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Jian Wang, Radovan Krejci, Scott Giangrande, Chongai Kuang, Henrique M J Barbosa, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Jennifer Comstock, Florian Ditas, Jost Lavric, Hanna E Manninen, Fan Mei, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Beat Schmid, Rodrigo A F Souza, Stephen R Springston, Jason M Tomlinson, Tami Toto, David Walter, Daniela Wimmer, James N Smith, Markku Kulmala, Luiz A T Machado, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O Andreae, Tuukka Petäjä, Scot T Martin
The nucleation of atmospheric vapours is an important source of new aerosol particles that can subsequently grow to form cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Most field studies of atmospheric aerosols over continents are influenced by atmospheric vapours of anthropogenic origin (for example, ref. 2) and, in consequence, aerosol processes in pristine, terrestrial environments remain poorly understood. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions, but the origin of small aerosol particles that grow into cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon boundary layer remains unclear...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Chen Wang, Ying Duan Lei, Frank Wania
Dissolved inorganic salt(s) influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amount of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na2SO4, NH4Cl and NH4NO3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4. Salt mixtures were also tested in order to establish whether the salt effect is additive...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
J S Arora, J C Cremaldi, M K Holleran, T Ponnusamy, B Sunkara, J He, N S Pesika, V T John
The surface chemistry and topography govern the spreading of liquids on a solid. When an oil drop makes a contact angle, θ > 90° on a solid surface, the solid is termed as oleophobic. Adding roughness to an inherently oleophobic surface enhances its oil dewetting and can lead to superoleophobicity when θ > 150°. In this study, we introduce the concept of a two-tier hierarchical roughness on the surface of soft materials such as hydrogels by forming the patterned inverse replica of breath figure polymer films impregnated with nanoparticles...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Wan-Yi Li, Xia Li, Steffen Jockusch, Han Wang, Bolei Xu, Yajing Wu, William Gang Tsui, Hai-Lung Dai, V Faye McNeill, Yi Rao
Photoactivated reactions of organic species in atmospheric aerosol particles are a potentially significant source of secondary organic aerosol material (SOA). Despite recent progress, the dominant chemical mechanisms and rates of these reactions remain largely unknown. In this work, we characterize the photo-physical properties and photochemical reaction mechanisms of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) in aqueous solution, alone and in the presence of isoprene. IC has been shown previously in laboratory studies to participate in photoactivated chemistry in aerosols, and is a known in-particle reaction product of glyoxal...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Javier Castro Jimenez, Belén González-Gaya, Mariana Pizarro, Paulo Casal, Cristina Pizarro-Alvarez, Jordi Dachs
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers and have been detected ubiquitously in the remote atmosphere. Fourteen OPEs were analysed in one hundred fifteen aerosol phase samples collected from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans during the MALASPINA circumnavigation campaign. OPEs were detected in all samples with concentrations ranging from 360 to 4400 pg m-3 for the sum of compounds. No clear concentration trends were found between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Priya Muralidharan, Don Hayes, Stephen M Black, Heidi M Mansour
This systematic and comprehensive study reports for the first time on the successful rational design of advanced inhalable therapeutic dry powders containing dimethyl fumarate, a first-in-class Nrf2 activator drug to treat pulmonary inflammation, using particle engineering design technology for targeted delivery to the lungs as advanced spray dried (SD) one-component DPIs. In addition, two-component co-spray dried (co-SD) DMF:D-Man DPIs with high drug loading were successfully designed for targeted lung delivery as advanced DPIs using organic solution advanced spray drying in closed mode...
2016: Mol Syst Des Eng
Peter Marchand, Sanjayan Sathasivam, Benjamin A D Williamson, David Pugh, Salem M Bawaked, Sulaiman N Basahel, Abdullah Y Obaid, David O Scanlon, Ivan P Parkin, Claire J Carmalt
This paper reports the synthesis of the novel single-source precursor, [{(MeInAs (t) Bu)3}2(Me2InAs( (t) Bu)H)2] and the subsequent first report of aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition of InAs thin films. Owing to the use of the single-source precursor, highly crystalline and stoichiometric films were grown at a relatively low deposition temperature of 450 °C. Core level XPS depth profiling studies showed some partial oxidation of the film surface, however this was self-limiting and disappeared on etch profiles...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. C, Materials for Optical and Electronic Devices
M O'Sullivan, A Rap, C L Reddington, D V Spracklen, M Gloor, W Buermann
The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of growing carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning enhanced the diffuse light fraction and the efficiency of plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of models, we estimate that at global scale changes in light regimes from fossil fuel aerosol emissions had only a small negative effect on the increase in terrestrial net primary production over the period 1998-2010...
August 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
Hannah M Creager, Hui Zeng, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Infection of adherent cell monolayers using a liquid inoculum represents an established method to reliably and quantitatively study virus infection, but poorly recapitulates the exposure and infection of cells in the respiratory tract that occurs during infection with aerosolized pathogens. To better simulate natural infection in vitro, we adapted a system that generates viral aerosols similar to those exhaled by infected humans to the inoculation of epithelial cell monolayers. Procedures for cellular infection and calculation of exposure dose were developed and tested using viruses characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenicity phenotypes: an HPAI H5N1, an LPAI H7N9, and a seasonal H3N2 virus...
