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lung cancer radiation

Pamela Samson, Sana Rehman, Aditya Juloori, Todd DeWees, Michael Roach, Jeffrey Bradley, Gregory M M Videtic, Kevin Stephans, Clifford Robinson
PURPOSE: Clinical concern remains regarding the relationship between consecutive (QD) versus nonconsecutive (QoD) lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment schedules and outcomes for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined a multi-institutional series of patients receiving 5-fraction lung SBRT to compare the local failure rates and overall survival between patients receiving QD versus QoD treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Lung SBRT databases from 2 high-volume institutions were combined, and patients receiving 5-fraction SBRT for a solitary stage I NSCLC were identified...
April 10, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Leith J Rankine, Ziyi Wang, Bastiaan Driehuys, Lawrence B Marks, Chris R Kelsey, Shiva K Das
PURPOSE: To investigate the degree to which lung ventilation and gas exchange are regionally correlated, using the emerging technology of hyperpolarized (HP)-129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Hyperpolarized-129 Xe MRI studies were performed on 17 institutional review board-approved human subjects, including 13 healthy volunteers, 1 emphysema patient, and 3 non-small cell lung cancer patients imaged before and approximately 11 weeks after radiation therapy (RT)...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Elisabeth Steiner, Chun-Chien Shieh, Vincent Caillet, Jeremy Booth, Nicholas Hardcastle, Adam Briggs, Dasantha Jayamanne, Carol Haddad, Thomas Eade, Paul Keall
PURPOSE: Four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) facilitates verification of lung tumor motion before each treatment fraction and enables accurate patient setup in lung stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy. This work aims to quantify the real-time motion represented in 4DCBCT, depending on the reconstruction algorithm and the respiratory signal utilized for reconstruction. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight lung cancer patients were implanted with electromagnetic Calypso beacons in airways close to the tumor, enabling real-time motion measurements...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ryoko Suzuki, Xiong Wei, Pamela K Allen, James W Welsh, Ritsuko Komaki, Steven H Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought factors associated with the development of brain metastases after treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in patients without brain involvement at diagnosis. METHODS: We analyzed 293 patients with SCLC without brain metastases who received chemotherapy, thoracic radiation therapy (TRT), or both in 2001-2015. Pretreatment hematologic markers (platelet count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and lactate dehydrogenase) and other clinical characteristics were evaluated for correlation with brain metastases-free survival (BMFS)...
June 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Kei Ito, Keiji Nihei, Takuya Shimizuguchi, Hiroaki Ogawa, Tomohisa Furuya, Shurei Sugita, Takahiro Hozumi, Keisuke Sasai, Katsuyuki Karasawa
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to clarify the outcomes of postoperative re-irradiation using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in the authors' institution and to identify factors correlated with local control. METHODS Cases in which patients with previously irradiated MESCC underwent decompression surgery followed by spine SBRT as re-irradiation between April 2013 and May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical procedures were mainly performed by the posterior approach and included decompression and fixation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Patricia M de Groot, Girish S Shroff, Judy Ahrar, Bradley S Sabloff, Garret M Gladish, Cesar Moran, Sanjay Gupta, Gregory W Gladish, Joe Y Chang, Jeremy J Erasmus
Purpose: Precision radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiation therapy and limited resection are being used more frequently to treat intrathoracic malignancies. Effective local control requires precise radiation target delineation or complete resection. Lung biopsy tracts (LBT) on computed tomography (CT) scans after the use of tract sealants can mimic malignant tract seeding (MTS) and it is unclear whether these LBTs should be included in the calculated tumor volume or resected...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Hanne A Eide, Ingerid Skjei Knudtsen, Vandana Sandhu, Ayca M Løndalen, Ann Rita Halvorsen, Azadeh Abravan, Elin H Kure, Trond V Bogsrud, Odd Terje Brustugun, Jon Amund Kyte, Eirik Malinen, Åslaug Helland
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Austin Lammers, Timur Mitin, Drew Moghanaki, Charles R Thomas, Robert Timmerman, Sara E Golden, Sujata Thakurta, Rafal Dziadziuszko, Christopher G Slatore
Purpose: The current standard of care for surgically eligible stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical resection, but emerging data suggest that stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is potentially as effective as surgery. However, specialist views of the current evidence about SBRT and how they would incorporate a randomized controlled trial (RCT) into practice is unclear. We sought to understand specialist opinions about evidence regarding treatment of stage I NSCLC and how this translates into practice and clinical trial implementation...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Srinivas Raman, Jean-Pierre Bissonnette, Andrew Warner, Lisa Le, Scott Bratman, Natasha Leighl, Andrea Bezjak, David Palma, Devin Schellenberg, Alexander Sun
We explain the rationale for metabolically adaptive radiation dose escalation in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer and describe the design of a Canadian phase II randomized trial investigating this approach. In the trial, patients are randomized to either conventional chemoradiation treatment (60 Gy in 30 fractions) or metabolically adaptive chemoradiation, where fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumor sub-volumes receive an integrated boost dose to a maximum of 85 Gy in 30 fractions. The trial sample size is 78 patients, and the target population is patients with newly diagnosed, inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radical intent chemoradiation...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Shidan Wang, Lin Yang, Bo Ci, Matthew Maclean, David E Gerber, Guanghua Xiao, Yang Xie
BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for almost 15% of lung cancer cases in the United States. Nomogram prognostic models could greatly facilitate risk stratification and treatment planning, as well as more refined enrollment criteria for clinical trials. We developed and validated a new nomogram prognostic model for SCLC patients using a large SCLC patient cohort from the National Cancer Database (NCDB). METHODS: Clinical data of 24,680 SCLC patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2011 were used to develop the nomogram prognostic model...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Mi Ae Kang, Wonwoo Kim, Hye-Ram Jo, Young-Joo Shin, Moon-Hong Kim, Jae-Hoon Jeong
