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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786614/a-novel-optimization-framework-for-vmat-with-dynamic-gantry-couch-rotation
#1
Qihui Lyu, Victoria Y Yu, Dan Ruan, Ryan Neph, Daniel O'Connor, Ke Sheng
Existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization using coplanar arcs is highly efficient but usually dosimetrically inferior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with optimized non-coplanar beams. To achieve both dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency, we proposed in this study, a novel integrated optimization method for non-coplanar VMAT (4πVMAT). 4πVMAT with Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) was achieved by utilizing a least square dose fidelity objective, along with an anisotropic total variation term for regularizing the fluence smoothness, a single segment term for imposing simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for selecting beam angles...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785839/optimization-of-a-secondary-voi-protocol-for-lung-imaging-in-a-clinical-ct-scanner
#2
Thomas C Larsen, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Jianhua Yao, Catherine P Nguyen, Marcus Y Chen, Joel Moss, Han Wen
We present a solution to meet an unmet clinical need of an in-situ "close look" at a pulmonary nodule or at the margins of a pulmonary cyst revealed by a primary (screening) chest CT while the patient is still in the scanner. We first evaluated options available on current whole-body CT scanners for high resolution screening scans, including ROI reconstruction of the primary scan data and HRCT, but found them to have insufficient SNR in lung tissue or discontinuous slice coverage. Within the capabilities of current clinical CT systems, we opted for the solution of a secondary, volume-of-interest (VOI) protocol where the radiation dose is focused into a short-beam axial scan at the z position of interest, combined with a small-FOV reconstruction at the xy position of interest...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785289/what-is-the-role-of-wedge-resection-for-t1a-lung-cancer
#3
Sebron Harrison, Brendon Stiles, Nasser Altorki
Since 1995, lobar resection became the standard of care for medically fit patients with early stage lung cancer. This was based on the results of a single randomized trial comparing lobectomy and sublobar resection (SLR) in stage I lung cancer conducted by the lung cancer study group between 1982 and 1988. The conclusions of the study included a statistically significant tripling in loco-regional recurrence (LR) after limited resection but no difference between the two arms of the trial in systemic recurrence...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784675/radiation-followed-by-ox40-stimulation-drives-local-and-abscopal-antitumor-effects-in-an-anti-pd1-resistant-lung-tumor-model
#4
Sharareh Niknam, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Jonathan E Schoenhals, Heather Jackson, Niranjan Yanamandra, Mauricio S Caetano, Ailin Li, Ahmed I Younes, Alexandra P Cadena, Taylor R Cushman, Joe Y Chang, Quynh Nguyen, Daniel R Gomez, Adi Diab, John V Heymach, Patrick Hwu, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
PURPOSE: Radiation is used extensively to treat localized cancer, but improved understanding of its effects on the immune system have increased interest in its potential systemic (abscopal) effects, particularly in combination with checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD1. The majority of patients either do not respond or develop resistance to monotherapy over time. Here, we investigated the efficacy of OX40 (CD134) stimulation as an alternative immunotherapeutic approach in combination with radiotherapy (XRT) in a murine model of anti-PD1-resistant lung tumors...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782566/post-operative-radiation-therapy-in-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-the-impact-of-sequential-versus-concurrent-chemotherapy
#5
EDITORIAL
Mark R Waddle, Stephen Ko, Margaret M Johnson, Yanyan Lou, Robert C Miller, Anna C Harrell, Daniel M Trifiletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780046/-study-of-dose-recalculation-method-on-overriding-lung-density-using-cbct-image-in-the-thorax
#6
Hiroshi Watanabe, Shuichi Ozawa, Atsuyuki Ohashi, Koji Ikenaga, Kentaro Miki, Akito Saito, Teiji Nishio, Yuji Murakami, Yasushi Nagata
It is a useful method for the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) to calculate absorbed dose accurately on the image set taken by on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) attached to linac for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). For this purpose, a simple and accurate calculation method is necessary. Several papers report that it is possible to calculate easily and accurately by using several methods of researches in the neck and prostate, but the lung density varies greatly depending on patient thorax condition...