October 20, 2016: Virology
Susumu Ishiguro, Nabil A Alhakamy, Deepthi Uppalapati, Jennifer Delzeit, Cory J Berkland, Masaaki Tamura
To evaluate the potential of cell-penetrating peptide-based delivery of apoptosis-inducer gene in cancer therapy, a modified HIV-1 TAT peptide (dimerized TAT peptide, dTAT) was studied. The dTAT and plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes (dTAT-pDNA) were condensed using calcium chloride (dTAT-pDNA-Ca(2+)). This simple nonviral formulation approach showed high levels of gene expression in vitro without any cytotoxicity. In mouse studies, a single intratracheal (IT) aerosol spray or 2 intravenous (IV) injections of the dTAT, apoptosis-inducer gene, angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R), and Ca(2+) complexes (dTAT-pAT2R-Ca(2+)) significantly attenuated the acutely growing mouse Lewis lung carcinoma allografts in mouse lungs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jennifer H Madenspacher, Michael B Fessler
Although community-acquired pneumonia remains a major public health problem, murine models of bacterial pneumonia have recently facilitated significant preclinical advances in our understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular pathogenesis. In vivo mouse models capture the integrated physiology and resilience of the host defense response in a manner not revealed by alternative, simplified ex vivo approaches. Several methods have been described in the literature for intrapulmonary inoculation of bacteria in mice, including aerosolization, intranasal delivery, peroral endotracheal cannulation under 'blind' and visualized conditions, and transcutaneous endotracheal cannulation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J Kyle Bohannon, Krisztina Janosko, Michael R Holbrook, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jiro Wada, Jens H Kuhn, Matthew G Lackemeyer
Aerosol or inhalational studies of high-consequence pathogens have recently been increasing in number due to the perceived threat of intentional aerosol releases or unexpected natural aerosol transmission. Specific laboratories designed to perform these experiments require tremendous engineering controls to provide a safe and secure working environment and constant systems maintenance to sustain functionality. Class III biosafety cabinets, also referred to as gloveboxes, are gas-tight enclosures with non-opening windows...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Erwann Le Gendre, Erwan Martin, Benoit Villemant, Pierre Cartigny, Nelly Assayag
RATIONALE: The O- and S- isotope compositions of sulfates can be used as key tracers of the fate and sink of sulfate in both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial environments. However, their application remains limited in those geological systems where sulfate occurs in low concentrations. Here we present a simple and reliable method to extract, purify and concentrate sulfate from natural samples. The method allows us to take into account the separation of nitrate, which is known to be an issue in O-isotope analysis...
October 21, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Johanneke D Hemmink, Sophie B Morgan, Mario Aramouni, Helen Everett, Francisco J Salguero, Laetitia Canini, Emily Porter, Margo Chase-Topping, Katy Beck, Ronan Mac Loughlin, B Veronica Carr, Ian H Brown, Mick Bailey, Mark Woolhouse, Sharon M Brookes, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian
Influenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. We evaluated the shedding pattern, cytokine responses in nasal swabs and immune responses following delivery of low or high dose swine influenza pdmH1N1 virus to the respiratory tract of pigs intra-nasally or by aerosol and compared them to those induced in naturally infected contact pigs...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
James M Cash, Mathew R Heal, Ben Langford, Julia Drewer
The atmospheric reactions leading to the generation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of isoprene are generally assumed to produce only racemic mixtures, but aspects of the chemical reactions suggest this may not be the case. In this review, the stereochemical outcomes of published isoprene-degradation mechanisms contributing to high amounts of SOA are evaluated. Despite evidence suggesting isoprene first-generation oxidation products do not contribute to SOA directly, this review suggests the stereochemistry of first-generation products may be important because their stereochemical configurations may be retained through to the second-generation products which form SOA...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Xiang Li, Timothy R Dallmann, Andrew A May, Daniel S Tkacik, Andrew T Lambe, John T Jayne, Philip L Croteau, Albert A Presto
We measured the gas-particle partitioning of vehicle emitted primary organic aerosol (POA) in a traffic tunnel with three independent methods: artifact corrected bare-quartz filters, thermodenuder (TD) measurements, and thermal-desorption gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Results from all methods consistently show that vehicle emitted POA measured in the traffic tunnel is semivolatile under a wide range of fleet compositions and ambient conditions. We compared the gas-particle partitioning of POA measured in both tunnel and dynamometer studies and found that volatility distributions measured in the traffic tunnel are similar to volatility distributions measured in the dynamometer studies, and predict similar gas-particle partitioning in the TD...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yoshihiko Imanaka, Toshihisa Anazawa, Toshio Manabe, Hideyuki Amada, Sachio Ido, Fumiaki Kumasaka, Naoki Awaji, Gabriel Sánchez-Santolino, Ryo Ishikawa, Yuichi Ikuhara
The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
J Quiralte-Castillo, M Del Robledo Ávila-Castellano, S Cimbollek, P Benaixa, S Leguisamo, K Baynova, M Labella, J Quiralte
BACKGROUND: Safer and less time consuming alternatives to single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenge (SBPCOC) in order to diagnose aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) have been searched for. Nasal challenges with different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and assessment methods have been developed. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of nasal ketorolac challenge (NKC) using an acoustic rhinomether in patients with suspected AERD Methods: Thirty-six patients with suspected AERD were included in the study...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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