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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810687/the-characterization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-northeastern-us-trucking-terminals
#1
Erica D Walker, Jaime E Hart, Eric Garshick, Jennifer M Cavallari, Mary E Davis, Thomas J Smith, Francine Laden
In recent years, significant attention has been given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures given their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. However, levels of exposure and the key determinants of exposure are not well defined for the trucking industry. We measured ultrafine particle characteristics at 10 trucking terminals of varying operating size and location in the Northeast region of the United States using particle concentration counter and a surface area analyzer. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess determinants of the concentration of total bound PAHs (tPAH), the total aerosol active surface area (AS), and the ratio tPAH/AS overall and individually within docks, trucking cabs, and administrative offices...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810686/sampling-efficiency-and-performance-of-selected-thoracic-aerosol-samplers
#2
Peter Görner, Xavier Simon, Alexis Boivin, Sébastien Bau
Measurement of worker exposure to a thoracic health-related aerosol fraction is necessary in a number of occupational situations. This is the case of workplaces with atmospheres polluted by fibrous particles, such as cotton dust or asbestos, and by particles inducing irritation or bronchoconstriction such as acid mists or flour dust. Three personal and two static thoracic aerosol samplers were tested under laboratory conditions. Sampling efficiency with respect to particle aerodynamic diameter was measured in a horizontal low wind tunnel and in a vertical calm air chamber...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810628/use-of-aerosol-inhalation-treatment-with-budesonide-and-terbutaline-sulfate-on-acute-pediatric-asthmatic-bronchitis
#3
Fangfang Bian, Yue-E Wu, Chong-Lin Zhang
The use of oxygen-driven aerosol inhalation therapy with budesonide (suspension) and terbutaline sulfate for the treatment of pediatric asthmatic bronchitis was studied. Sixty pediatric patients diagnosed with asthmatic bronchitis in Xuzhou Children's Hospital during the period comprising April 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled in the study. After randomly dividing the patients into a control (conventional dexamethasone drip) and a treatment group (inhalation of budesonide with terbutaline sulfate) of 30 patients each, the symptoms were treated using antibiotics when necessary...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810507/landscape-determinants-of-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-aerosol-optical-depth-in-the-two-most-polluted-metropolitans-in-the-united-states
#4
Chenghao Wang, Chuyuan Wang, Soe W Myint, Zhi-Hua Wang
Elevated concentration of atmospheric aerosols during severe urban air pollution episodes necessitates a deep understanding of the underlying determinants for a sustainable urban environment. The 15-year (2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data for the Phoenix and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas were applied to examine the spatio-temporal patterns and dynamics of urban aerosols. The strongly correlated temporal trends of AOD were observed due to the similar seasonal pattern of aerosol emissions and potential synoptic connections between two areas...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810205/chemical-composition-source-and-process-of-urban-aerosols-during-winter-haze-formation-in-northeast-china
#5
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yong Ren, Xin Wang, Zongbo Shi, Daizhou Zhang, Huizheng Che, Hujia Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Hongya Niu, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, A P Lingaswamy, Zifa Wang, Weijun Li
The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH4(+), SO4(2-), and NO3(-) concentrations in PM2.5 were 89...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809501/microencapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-a-hybrid-platform-for-pulmonary-antibiotic-delivery
#6
Diana P Gaspar, Maria Manuela Gaspar, Carla V Eleutério, Ana Grenha, Mateo Blanco, Lídia M D Gonçalves, Pablo Taboada, António J Almeida, Carmen Remuñán-López
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing rifabutin (RFB), with pulmonary administration purposes, were developed through a technique that avoids the use of organic solvents or sonication. To facilitate their pulmonary delivery, the RFB-loaded SLN were included in microspheres of appropriate size using suitable excipients (mannitol and trehalose) through a spray-drying technique. Confocal analysis microscopy showed that microspheres are spherical and that SLN are efficiently microencapsulated and homogeneously distributed throughout the microsphere matrices...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808506/the-knowledge-concerns-and-healthcare-practices-among-physicians-regarding-electronic-cigarettes