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778031/liver-resection-for-metastases-of-tracheal-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-report-of-two-cases
#7
Shintaro Hashimoto, Yorihisa Sumida, Shuichi Tobinaga, Hideo Wada, Kouki Wakata, Takashi Nonaka, Masaki Kunizaki, Shigekazu Hidaka, Naoe Kinoshita, Terumitsu Sawai, Takeshi Nagayasu
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is rare and accounts for <1% of all lung cancers. Although ACC is classified as a low-grade tumor, metastases are frequently identified in the late period. Extrapulmonary metastases are rare, and their resection has rarely been reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Case 1: A 77-year-old man underwent tracheal resection for ACC with postoperative radiation (60 Gy) 14 years before (at the age of 63). He underwent two subsequent pulmonary resections for metastases...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777301/role-of-the-nrp-1-mediated-vegfr2-independent-pathway-on-radiation-sensitivity-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Chenxi Hu, Panrong Zhu, Youyou Xia, Kaiyuan Hui, Mei Wang, Xiaodong Jiang
PURPOSE: To determine if inhibiting neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) affects the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells through a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-independent pathway, and to assess the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of VEGFR2, NRP-1, related signaling molecules, abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL-1), and RAD51 were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Radiosensitivity was assessed using the colony-forming assay, and the cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771775/photodynamic-therapy-for-bronchial-microscopic-residual-disease-after-resection-in-lung-cancer
#9
Hiren J Mehta, Abhishek Biswas, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy, Mauricio Pipkin, Tiago Machuca, Michael A Jantz
BACKGROUND: The goal of lung cancer surgery is a complete tumor resection (R0 resection) with clear margins. 4% to 5% of resections have microscopic residual disease associated with worse prognosis. Definitive management is resection of residual tumor, which may not be tolerated by many patients, and definitive management is not well studied in these patients. We treated patients with stage I cancer and bronchial mucosal residual disease (MRD) with bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770473/icotinib-enhances-lung-cancer-cell-radiosensitivity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-inhibiting-mapk-erk-and-akt-activation
#10
Yonghong Fu, Sen Zhang, Dongjie Wang, Jing Wang
Icotinib hydrochloride is a small epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that was developed by Chinese scientists. While clinical trials have revealed its efficacy in the treatment of lung cancer, very little is known about its role in enhancing radiosensitivity. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Icotinib in enhancing lung cancer cell radiosensitivity and have detailed its underlying molecular mechanism. The lung cancer cell line H1650 was pretreated with or without Icotinib for 24 hours before radiation, and clonogenic survival assay was performed...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769352/identifying-occupational-carcinogens-an-update-from-the-iarc-monographs
#11
REVIEW
Dana Loomis, Neela Guha, Amy L Hall, Kurt Straif
The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations...
May 16, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769148/current-landscape-and-future-of-dual-anti-ctla4-and-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-immunotherapy-in-cancer-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-with-melanoma-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#12
REVIEW
Young Kwang Chae, Ayush Arya, Wade Iams, Marcelo R Cruz, Sunandana Chandra, Jaehyuk Choi, Francis Giles
Immunotherapy is among the most rapidly evolving treatment strategies in oncology. The therapeutic potential of immune-checkpoint inhibitors is exemplified by the recent hail of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for their use in various malignancies. Continued efforts to enhance outcomes with immunotherapy agents have led to the formulation of advanced treatment strategies. Recent evidence from pre-clinical studies evaluating immune-checkpoint inhibitors in various cancer cell-lines has suggested that combinatorial approaches may have superior survival outcomes compared to single-agent immunotherapy regimens...
