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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329954/comparative-myology-of-the-ankle-of-leopardus-wiedii-and-l-geoffroyi-carnivora-felidae-functional-consistency-with-osteology-locomotor-habits-and-hunting-in-captivity
#1
Miriam M Morales, S Rocío Moyano, Agustina M Ortiz, Marcos D Ercoli, Luis I Aguado, Sergio A Cardozo, Norberto P Giannini
Leopardus wiedii (margay) is the only arboreal Neotropical felid able to climb head-first down trees, due to its ability to rotate its tarsal joint 180°. A closely related, similar-sized species, L. geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat) exhibits more typical terrestrial habits and lacks the arboreal capabilities of L. wiedii. There is osteological evidence that supports a mechanical specialization of L. wiedii's tarsal joint for inversion, but there have been no studies on the myology of this specialization. Based on comparative gross-anatomy dissections of zeugo- and autopodial muscles related to the ankle joint of one margay specimen and two Geoffroýs cats, we identified myological specializations of L...
December 26, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324667/dietary-resveratrol-does-not-affect-life-span-body-composition-stress-response-and-longevity-related-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Stefanie Staats, Anika E Wagner, Bianca Kowalewski, Florian T Rieck, Sebastian T Soukup, Sabine E Kulling, Gerald Rimbach
In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323417/loss-of-ethanol-inhibition-of-nmdar-mediated-currents-and-plasticity-of-cerebellar-synapses-in-mice-expressing-the-glun1-f639a-subunit
#3
Paula A Zamudio-Bulcock, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are well known for their sensitivity to ethanol inhibition. However, the specific manner in which ethanol inhibits channel activity and how such inhibition affects neurotransmission, and ultimately behavior, remain unclear. Replacement of phenylalanine 639 with alanine (F639A) in the GluN1 subunit reduces ethanol inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptors. Mice expressing this subunit show reduced ethanol-induced anxiolysis, blunted locomotor stimulation following low dose ethanol administration and faster recovery of motor function after moderate doses of ethanol suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to some of these behaviors...
January 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320818/zoonotic-trematode-metacercariae-in-fish-from-yangon-myanmar-and-their-adults-recovered-from-experimental-animals
#4
Jong-Yil Chai, Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Jong-Bok Park, Hoo-Gn Jeoung, Eui-Hyug Hoang, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin
A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic trematode (ZT) metacercariae in fish from a local market in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 264 fish (12 species) were collected through 4 times from December 2013 to June 2015. All collected fish were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. More than 7 species of ZT metacercariae, i.e., Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318571/fiber-type-composition-of-epaxial-muscles-is-geared-toward-facilitating-rapid-spinal-extension-in-the-leaper-galago-senegalensis
#5
Emranul Huq, Andrea B Taylor, Zuowei Su, Christine E Wall
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the vertical leaper Galago senegalensis will have epaxial extensor muscles with a fast fiber phenotype to facilitate rapid spinal extension during leaping in comparison to the slow-moving quadruped Nycticebus coucang. To test this, we determined the percentage of fiber cross-sectional area (%CSA) devoted to Type 2 fibers in epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis compared to those of N. coucang. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers in iliocostalis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles of G...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316623/neurodegeneration-and-sensorimotor-deficits-in-the-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Saurav Bhowmick, Veera D'Mello, Nizmi Ponery, P M Abdul-Muneer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and annexin V western blotting...