#7
Venkatkiran Kanchustambham, Swetha Saladi, Jonathan Rodrigues, Hermina Fernandes, Setu Patolia, Sadhashiv Santosh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver aerosolized nicotine. With easy access and over-the-counter availability, many patients consider using electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Few studies have looked at long-term safety/efficacy and physician knowledge/attitudes toward e-cigarettes. Physicians have insufficient guidelines for advising their patients about e-cigarettes. Objective: 1) To identify knowledge and attitude of health care practitioners toward electronic cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807905/pulmonary-pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-following-administration-of-dry-powder-aerosols-in-rats
#8
Yu-Wei Lin, Qi Tony Zhou, Yang Hu, Nikolas J Onufrak, Siping Sun, Jiping Wang, Alan Forrest, Hak-Kim Chan, Jian Li
Colistin has been administered via nebulization for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Recently, dry powder inhalation (DPI) has attracted increasing attention. The current study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma following DPI and intravenous (IV) administration in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given colistin as DPI intratracheally (0.66 and 1.32 mg base/kg) or IV injection (0.66 mg base/kg). Histopathological examination of lung tissue was performed at 24 h...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806693/persistence-of-urban-organic-aerosols-composition-decoding-their-structural-complexity-and-seasonal-variability
#9
João T V Matos, Regina M B O Duarte, Sónia P Lopes, Artur M S Silva, Armando C Duarte
Organic Aerosols (OAs) are typically defined as highly complex matrices whose composition changes in time and space. Focusing on time vector, this work uses two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) techniques to examine the structural features of water-soluble (WSOM) and alkaline-soluble organic matter (ASOM) sequentially extracted from fine atmospheric aerosols collected in an urban setting during cold and warm seasons. This study reveals molecular signatures not previously decoded in NMR-related studies of OAs as meaningful source markers...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806480/aerosolized-prostacyclins-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards
#10
REVIEW
Arash Afshari, Anders Bastholm Bille, Mikkel Allingstrup
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical condition that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.This review was originally published in 2010 and updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in adults and children with ARDS. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4); MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI BIOSIS Previews, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and three trials registers...
July 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805852/the-effect-of-sub-zero-temperature-on-the-formation-and-composition-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-ozonolysis-of-alpha-pinene
#11
K Kristensen, L N Jensen, M Glasius, M Bilde
This study presents a newly constructed temperature controlled cold-room smog chamber at Aarhus University, Denmark. The chamber is herein utilized to study the effect of sub-zero temperature on the formation and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene. The chemical composition of α-pinene SOA formed from dark ozonolysis of α-pinene at 293 K and 258 K was investigated using High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-qToF-MS)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802978/gas-phase-hydration-of-glyoxylic-acid-kinetics-and-atmospheric-implications
#12
Ling Liu, Xiuhui Zhang, Zesheng Li, Yunhong Zhang, Maofa Ge
Oxocarboxylic acids are one of the most important organic species found in secondary organic aerosols and can be detected in diverse environments. But the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere has still not been fully understood. Neglecting the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in atmospheric models may be one of the most important reasons for the significant discrepancies between field measurements and abundance predictions of atmospheric models for oxocarboxylic acids. In the present paper, glyoxylic acid, as the most abundant oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, has been selected as an example to study whether the hydration process can occur in the atmosphere and what the kinetic process of hydration is...