May 16, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769130/diagnostic-accuracy-of-low-dose-dual-source-cardiac-computed-tomography-as-compared-to-surgery-in-univentricular-heart-patients
#13
Narumol Chaosuwannakit, Pattarapong Makarawate
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the ability of low radiation dose dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) to depict the features of morphological univentricular heart and to define accuracy by comparing findings with surgery. METHODS: Low radiation dose dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCT) of 33 cases of functional univentricular heart preliminary diagnosis by echocardiography compared with the results of surgery were retrospectively analyzed (aged 1 day to 4 years, median 5 months)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768119/exploratory-analysis-of-brigatinib-activity-in-patients-with-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-brain-metastases-in-two-clinical-trials
#14
D Ross Camidge, Dong-Wan Kim, Marcello Tiseo, Corey J Langer, Myung-Ju Ahn, Alice T Shaw, Rudolf M Huber, Maximilian J Hochmair, Dae Ho Lee, Lyudmila A Bazhenova, Kathryn A Gold, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Howard L West, William Reichmann, Jeff Haney, Tim Clackson, David Kerstein, Scott N Gettinger
Purpose In patients with crizotinib-treated, anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ( ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ALK-positive NSCLC), initial disease progression often occurs in the CNS. We evaluated brigatinib, a next-generation ALK inhibitor, in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC with brain metastases. Patients and Methods Patients with ALK-positive NSCLC received brigatinib (90 to 240 mg total daily) in a phase I/II trial (phI/II; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01449461) and in the subsequent randomized phase II trial ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113; ClinicalTrials...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764593/-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-centrally-located-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Yuming Wan, Jing Huang, Feng Xu
A few study has proven that about 90% of local control rates might be benefit from stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is reported SBRT associated overall survival and tumor specific survival is comparable with those treated with surgery. SBRT has been accepted as the first line treatment for inoperable patients with peripheral located stage I NSCLC. However, the role of SBRT in centrally located lesions is controversial for potential toxic effects from the adjacent anatomical structure...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764588/-correlations-between-ape1-ref-1-icam-1-and-il-17a-levels-in-serum-and-radiation-pneumonitis-for-local-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#16
Leiming Guo, Gaofeng Ding, Wencai Xu, Hong Ge, Yue Jiang, Yufei Lu
BACKGROUND: The main manifestations of radiation pneumonitis are injury of alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells, abnormal expression of cytokines, abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of fibrous matrix. The occurrence of radiation pneumonitis is associated with multiplecytokine level abnormality. These cytokines can also be used as bio-markers to predict the occurrence of radiation pneumonitis. This study was to evaluate the correlation between the change of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1), intercellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) before and after radiotherapy and radiation pneumonitis for local advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with concurrent chemoradiotherapy...
May 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764516/somatic-mutation-landscape-of-a-meningioma-and-its-pulmonary-metastasis
#17
Yaran Du, Ting Lu, Song Huang, Fangfang Ren, Gang Cui, Jian Chen
BACKGROUND: Extracranial metastasis (ENM) of meningiomas is extremely rare, and typically occurs several years after a primary tumor is diagnosed. However, the genetic changes underlying ENM events have not yet been investigated. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old male patient was sent to the emergency room of our hospital because of a sudden fall. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass at the right frontal sagittal sinus. He underwent tumor resection and recovered well, but post-operative computed tomography revealed three lumps on the right side of his chest...
May 4, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763967/machine-learning-algorithms-for-outcome-prediction-in-chemo-radiotherapy-an-empirical-comparison-of-classifiers
#18
Timo M Deist, Frank J W M Dankers, Gilmer Valdes, Robin Wijsman, I-Chow Hsu, Cary Oberije, Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Frank Hoebers, Arthur Jochems, Issam El Naqa, Leonard Wee, Olivier Morin, David R Raleigh, Wouter Bots, Johannes H Kaanders, José Belderbos, Margriet Kwint, Timothy Solberg, René Monshouwer, Johan Bussink, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin
PURPOSE: Machine learning classification algorithms (classifiers) for prediction of treatment response are becoming more popular in radiotherapy literature. General machine learning literature provides evidence in favor of some classifier families (random forest, support vector machine, gradient boosting) in terms of classification performance. The purpose of this study is to compare such classifiers specifically for (chemo)radiotherapy datasets and to estimate their average discriminative performance for radiation treatment outcome prediction...
May 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761989/-super-resolution-reconstruction-for-lung-four-dimensional-computed-tomography-images-using-multi-model-gaussian-process-regression
#19
Shiting Fang, Tao Zhong, Jin Chen, Yu Zhang
Lung four dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) can lead to accurate radiotherapy. However, for the safety of patients, the scan spacing of 4D-CT cannot be too small so that the inter-slice resolution of lung 4D-CT is low, and thus the coronal and sagittal images need to be interpolated to obtain high-resolution images. This paper presents a super-resolution reconstruction technique based on multi-model Gaussian process regression. We use the high-resolution transversal images and the corresponding low-resolution images as the training sets...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760563/durvalumab-a-potential-maintenance-therapy-in-surgery-ineligible-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Michael R Shafique, Lary A Robinson, Scott Antonia
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-small-cell lung cancer comprises ~87% of newly diagnosed cases of lung cancer, and nearly one-third of these patients have stage III disease. Despite improvements in the treatment of stage IV lung cancer, particularly with the introduction and dissemination of checkpoint inhibitors, very little progress has been made in the treatment of stage III lung cancer. In this article, we discuss the general staging criteria and treatment options for stage III lung cancer...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
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