January 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315350/gluteal-muscle-damage-leads-to-higher-in-vivo-hip-joint-loads-3-months-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#7
Philipp Damm, Jip Zonneveld, Sophie Brackertz, Florian Streitparth, Tobias Winkler
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is in most cases improving patients´ life quality immediately after surgery. However, a closer look at these patients, especially with modern gait analysis methods, reveals also negative consequences due to the surgical approach related injury to the pelvic muscles. We hypothesized that this damage will have a negative impact on hip joint contact forces during activities of daily living (ADL). METHODS: 10 patients undergoing THA received an instrumented hip joint implant enabling real time in vivo measurements of hip joint loads using a direct lateral approach...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315315/quantification-of-intramuscular-fat-in-patients-with-late-onset-pompe-disease-by-conventional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-long-term-follow-up-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy
#8
André Lollert, Clemens Stihl, Andreas M Hötker, Eugen Mengel, Jochem König, Katharina Laudemann, Seyfullah Gökce, Christoph Düber, Gundula Staatz
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a quantitative method based on conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess fatty muscular degeneration in patients with late-onset Pompe disease and to compare it with semi-quantitative visual evaluation (the Mercuri score). In addition, a long-term retrospective data analysis was performed to evaluate treatment response to enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa. METHODS: MR images of the lumbar spine were acquired in 41 patients diagnosed with late-onset Pompe disease from 2006 through 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310652/what-makes-patients-aware-of-their-artificial-knee-joint
#9
F L Loth, M C Liebensteiner, J M Giesinger, K Giesinger, H R Bliem, B Holzner
BACKGROUND: Joint awareness was recently introduced as a new concept for outcome assessment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Findings from qualitative and psychometric studies suggest that joint awareness is a distinct concept especially relevant to patients with good surgical outcome and patients at late follow-up time points. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the concept of joint awareness by identifying situations in which patients are aware of their artificial knee joint and to investigate what bodily sensations and psychological factors raise a patient's awareness of her/his knee...
January 8, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305941/traumatic-urethraggia-in-adolescence-ushering-in-the-new-age-of-extreme-sports
#10
I Hodge, A Adam, M Chennapragada, A Tiu, A V Deshpande
Herein we describe a case of a 14-year-old with straddle injury to the base of the penis, sustained during an indoor rock climbing accident, who presented with severe urethrragia. Urethral injury was confirmed with retrograde urethrography. The patient became haemodynamically unstable from persistent blood loss, and corporal arterial injury was diagnosed on CT angiography. The urethraggia was successfully controlled with angioembolisation. The unique aspects of this case were the challenges in establishing the diagnosis on the background of the abnormal presentation of vascular injury of blood loss as opposed to painless priapism...
January 3, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304497/predictors-of-hematological-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-fingolimod-and-dimethyl-fumarate-and-impact-of-treatment-switch-on-lymphocyte-and-leukocyte-count
#11
M Baharnoori, C T Gonzalez, A Chua, C Diaz-Cruz, B C Healy, J Stankiewicz, H L Weiner, T Chitnis
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding the predictors of hematological abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) or fingolimod (FNG), and the impact of treatment switch on lymphocyte and leukocyte count METHODS: We identified 405 patients on DMF and 300 patients on FNG (treatment duration: at least 12 month) within a large prospective study of MS patients conducted at the Partners MS Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB study) between Jan 2011 to Feb 2016...
December 14, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300061/fabrication-of-an-artificial-nanosucker-device-with-a-large-area-nanotube-array-of-metallic-glass
#12
Wei-Ting Chen, Karthikeyan Manivannan, Chia-Chi Yu, Jinn P Chu, Jem-Kun Chen
The concurrent attachment and detachment movements of geckos on virtually any type of surface via their foot pads have inspired us to develop a thermal device with numerous arrangements of a multi-layer thin film together with electrodes that can help modify the temperature of the surface via application of a voltage. A sequential fabrication process was employed on a large-scale integration to generate well-defined contact hole arrays of photoresist for use as templates on the electrode-based device. The photoresist templates were then subjected to sputter deposition of the metallic glass Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5...
