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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931212/pdgf-aa-mediates-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-chemotaxis-to-the-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-tumor-microenvironment
#1
Tammara L Watts, Ruwen Cui, Peter Szaniszlo, Vicente A Resto, Don W Powell, Irina V Pinchuk
BACKGROUND: The robust desmoplasia associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) suggests that the tumor microenvironment may be an important component in the pathophysiology of this cancer. Moreover, the high recurrence rate and poor clinical response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment further underscores that the non-cancerous cells of the microenvironment, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and pericytes, may be important in the pathophysiology of HNSCC...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929485/difference-in-performance-between-3d-and-4d-cbct-for-lung-imaging-a-dose-and-image-quality-analysis
#2
Sheeba Thengumpallil, Kathleen Smith, Pascal Monnin, Jean Bourhis, François Bochud, Raphaël Moeckli
The study was to describe and to compare the performance of 3D and 4D CBCT imaging modalities by measuring and analyzing the delivered dose and the image quality. The 3D (Chest) and 4D (Symmetry) CBCT Elekta XVI lung IGRT protocols were analyzed. Dose profiles were measured with TLDs inside a dedicated phantom. The dosimetric indicator cone-beam dose index (CBDI) was evaluated. The image quality analysis was performed by assessing the contrast transfer function (CTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929479/investigation-of-the-optimum-location-of-external-markers-for-patient-setup-accuracy-enhancement-at-external-beam-radiotherapy
#3
Payam Samadi Miandoab, Ahmad Esmaili Torshabi, Saber Nankali
In external beam radiotherapy, one of the most common and reliable methods for patient geometrical setup and/or predicting the tumor location is use of external markers. In this study, the main challenging issue is increasing the accuracy of patient setup by investigating external markers location. Since the location of each external marker may yield different patient setup accuracy, it is important to assess different locations of external markers using appropriate selective algorithms. To do this, two commercially available algorithms entitled a) canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and b) principal component analysis (PCA) were proposed as input selection algorithms...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923734/breaking-the-matching-in-nested-case-control-data-offered-several-advantages-for-risk-estimation
#4
Bénédicte Delcoigne, Edoardo Colzani, Michaela Prochazka, Giovanna Gagliardi, Per Hall, Michal Abrahamowicz, Kamila Czene, Marie Reilly
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the advantage of using weighted Cox regression to analyse nested case-control data in overcoming limitations encountered with traditional conditional logistic regression. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We analysed data from 1051 women who were sampled in a case-control study of lung cancer nested within a cohort of breast cancer patients. We investigated how lung cancer risk is associated with radiation therapy and modified by smoking, with both conditional logistic regression and weighted Cox regression models...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923659/matrilin-2-regulates-proliferation-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-during-radiation-induced-injury-in-hpaepic-cell
#5
Junming Luo, Menglan Zhang, Hong Huang, Yichun Wang, Xin Yuan, Siqing Ma, Jingshi Liu, Shiying Zhou, Shukun Zhang
Radiation pulmonary injury is related to the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the alveolar interstitial space. Matrilin-2 as a component of extracellular filamentous networks, present higher level in the lung tissue from irradiated mice and irradiated pulmonary epithelial cell line, HPAEpiC cells. Knockdown of endogenous matrilin-2 prevents the apoptosis of HPAEpiC cell induced by the irradiation injury. Consistently, over-expression of matrilin-2 reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of HPAEpiC cells...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923550/treatment-design-and-rationale-for-a-randomized-trial-of-cisplatin-and-etoposide-plus-thoracic-radiotherapy-followed-by-nivolumab-or-placebo-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-rtog-3505
#6
David E Gerber, James J Urbanic, Corey Langer, Chen Hu, I-Fen Chang, Bo Lu, Benjamin Movsas, Robert Jeraj, Walter J Curran, Jeffrey D Bradley
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 3505 is a randomized phase 3 study of concurrent chemoradiation followed by immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy or placebo in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with surgically unresectable stage 3 NSCLC will receive thoracic radiotherapy to 60 Gy with concurrent cisplatin 50 mg/m(2) intravenously (I.V.) on days 1, 8, 29, and 36, and etoposide 50 mg/m(2) I.V. on days 1 to 5 and days 29 to 33. Between 4 and 12 weeks after completion of concurrent chemoradiation, eligible patients will be randomized to the anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody nivolumab 240 mg I...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922336/abscopal-regression-following-sabr-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#7
Yang Cong, Ge Shen, Shikai Wu, Ruimin Hao
