamela L Scheinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135485/update-on-questionnaires-for-assessing-adherence-to-inhaler-devices-in-respiratory-patients
#19
Vicente Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been estimated that adherence to inhaled medications in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is around 50%. This low adherence rate increases morbidity and mortality of these disorders. The objective of this review was to update information on main questionnaires used in daily for assessing adherence to inhalers of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The test of the adherence to inhalers (TAI) is a recently developed and validated 12-item questionnaire to assess adherence to inhalers of aerosolized drugs in patients with asthma or COPD...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135231/solid-semi-solid-and-liquid-phase-states-of-individual-submicrometer-particles-directly-probed-using-atomic-force-microscopy
#20
Hansol D Lee, Kamal K Ray, Alexei V Tivanski
Currently, the impact of various phase states of aerosols on the climate is not well understood, especially for submicrometer sized aerosol particles that typically have extended life time in the atmosphere. This is largely due to the inherent size-limitations present in current experimental techniques that aim to directly assess the phase states of fine aerosol particles. Here-in we present a technique that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly probe for the phase states of individual, submicrometer particles by using nanoindentation and nano-Wilhelmy methodologies as a function of relative humidity (RH) and ambient temperature conditions...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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