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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332278/exposure-to-nanoscale-and-microscale-particulate-air-pollution-prior-to-mining-development-near-a-northern-indigenous-community-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#1
Avik J Ghoshdastidar, Zhenzhong Hu, Yevgen Nazarenko, Parisa A Ariya
This study serves as a baseline characterization of indoor and outdoor air quality in a remote northern indigenous community prior to the start of a major nearby mining operation, including measurements of nanoparticles, which has never been performed in this context before. We performed aerosol sample collection and real-time aerosol measurements at six different locations at the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi and the Montviel campsite, located 45 km west of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, in the south of the Nord-du-Québec region...
January 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331927/honeycomb-like-polysulphone-polyurethane-nanofiber-filter-for-the-removal-of-organic-inorganic-species-from-air-streams
#2
Xin Chen, Yang Xu, Meimei Liang, Qinfei Ke, Yuanyuan Fang, He Xu, Xiangyu Jin, Chen Huang
Nanofiber nonwoven filters, especially those prepared by electrospinning, are of particular interest because of their high filtration efficiency. However, existing electrospun filters suffer from inherent limitations in that both strengths and filtration resistances of the filters leave much to be desired. Herein, we present a novel nonwoven filter that is composed of polysulphone and polyurethane nanofibers. By mimicking the honeycomb structure, a heterogeneous distribution of both fiber diameter and fiber density has been achieved...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331671/the-molecular-characteristics-of-avian-influenza-viruses-h9n2-derived-from-air-samples-in-live-poultry-markets
#3
Yanheng Wu, Jinsi Lin, Shuhuan Yang, Ying Xie, Man Wang, Xueqin Chen, Yayang Zhu, Le Luo, Wuyang Shi
OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular characteristics of H9N2-subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from air samples collected in live poultry markets (LPMs) and explore their sequence identities with AIVs that caused human infection. METHODS: Weekly surveillance of H9N2-subtype AIVs in the air of LPMs was conducted from 2015 to 2016. H9-positive samples were isolated from chicken embryos. Whole genome sequences of the isolated AIVs were obtained through high-throughput sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330495/large-unexplained-suite-of-chemically-reactive-compounds-present-in-ambient-air-due-to-biomass-fires
#4
V Kumar, B P Chandra, V Sinha
Biomass fires impact global atmospheric chemistry. The reactive compounds emitted and formed due to biomass fires drive ozone and organic aerosol formation, affecting both air quality and climate. Direct hydroxyl (OH) Reactivity measurements quantify total gaseous reactive pollutant loadings and comparison with measured compounds yields the fraction of unmeasured compounds. Here, we quantified the magnitude and composition of total OH reactivity in the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plain. More than 120% increase occurred in total OH reactivity (28 s-1 to 64 s-1) and from no missing OH reactivity in the normal summertime air, the missing OH reactivity fraction increased to ~40 % in the post-harvest summertime period influenced by large scale biomass fires highlighting presence of unmeasured compounds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327190/chemical-characterization-and-quantitativ-e-assessment-of-source-specific-health-risk-of-trace-metals-in-pm1-0-at-a-road-site-of-delhi-india
#5
Jai Prakash, Tarachand Lohia, Anil K Mandariya, Gazala Habib, Tarun Gupta, Sanjay K Gupta
This study presents the concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1.0) collected during November, 2009 to March, 2010 at two road sites near the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus. In winter, PM1.0 composed 83% of PM2.5 indicating the dominance of combustion activity-generated particles. Principal component analysis (PCA) proved secondary aerosol formation as a dominant process in enhancing aerosol concentration at a receptor site along with biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, road dust, engine and tire tear wear, and secondary ammonia...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324800/hepcidin-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-do-not-alter-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-a-murine-m-tb-infection-model
#6
Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Elena Stylianou, Lucy A Eddowes, Pei Jin Lim, Lisa Stockdale, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Naomi Bull, Janet Pasricha, Marta Ulaszewska, Yulia Beglov, Sophie Vaulont, Hal Drakesmith, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the macrophage-tropic pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a highly prevalent infectious disease. Since an immune correlate of protection or effective vaccine have yet to be found, continued research into host-pathogen interactions is important. Previous literature reports links between host iron status and disease outcome for many infections, including TB. For some extracellular bacteria, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential for protection against infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323216/characterization-of-isoprene-derived-secondary-organic-aerosols-at-a-rural-site-in-north-china-plain-with-implications-for-anthropogenic-pollution-effects
#7
Jianjun Li, Gehui Wang, Can Wu, Cong Cao, Yanqin Ren, Jiayuan Wang, Jin Li, Junji Cao, Limin Zeng, Tong Zhu
Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) and the largest contributor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden on a global scale. In order to examine the influence of high concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants on isoprene-derived SOA (SOA i ) formation, summertime PM2.5 filter samples were collected with a three-hour sampling interval at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP), and determined for SOA i tracers and other chemical species. RO2+NO pathway derived 2-methylglyceric acid presented a relatively higher contribution to the SOA i due to the high-NOx (~20 ppb) conditions in the NCP that suppressed the reactive uptake of RO2+HO2 reaction derived isoprene epoxydiols...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323116/impact-on-short-lived-climate-forcers-increases-projected-warming-due-to-deforestation
#8
C E Scott, S A Monks, D V Spracklen, S R Arnold, P M Forster, A Rap, M Äijälä, P Artaxo, K S Carslaw, M P Chipperfield, M Ehn, S Gilardoni, L Heikkinen, M Kulmala, T Petäjä, C L S Reddington, L V Rizzo, E Swietlicki, E Vignati, C Wilson
The climate impact of deforestation depends on the relative strength of several biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. In addition to affecting the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere and surface albedo, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that alter the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which include aerosol, ozone and methane. Here we show that a scenario of complete global deforestation results in a net positive radiative forcing (RF; 0...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321303/infection-and-replication-of-influenza-virus-at-the-ocular-surface
#9
Hannah M Creager, Amrita Kumar, Hui Zeng, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Though influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#10
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319804/effects-of-agricultural-organic-dusts-on-human-lung-resident-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-function
#11
Tara M Nordgren, Kristina L Bailey, Art J Heires, Dawn Katafiasz, Debra J Romberger
Agricultural organic dust exposures trigger harmful airway inflammation, and workers experiencing repetitive dust exposures are at increased risk for lung disease. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) regulate wound repair processes in the lung, and may contribute to either pro-resolution or pro-fibrotic lung responses. It is unknown how organic dust exposures alter lung-resident MSC activation and pro-inflammatory versus pro-repair programs in the lung. To address this gap in knowledge, we isolated human lung-resident MSC from lung tissue...
January 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319734/a-prototype-single-port-device-for-pressurized-intraperitoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-technical-feasibility-and-local-drug-distribution
#12
Rafael Seitenfus, Paulo Roberto Walter Ferreira, Gabriel Oliveira Dos Santos, Rafael José Vargas Alves, Antonio Nocchi Kalil, Eduardo Dipp de Barros, Olivier Glehen, Thaís Andrade Costa Casagrande, Eduardo Aimoré Bonin, Edison Martins da Silva Junior
PURPOSE: To evaluate the technical feasibility and homogeneity of drug distribution of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) based on a novel process of intraperitoneal drug application (multidirectional aerosolization). METHODS: This was an in vivo experimental study in pigs. A single-port device was manufactured at the smallest diameter possible for multidirectional aerosolization of the chemotherapeutic drug under positive intraperitoneal pressure...