January 4, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298956/inversion-of-friction-anisotropy-in-a-bio-inspired-asymmetrically-structured-surface
#13
Halvor T Tramsen, Stanislav N Gorb, Hao Zhang, Poramate Manoonpong, Zhendong Dai, Lars Heepe
Friction anisotropy is an important property of many surfaces that usually facilitate the generation of motion in a preferred direction. Such surfaces are very common in biological systems and have been the templates for various bio-inspired materials with similar tribological properties. So far friction anisotropy is considered to be the result of an asymmetric arrangement of surface nano- and microstructures. However, here we show by using bio-inspired sawtooth-structured surfaces that the anisotropic friction properties are not only controlled by an asymmetric surface topography, but also by the ratio of the sample-substrate stiffness, the aspect ratio of surface structures, and by the substrate roughness...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298695/vub-cyberlegs-cybathlon-2016-beta-prosthesis-case-study-in-control-of-an-active-two-degree-of-freedom-transfemoral-prosthesis
#14
Louis L Flynn, Joost Geeroms, Tom van der Hoeven, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
BACKGROUND: Here we present how the CYBERLEGs Beta-Prosthesis was modified with a new control system to participate in the Powered Leg Prosthesis event, and to report on our experience at the CYBATHLON 2016 which was held in Zurich, Switzerland in October 2016. The prosthesis has two active degrees of freedom which assist the user with extra joint power at the knee and ankle to complete tasks. The CYBATHLON is a championship for people with disabilities competing in six disciplines, using advanced assistive devices...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298072/new-insights-into-hydride-bonding-dynamics-and-migration-in-la2liho3-oxyhydride
#15
Øystein Slagtern Fjellvåg, Jeff Armstrong, Ponniah Vajeeston, Anja Olafsen Sjåstad
Hydride anion conducting oxyhydrides have recently emerged as a brand new class of ionic conductors. Here we shed a first light into their local vibrations, bonding mechanisms, and anion migration properties, using the powerful combination of high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and a set of rigorously experimentally validated density functional theory calculations. By means of charge density analysis we establish the bonding to be strongly anisotropic; ionic in the perovskite layer and covalent in the rock salt layer...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297360/dynamically-analyzing-cell-interactions-in-biological-environments-using-multiagent-social-learning-framework
#16
Chengwei Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Shuxin Li, Zhiyong Feng
BACKGROUND: Biological environment is uncertain and its dynamic is similar to the multiagent environment, thus the research results of the multiagent system area can provide valuable insights to the understanding of biology and are of great significance for the study of biology. Learning in a multiagent environment is highly dynamic since the environment is not stationary anymore and each agent's behavior changes adaptively in response to other coexisting learners, and vice versa. The dynamics becomes more unpredictable when we move from fixed-agent interaction environments to multiagent social learning framework...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295891/a-peptidylic-inhibitor-for-neutralizing-expanded-cag-rna-induced-nucleolar-stress-in-polyglutamine-diseases
#17
Qian Zhang, Zhefan Stephen Chen, Ying An, Haizhen Liu, Yonghui Hou, Wen Li, Kwok-Fai Lau, Alex Koon, Jacky Ngo, Edwin Chan
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a set of progressive neurodegenerative disorders ascribed by the expression of both expanded CAG RNA and misfolded polyQ protein. We previously reported that the direct interaction between expanded CAG RNA and nucleolar protein nucleolin (NCL) leads to impediment of pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) transcription, and eventually triggers nucleolar stress-induced apoptosis in polyQ diseases. Here, we report a 21-amino acid peptide, named beta-structured inhibitor for neurodegenerative disease (BIND), effectively suppresses expanded CAG RNA toxicity...
January 2, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291421/activation-of-the-cannabinoid-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-affects-effort-based-decision-making
#18
Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast
Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits, and it has been previously shown that cannabis derivatives may affect such processes. Therefore, in this study, we intend to evaluate the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the entire NAc on effort-based decision making. Rats were trained in a T-maze cost-benefit decision making the task in which they could choose either to climb a barrier to obtain a large reward in one arm or run into the other arm without a barrier to obtaining a small reward...
December 29, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285976/partial-recovery-of-proprioception-in-rats-with-dorsal-root-injury-following-human-olfactory-bulb-cell-transplantation
#19
Andrew Collins, Daqing Li, Modinat Liadi, Pawel Tabakow, Wojciech Fortuna, Geoffrey Raisman, Ying Li
We transplanted human olfactory bulb OECs (hOECs) mixed with collagen into a unilateral transection of four dorsal roots (C6-T1) in a rat model. By mixing with collagen, we could maximise the limited numbers of hOEC from an olfactory bulb biopsy and optimise cavity-filling. Cyclosporine was administered daily to prevent immune rejection. Forelimb proprioception was assessed weekly in a vertical climb task. Half of the rats receiving hOEC transplants showed some functional improvement ('responders') over six weeks of the study whilst the other half did not ('non-responders') and performed similarly to 'injured only' rats...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284321/ral-function-in-muscle-is-required-for-flight-maintenance-in-drosophila
#20
Shlesha Richhariya, Gaiti Hasan
Ral is a small GTPase of the Ras superfamily that is important for a number of cellular functions. Recently, we found that expression of Ral is regulated by store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in Drosophila neurons. In this study, through genetic and behavioural experiments, we show that Ral function is required in differentiated muscles for flight. Reducing Ral function in muscles, specifically reduced duration of flight bouts but not other motor functions, like climbing. Interestingly, unlike in the nervous system, Ral expression in the muscle is not regulated by SOCE...
December 28, 2017: Small GTPases
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