August 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802411/the-minipig-as-an-animal-model-to-study-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-natural-transmission
#13
Laylaa Ramos, Andres Obregon-Henao, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Richard Bowen, Joan K Lunney, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero
In endemic countries more than 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases are in infants and children. Current animal models study TB during adulthood but animal models for infant TB are scarce. Here we propose that minipigs can be used as an animal model to study adult, adolescent and infant TB including natural transmission. In these studies, two-month old minipigs (representing infant age in humans) and six-month old minipigs (representing adolescence in humans) were infected via the aerosol route with hyper-virulent clinical strain W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) HN878 and were monitored for 11 or 36 weeks post-challenge, respectively...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800690/community-airborne-particulate-matter-from-mining-for-sand-used-as-hydraulic-fracturing-proppant
#14
Thomas M Peters, Patrick T O'Shaughnessy, Ryan Grant, Ralph Altmaier, Elizabeth Swanton, Jeffrey Falk, David Osterberg, Edith Parker, Nancy G Wyland, Sinan Sousan, Aimee Liz Stark, Peter S Thorne
Field and laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of proppant sand mining and processing activities on community particulate matter (PM) concentrations. In field studies outside 17 homes within 800m of sand mining activities (mining, processing, and transport), respirable (PM4) crystalline silica concentrations were low (<0.4μg/m(3)) with crystalline silica detected on 7 samples (2% to 4% of mass). In long-term monitoring at 6 homes within 800m of sand mining activities, the highest daily mean PM concentrations observed were 14...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800534/molecular-understanding-of-the-interaction-of-methyl-hydrogen-sulfate-with-ammonia-dimethylamine-water
#15
Xia Sheng, Hailiang Zhao, Lin Du
Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ (aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z for sulfur) level were used to investigate the contribution of methyl hydrogen sulfate (MHS) to new particle formation with the common atmospheric aerosol nucleation precursors including water (H2O), ammonia (NH3), and dimethylamine (DMA). A typical characteristic feature of the MHS-containing complexes is the formation of six- or eight-membered ring structures via SOH⋯O (MHS donor), OH⋯O/N (H2O donor) and NH⋯O/N (NH3/DMA donor). The stability of the complexes was evaluated based on the calculated binding energies...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800484/characteristics-of-elemental-and-pb-isotopic-compositions-in-aerosols-pm10-2-5-at-the-ieodo-ocean-research-station-in-the-east-china-sea
#16
Sanghee Lee, Changhee Han, Daechol Shin, Soon Do Hur, Seong Joon Jun, Young-Taeg Kim, Do-Seong Byun, Sungmin Hong
A total of 82 aerosol samples (PM10-2.5) were collected from June 18, 2015 to October 1, 2016 at the remote sea site, the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), in the East China Sea. Samples were analyzed for 10 elements (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Pb) as well as Pb isotopic composition to characterize temporal variations in elemental concentration levels, and to identify the potential source regions of atmospheric pollutants transported over the remote East China Sea. The results showed that the annual average element concentrations were lowest compared to those at different sites in East Asia, suggesting a very clean background area of IORS, with values ranging from 114 ng m(-3) for Al to 0...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800483/assessment-of-aod-variability-over-saudi-arabia-using-modis-deep-blue-products
#17
Mohsin Jamil Butt, Mazen Ebraheem Assiri, Md Arfan Ali
The aim of this study is to investigate the variability of aerosol over The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For this analysis, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue (DB) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product from Terra and Aqua satellites for the years 2000-2013 is used. The product is validated using AERONET data from ground stations, which are situated at Solar Village Riyadh and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Jeddah. The results show that both Terra and Aqua satellites exhibit a tendency to show the spatial variation of AOD with Aqua being better than Terra to represent the ground based AOD measurements over the study region...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799371/a-computational-component-analysis-of-dielectric-relaxation-and-thz-spectra-of-water-aot-reverse-micelles-with-different-water-loading
#18
Michael Schmollngruber, Daniel Braun, Othmar Steinhauser
In this computational study, we present molecular dynamics simulations of water/aerosol-OT/isooctane reverse micelles with different water loading. We compare these systems in terms of a detailed analysis of dielectric relaxation spectra and water librations in the THz region. The spectra are decomposed into contributions by molecular species and contributions from individual water solvation shells. Additionally, micellar tumbling motion is shown to have a profound influence on the observed dielectric relaxation spectra, if relaxation by internal reorganization and micellar tumbling occurs within similar time scales...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799338/negative-ion-photoelectron-spectra-of-iso3-is2o3-and-is2o4-intermediates-formed-in-interfacial-reactions-of-ozone-and-iodide-sulfite-aqueous-microdroplets
#19
Zhengbo Qin, Gao-Lei Hou, Zheng Yang, Marat Valiev, Xue-Bin Wang
Three short-lived, anionic intermediates, ISO3(-), IS2O3(-), and IS2O4(-), are detected during reactions between ozone and aqueous iodine/sulfur oxide microdroplets. These species may play an important role in ozone-driven inorganic aerosol formation; however their chemical properties remain largely unknown. This is the issue addressed in this work using negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab initio modeling. The NIPE spectra reveal that all of the three anionic species are characterized by high adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) - 4...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798919/the-use-of-bioaerosol-sampling-for-airborne-virus-surveillance-in-swine-production-facilities-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin D Anderson, John A Lednicky, Montserrat Torremorell, Gregory C Gray
Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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