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Hyperprolactinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781512/natural-history-of-rathke-s-cleft-cysts-a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-two-centers-experience
#1
Elisa Sala, Justin M Moore, Alvaro Amorin, Giulia Carosi, Hector Martinez, Griffith R Harsh, Maura Arosio, Giovanna Mantovani, Laurence Katznelson
OBJECTIVE: Rathke's Cleft Cyst (RCC) is a common sellar lesion which may cause visual impairment, hypopituitarism, and headaches from mass effect. The natural history of these lesions is currently unclear. We investigated the natural history of RCCs and compared surgically treated patients with those treated conservatively. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with a RCC between 1996 and 2016 at Stanford University and Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778097/hyperprolactinemia-inducing-antipsychotics-increase-breast-cancer-risk-by-activating-jak-stat5-in-precancerous-lesions
#2
A N Johnston, W Bu, S Hein, S Garcia, L Camacho, L Xue, L Qin, C Nagi, S G Hilsenbeck, J Kapali, K Podsypanina, J Nangia, Y Li
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric medications are widely prescribed in the USA. Many antipsychotics cause serum hyperprolactinemia as an adverse side effect; prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling both induces cell differentiation and suppresses apoptosis. It is controversial whether these antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the impact of several antipsychotics on mammary tumorigenesis initiated by retrovirus-mediated delivery of either ErbB2 or HRas or by transgenic expression of Wnt-1...
May 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768629/controversial-issues-in-the-management-of-hyperprolactinemia-and-prolactinomas-an-overview-by-the-neuroendocrinology-department-of-the-brazilian-society-of-endocrinology-and-metabolism
#3
Lucio Vilar, Julio Abucham, José Luciano Albuquerque, Luiz Antônio Araujo, Monalisa F Azevedo, Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Luiz Augusto Casulari, Malebranche B C Cunha Neto, Mauro A Czepielewski, Felipe H G Duarte, Manuel Dos S Faria, Monica R Gadelha, Heraldo M Garmes, Andrea Glezer, Maria Helane Gurgel, Raquel S Jallad, Manoel Martins, Paulo A C Miranda, Renan M Montenegro, Nina R C Musolino, Luciana A Naves, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Júnior, Cíntia M S Silva, Camila Viecceli, Marcello D Bronstein
Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. In contrast, most patients with stalk dysfunction, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia or systemic diseases present with PRL levels < 100 ng/mL. However, exceptions to these rules are not rare...
March 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767567/impact-of-ntrk2-drd2-and-ace-polymorphisms-on-prolactin-levels-in-antipsychotic-treated-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#4
Patricia Gassó, Sergi Mas, Miquel Bioque, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Salvador Sarró, Anna Mané, Julio Sanjuan, Adrián Llerena, Amalia Lafuente, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is a common side-effect of antipsychotics (APs), which may trigger serious secondary problems and compromise the adherence to treatment which is crucial for prognosis, especially in patients presenting with a first-episode of psychosis (FEP). AIMS: We evaluated, in some cases for the first time, the effect of polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes on serum prolactin (PRL) levels in an AP-treated FEP cohort recruited in the multicenter PEPs study (Phenotype - genotype and environmental interaction; Application of a predictive model in first psychotic episodes)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752634/bilateral-mastectomy-as-radical-treatment-of-gynecomastia-secondary-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-low-income-setting-a-case-report
#5
Mario Antunes, Marcella Schiavone, Damiano Pizzol, Francesco Di Gennaro, Rossana Ludovico, Angela De Palma
Gynecomastia is a common finding in males, with an incidence that varies widely globally. In 10-25% of cases, it is caused by drugs. Its pathophysiologic mechanism includes exposure to exogenous estrogens and medications that cause hypogonadism, antiandrogenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. Gynecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly efavirenz. Sometimes surgery may be required as treatment. We report a case of a 46-year-old man receiving ART presenting with a marked bilateral breast enlargement who underwent bilateral mastectomy as the only successful treatment in a low-income setting...