Out-of-field tumor response, which is also called abscopal effect, bystander effect, or non-target effect, can be regarded as localized irradiation induced systemic antitumorigenic effects, indicating shrinkage of a tumor distant from the irradiated site. Although abscopal effect has been documented in several tumor types, it is a very rare phenomenon which is clinically reported in non-small-cell-lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Herein, we represent a rare case of patient with NSCLC with two lesions in the upper lobe of left lung who, after receiving stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to one of the tumors, had an apparent spontaneous regression of the other mass in the lung, suggestive of a radiation-induced abscopal effect...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921518/increased-radio-toxicity-in-two-cancerous-cell-lines-irradiated-by-low-and-high-energy-photons-in-the-presence-of-thio-glucose-bound-gold-nanoparticles
#8
Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Atefeh Rostami, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Maryam Moghadam Matin, Ameneh Sazgarnia
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles modified by thio-glucose have been believed to increase the toxicity of radiotherapy in human malignant cells. We report the effect of thio-glucose-bound gold nanoparticles (Glu-G nanoparticles), 16 nm in size, on two human lung (QU-DB) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines combined with kilo and megavoltage X-rays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The shape and surface characteristics, the size distribution and light absorption spectrum of the prepared nanoparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920560/comparison-of-survival-rates-between-3d-conformal-radiotherapy-and-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Moonkyoo Kong, Seong Eon Hong
PURPOSE: Randomized trials showing a clear survival benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) over 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of lung cancer are lacking. This study compared the survival rates of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with either 3D-CRT or IMRT and analyzed the prognostic factors for survival. METHODS: From January 2008 to July 2015, 19 patients were treated with IMRT and 30 were treated with 3D-CRT in our institution...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919126/-a-case-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-malignant-pleural-effusion-showing-marked-response-to-axitinib
#10
Yu Ishizuya, Takuya Okusa, Koji Hatano, Yasutomo Nakai, Masashi Nakayama, Ken-Ichi Kakimoto, Kazuo Nishimura
A 36-year-old woman had undergone left radical nephrectomy followed by interferon-α and sunitinib for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma with para-aortic lymph node and lung involvements (papillary renal cell carcinoma, G3, cT3aN1M1) in the previous hospital. She was referred to our hospital for further treatment and received serial molecular targeted agents (everolimus, sorafenib, sunitinib) and radiation therapy for right ischial and femoral bone metastases. Then she was found to have multiple metastatic lesions in the lungs and carcinomatous pleural effusion associated with dyspnea...
October 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917372/which-prognostic-index-is-most-appropriate-in-the-setting-of-delayed-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases
#11
Timothy Malouff, Nathan R Bennion, Vivek Verma, Gabriel A Martinez, Nathan Balkman, Abhijeet Bhirud, Tanner Smith, Chi Lin
OBJECTIVES: To determine if five commonly used prognostic indices (PIs) - recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR), Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), graded prognostic assessment (GPA), and the diagnosis-specific GPA - are valid following delay between diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases. METHODS: In a single-institutional cohort, records of patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) more than 30 days from diagnosis of brain metastases were collected, and five PI scores were calculated for each patient...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914781/incident-air-kerma-to-absorbed-organ-dose-conversion-factors-for-breast-and-lung-in-pa-thorax-radiography-the-effect-of-patient-thickness-and-radiation-quality
#12
A Kelaranta, P Toroi, P Vock
PURPOSE: Converting the measurable quantities to patient organ doses in projection radiography is usually based on a standard-sized patient model and a specific radiation quality, which are likely to differ from the real situation. Large inaccuracies can therefore be obtained in organ doses, because organ doses are dependent on the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy. In this study, the effect of radiation quality and patient thickness on the organ dose conversion factors were determined...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914779/what-do-radiation-oncologists-require-for-future-advancements-in-lung-sbrt
#13
REVIEW
Umberto Ricardi, Serena Badellino, Andrea Riccardo Filippi
Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well established therapeutic option for patients affected with peripheral early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), given the positive clinical evidence accumulated so far on its efficacy and safety. SBRT is regarded as the best choice for inoperable patients, and could also be offered as an alternative to surgery to selected operable patients. More recently, its use for lung metastases progressively increased, and SBRT is now regarded as a low toxic and highly effective local therapy for lung oligometastases from different primary tumors, especially colorectal cancer...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914102/examining-temporal-effects-on-cancer-risk-in-the-international-nuclear-workers-study-inworks