December 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317750/exhaled-air-dispersion-during-bag-mask-ventilation-and-sputum-suctioning-implications-for-infection-control
#14
Matthew T V Chan, Benny K Chow, Thomas Lo, Fanny W Ko, Susanna S Ng, Tony Gin, David S Hui
Mask ventilation and coughing during oro-tracheal suctioning produce aerosols that enhance nosocomial transmission of respiratory infections. We examined the extent of exhaled air dispersion from a human-patient-simulator during mask ventilation by different groups of healthcare workers and coughing bouts. The simulator was programmed to mimic varying severity of lung injury. Exhaled airflow was marked with tiny smoke particles, and highlighted by laser light-sheet. We determined the normalized exhaled air concentration in the leakage jet plume from the light scattered by smoke particles...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317668/hygroscopic-coating-of-sulfuric-acid-shields-oxidant-attack-on-the-atmospheric-pollutant-benzo-a-pyrene-bound-to-model-soot-particles
#15
Debajyoti Ray, Tara Shankar Bhattacharya, Abhijit Chatterjee, Achintya Singha, Sanjay K Ghosh, Sibaji Raha
Substantial impacts on climate have been documented for soot‒sulfuric acid (H2SO4) interactions in terms of optical and hygroscopic properties of soot aerosols. However, the influence of H2SO4 on heterogeneous chemistry on soot remains unexplored. Additionally, oxidation rate coefficients for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons intrinsic to the atmospheric particles evaluated in laboratory experiments seem to overestimate their degradation in ambient atmosphere, possibly due to matrix effects which are hitherto not mimicked in laboratory experiments...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315931/histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-lesions-in-an-acute-model-of-infection-with-balb-c-mice
#16
Waldo Luis García-Jiménez, Francisco J Salguero, Riccardo V D'Elia
Organ tissue damage is a key contributor to host morbidity and mortality following infection with microbial agents. Severe immune responses, excessive cellular recruitment and necrosis of cells all play a role in disease pathology. Understanding the pathogenesis of disease can aid in identifying potential new therapeutic targets or simply act as a diagnostic tool. Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause acute and chronic diseases. The BALB/c mouse has been shown to be highly susceptible to aerosol challenge with B...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315025/particulate-matter-emissions-of-different-brands-of-mentholated-cigarettes
#17
Julia Gerharz, Michael H K Bendels, Markus Braun, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg, Ruth Mueller
Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of non-smokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content were analyzed...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313074/source-apportionment-of-total-suspended-particles-tsp-by-positive-matrix-factorization-pmf-and-chemical-mass-balance-cmb-modeling-in-ahvaz-iran
#18
Khosro Ashrafi, Reza Fallah, Mostafa Hadei, Marayam Yarahmadi, Abbas Shahsavani
There is a compelling need for apportionment of pollutants' sources to facilitate their reduction through proper management plans. The present study was designed to determine the contribution of each possible source of total suspended particles in Ahvaz's ambient air using positive matrix factorization (PMF), chemical mass balance (CMB), and the SPECIATE database. The sampling program undertaken followed EPA's guidelines and finally resulted in 74 samples. The concentration of 33 elemental and 10 ionic species were measured during a whole year...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311480/tissue-clearing-techniques-enable-three-dimensional-visualization-of-aerosolized-model-compound-and-lung-structure-at-the-alveolar-scale
#19
Kohei Togami, Anri Kitayama, Takayuki Daisho, Rui Wang, Hitoshi Tada, Sumio Chono
In this study, we examined the usefulness of a tissue-clearing technique for the evaluation of the lung distribution of aerosolized drugs. An aerosol formulation of TexasRed dextran (70 kDa), a model compound of drug carrier for aerosolized drugs, was administered intrapulmonarily to mice using a MicroSprayer, and then DyLight 488-conjugated tomato lectin was administered intravenously to visualize general lung structure via the fluorescent labeling of alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue clearing followed by laser scanning confocal microscopy enabled the three-dimensional visualization of intrapulmonary TexasRed dextran and the evaluation of its distribution at the alveolar scale without the preparation of thin tissue sections...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311235/deletion-of-the-mfs-transporter-fptb-alters-host-cell-interactions-and-attenuates-the-virulence-of-type-a-francisella-tularensis
#20
Phillip M Balzano, Aimee L Cunningham, Christen Grassel, Eileen M Barry
Francisella tularensis is a Gram negative facultative intracellular coccobacillus that can infect a wide variety of hosts. In humans, F. tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia following insect bites, ingestion, inhalation, and the handling of infected animals. That a very small inoculum delivered by the aerosol route can cause severe disease, coupled with the possibility of its use as an aerosolized bioweapon, have led to the classification of Francisella tularensis as a Category A select agent and has renewed interest in the formulation of a vaccine...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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