May 11, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739353/changes-in-serum-prolactin-level-during-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-and-effect-on-clinical-pregnancy-rate-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Ahmed Kamel, Ayman A Halim, Mohamed Shehata, Salwa AlFarra, Yahia El-Faissal, Wafaa Ramadan, Ahmed M Hussein
BACKGROUND: Transient hyperprolactinemia was proven to adversely affect the outcome of IVF. We aimed to identify changes in serum prolactin levels in patients undergoing ICSI, and to evaluate the effect of these changes on the clinical pregnancy rate. METHODS: A prospective observational study included 90 patients scheduled for ICSI cycles. In each case 4 serum samples were collected during the cycle (midluteal, before ovum pick up procedure (OPU), 2 h after OPU, and before embryo transfer)...
May 9, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728863/igf-1-levels-may-increase-paradoxically-with-dopamine-agonist-treatment-for-prolactinomas
#7
Amit Akirov, Yona Greenman, Benjamin Glaser, Irena S'chigol, Yossi Mansiterski, Yoav Eizenberg, Ilana Shraga-Slutzky, Ilan Shimon
OBJECTIVE: Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of ten prolactinoma patients (nine males, mean age 48 ± 14 years)...
May 4, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708436/prolactin-levels-do-not-rise-among-transgender-women-treated-with-estradiol-and-spironolactone
#8
Jason R Bisson, Kelly J Chan, Joshua D Safer
CONTEXT: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transfeminine hormone treatment there is a need to monitor prolactin levels. Also, recent studies suggest that use of cyproterone acetate as an adjunctive anti-androgen during transgender hormone treatment may elevate serum prolactin. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether the reported relationship between transfeminine estradiol treatment and hyperprolactinemia would be evident when the regimen used spironolactone as the adjunctive anti-androgen...
April 30, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694255/serum-prolactin-level-in-chronic-urticaria-is-promocriptine-inducing-remission-in-chronic-urticaria
#9
Mohamed Soliman, Fathia M Khattab, Mohamad Nasr
BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a disturbing disease with a negative impact on quality of life. Despite of several clinical studies on CU patients, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Prolactin (PRL) is peptide hormone has immunomodulatory effects in some immune inflammatory skin diseases. AIM: To elucidate any possible relationship between the immunomodulatory effects of Prolactin (PRL) and CU. Besides, the study aims to investigate the crucial role of antiprolactin drugs in the management of CU patients...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686164/-treatment-of-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-technical-note-for-preservation-of-pituitary-function
#10
Miiko Ito, Kenichiro Matsuda, Atsushi Kuge, Shinya Sato, Takamasa Kayama, Yukihiko Sonoda
Pituitary dysfunction, such as panhypopituitarism or diabetes insipidus(DI), is often found in patients with Rathke's cleft cyst. Patients were treated with transsphenoidal microscopic surgery; however, pituitary dysfunction did not usually recover. Recently, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery(eTSS)has enabled minimally invasive surgery for patients with Rathke's cleft cyst. In this study, we analyzed 22 consecutive patients with Rathke's cleft cyst who underwent eTSS to determine if pituitary dysfunction recovered...