#14
Robert D Daniels, Stephen J Bertke, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Michael Gillies, Jacqueline A O'Hagan, Richard Haylock, Dominique Laurier, Klervi Leuraud, Monika Moissonnier, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan
The paper continues the series of publications from the International Nuclear Workers Study cohort (INWORKS) that comprises 308,297 workers from France, the United Kingdom and the United States, providing 8.2 million person-years of observation from a combined follow-up period (at earliest 1944 to at latest 2005). These workers' external radiation exposures were primarily to photons, resulting in an estimated average career absorbed dose to the colon of 17.4 milligray. The association between cumulative ionizing radiation dose and cancer mortality was evaluated in general relative risk models that describe modification of the excess relative risk (ERR) per gray (Gy) by time since exposure and age at exposure...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913498/long-term-risk-of-second-malignancy-and-cardiovascular-disease-after-hodgkin-lymphoma-treatment
#15
Flora E van Leeuwen, Andrea K Ng
Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience several late adverse effects of treatment, with second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) being the leading causes of death in these patients. Other late effects have also been identified, such as pulmonary dysfunction, endocrinopathies (thyroid dysfunction, infertility), neck muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue. HL survivors have two- to fourfold increased risks to develop SMNs and CVD compared with the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913215/influence-of-surveillance-pet-ct-on-detection-of-early-recurrence-after-definitive-radiation-in-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Jay P Reddy, Chad Tang, Tina Shih, Bumyang Kim, Charissa Kim, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, James Welsh, Marcelo Benveniste, Jianjun Zhang, Zhongxing Liao, Daniel R Gomez
BACKGROUND: There are few data to support the use of varying imaging modalities in evaluating recurrence in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared the efficacy of surveillance positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) versus CT scans of the chest in detecting recurrences after definitive radiation for NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients treated between 2000 and 2011 who met the inclusion criteria of stage III NSCLC, completion of definitive radiation treatment, and absence of recurrence within the initial 6 months...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912833/treatment-of-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Kit Tam, Megan Daly, Karen Kelly
Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease with typically poor outcomes. Select patients may benefit from the integration of surgery, whereas patients with bulky, multistation, or contralateral (N3) mediastinal involvement are managed with definitive chemoradiation. Attempts to improve outcomes through induction, consolidation, or maintenance chemotherapy or radiation dose escalation have not demonstrated a survival benefit. Current research efforts focus on the integration of novel systemic agents that exploit tumor-specific driver mutations, augment antitumor immune response, or enhance radiation sensitivity...
February 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912832/neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-therapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Jody C Chuang, Ying Liang, Heather A Wakelee
The use of 4 cycles of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy is now the standard of care for patients with resected stage II and IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy lacks the same level of data as adjuvant treatment, but meta-analyses of this approach support its use. Selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy remain elusive. Ongoing adjuvant trials are exploring biomarkers, molecularly targeted agents, postoperative radiation therapy, and immunotherapy.
February 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912831/systemic-treatment-of-brain-metastases
#19
REVIEW
Saiama N Waqar, Daniel Morgensztern, Ramaswamy Govindan
Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Brain metastases are a significant problem in patients with lung cancer and have conventionally been treated with whole-brain radiation. This article reviews the data for systemic chemotherapy to treat brain metastasis from lung cancer and examines the activity of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the targeted therapy for brain metastases from EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer...
February 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910826/enhancing-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-using-immunoadjuvants-delivered-in-situ-from-new-design-radiotherapy-biomaterials-a-preclinical-study
#20
Yao Hao, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Michele Moreau, Neeharika Sinha, Erno Sajo, Wilfred Ngwa
Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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