April 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684108/pituitary-diseases-and-bone
#11
Gherardo Mazziotti, Stefano Frara, Andrea Giustina
Neuroendocrinology of bone is a new area of research based on the evidence that pituitary hormones may directly modulate bone remodeling and metabolism. Skeletal fragility associated with high risk of fractures is a common complication of several pituitary diseases such as hypopituitarism, Cushing disease, acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these clinical settings...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660734/interpretation-of-serum-gonadotropin-levels-in-hyperprolactinemia
#12
Ali Abbara, Sophie A Clarke, Alexander Nesbitt, Sabreen Ali, Alexander N Comninos, Emma Hatfield, Niamh Martin, Amir Sam, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Serum gonadotropin values were reviewed in 243 patients with elevated serum monomeric prolactin due to discrete etiologies at a tertiary reproductive endocrine centre between 2012 and 2015...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568783/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-raises-prolactin-and-causes-secondary-hypogonadism-case-report
#13
Lauren LaBryer, Rohan Sharma, Kaustubh Suresh Chaudhari, Mitali Talsania, Robert Hal Scofield
Background. Kratom is a drug derived from the leaves of the tree Mitragyna speciose , which is native to southern Thailand. The route of administration is oral. Kratom has become increasingly available in the United States. The active ingredients in the drug bind the opioid mu-receptor; therefore, kratom has similar physiological effects as mu-opioids. Elevated prolactin is a common medical condition frequently caused by a variety drugs, including opioids. Case Report. A 42-year-old man presented with poor energy and low libido...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555319/fertility-and-infertility-definition-and-epidemiology
#14
REVIEW
Mélodie Vander Borght, Christine Wyns
Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of reproductive-aged couples worldwide. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases but contribute to 50% of cases overall. Secondary infertility is the most common form of female infertility around the globe, often due to reproductive tract infections. The three major factors influencing the spontaneous probability of conception are the time of unwanted non-conception, the age of the female partner and the disease-related infertility...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553042/a-rare-cause-of-hypothalamic-obesity-rohhad-syndrome-2-cases
#15
Ülkü Gül Şiraz, Deniz Okdemir, Gül Direk, Leyla Akın, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Mustafa Kendırcı, Selim Kurtoğlu
Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnosis and distinguish from genetic obesity syndromes. The underlying causes of the disease has not been fully explained. Hypothalamic dysfunction causes endocrine problems, respiratory dysfunction and autonomic alterations. There are around 80 reported patients due to lack of recognition. We present two female patient suspected of ROHHAD due to weight gain since early childhood...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551354/the-antipsychotics-sulpiride-induces-fatty-liver-in-rats-via-phosphorylation-of-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-at-serine-307-mediated-adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance
#16
Xia Zhou, Liying Ren, Zhiling Yu, Xiaoqian Huang, Yuhao Li, Chunxia Wang
Cumulative evidence has suggested that many antipsychotics cause metabolic abnormalities. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities including fatty liver by inducing excessive free fatty acid release from adipose tissue. Sulpiride is an old antipsychotic still frequently used in many developing countries. However, its adverse metabolic effects remain poorly understood. Here, chronic administration of sulpiride (80 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 6 weeks) elevated fasting insulin concentration and the index of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in rats...
April 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546865/hyperprolactinemia-as-a-side-effect-of-long-acting-injectable-risperidone-therapy-or-a-symptom-of-klinefelter-syndrome-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-dilemma
#17
Nera Zivlak-Radulovic, Visnja Banjac, Mirjana Miskovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543211/-preoperative-and-postoperative-endocrine-disorders-associated-with-pituitary-stalk-injuries-caused-by-suprasellar-growing-tumors
#18
B A Kadashev, A N Konovalov, L I Astaf'eva, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, I S Klochkova, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D N Andreev
The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537383/abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-adolescents
#19
Selin Elmaoğulları, Zeyra Aycan
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major gynecologic complaint of adolescents admitting to hospital. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of AUB. Anovulatory cycles owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the leading etiology of HMB and there is an accompanying bleeding disorder in almost %20 of patients with HMB. Additionally, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are possible causes of AUB...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528819/idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis-manifestations-at-multimodality-imaging-and-pitfalls
#20
Cedric W Pluguez-Turull, Jennifer E Nanyes, Cristina J Quintero, Hamza Alizai, Daniel D Mais, Kenneth A Kist, Nella C Dornbluth
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign inflammatory breast entity characterized by lobulocentric granulomas. IGM has a persistent or recurrent disease course and affects parous premenopausal women with a history of lactation. It has also been associated with hyperprolactinemia. The most common clinical sign is a palpable tender mass. However, the nonspecific manifestations and varied demographic features of this condition, as well as the other similar-appearing and superimposed breast entities, pose substantial diagnostic challenges...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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