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) are considered to be potential targets of anticancer drugs that can interrupt the uncontrolled division of cancer cells. In this study, we selected two selective CDK inhibitors, AT7519 and SNS‑032, from current clinical trials and examined their anticancer and radiosensitizing effects in a cervical cancer model. SNS‑032 was found to be more potent than AT7519, with a lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value. Both AT7519 and SNS‑032 induced the apoptosis, premature senescence and cytostasis of cervical cancer cells, which led to the attenuation of tumor growth in vivo...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Chan-Hun Jung, Ah-Reum Han, Hwa-Jin Chung, In-Hyuk Ha, Hong-Duck Um
Radiotherapy is routinely used in the treatment of lung cancer patients. However, it often causes malignant effects, such as promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Previous studies demonstrated that ionizing radiation (IR) promotes cancer cell invasion by stimulating the β-catenin, IL-6, STAT3, and Bcl-XL signaling pathway or the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Both Bcl-XL and NF-κB stimulate the secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), including MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the present study, linarin isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers significantly decreased the IR-induced cell migration and invasion at a concentration of 5 μM in A549 cells...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Lilie Wang, George X Ding
Therapeutic radiation to cancer patients is accompanied by unintended radiation to organs outside the treatment field. It is known that the model-based dose algorithm has limitation in calculating the out-of-field doses. This study evaluated the out-of-field dose calculated by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (v.11 with AAA algorithm) in realistic treatment plans with the goal of estimating the uncertainties of calculated organ doses. Photon beam phase-space files for TrueBeam linear accelerator were provided by Varian...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Hailong Pei, Ziyang Guo, Ziyang Wang, Yingchu Dai, Lijun Zheng, Lin Zhu, Jian Zhang, Wentao Hu, Jing Nie, Weidong Mao, Xianghong Jia, Bingyan Li, Tom K Hei, Guangming Zhou
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) occurs most often in radiotherapy of lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and other thoracic cancers. The occurrence of RILI is a complex process that includes a variety of cellular and molecular interactions, which ultimately result in carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2) and transcription factor jun-B (JUNB) were upregulated in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues and were associated with poor prognoses for NSCLC patients...
June 13, 2018: Cell Cycle
S M J Mortazavi
Recent studies show that short-term exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with more emergency department visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia as well as increased mortality and increased health care costs among older adults. Moreover, exposure to ambient particulate matter is shown to be connected with an increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The association between short-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter less than 2...
June 12, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
David E Lee, Kinan Alhallak, Samir V Jenkins, Isaac Vargas, Nicholas P Greene, Kyle P Quinn, Robert J Griffin, Ruud P M Dings, Narasimhan Rajaram
Treatment failure caused by a radiation-resistant cell phenotype remains an impediment to the success of radiation therapy in cancer. We recently showed that a radiation-resistant isogenic line of human A549 lung cancer cells had significantly elevated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α), and increased glucose catabolism compared with the parental, radiation-sensitive cell line. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal metabolic changes in radiation-resistant and sensitive A549 lung cancer cells after treatment with a combination of radiation therapy and YC-1, a potent HIF-1 inhibitor...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nuria Rodríguez de Dios, Felipe Couñago, José Luis López, Patricia Calvo, Mauricio Murcia, Mikel Rico, Carmen Vallejo, Javier Luna, Itziar Trueba, Cristina Cigarral, Nuria Farre, Rosa Maria Manero, Xavier Durán, Pilar Samper
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is part of the usual treatment in most patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and response after treatment of the primary tumor. Clinical evidence suggests that radiation dose received by the hippocampus during whole brain radiotherapy might play a role in radiation-induced neurocognitive decline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a multicenter phase III trial (NCT02397733) randomizing SCLC patients after informed consent, to receive standard PCI treatment or PCI with hippocampus avoidance (PCI-HA) by using intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Tokihiro Yamamoto, Sven Kabus, Matthieu Bal, Karl Bzdusek, Paul J Keall, Cari Wright, Stanley H Benedict, Megan E Daly
PURPOSE: Lung functional image guided radiation therapy (RT) that avoids irradiating highly functional regions has potential to reduce pulmonary toxicity following RT. Tumor regression during RT is common, leading to recovery of lung function. We hypothesized that computed tomography (CT) ventilation image-guided treatment planning reduces the functional lung dose compared to standard anatomic image-guided planning in 2 different scenarios with or without plan adaptation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: CT scans were acquired before RT and during RT at 2 time points (16-20 Gy and 30-34 Gy) for 14 patients with locally advanced lung cancer...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Narges Kazemzadeh, Arezoo Modiri, Santanu Samanta, Yulong Yan, Ross Bland, Timothy Rozario, Henky Wibowo, Puneeth Iyengar, Chul Ahn, Robert Timmerman, Amit Sawant
PURPOSE: Radiation injury to the bronchial tree is an important yet poorly understood potential side effect in lung stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SAbR). We investigate the integration of virtual bronchoscopy in radiation therapy planning to quantify dosage to individual airways. We develop a risk model of airway collapse and develop treatment plans that reduce the risk of radiation-induced airway injury. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pre- and post-SAbR diagnostic-quality computerized tomography (CT) scans were retrospectively collected from 26 lung cancer patients...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Fumihiro Tanaka, Hiroyasu Yokomise, Toshinori Soejima, Hidetaka Uramoto, Takeharu Yamanaka, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Yasumasa Nishimura, Hiroshi Niwa, Morihito Okada, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Motohiro Yamashita
BACKGROUND: The optimal therapeutic strategy for potentially resectable clinical (c-) stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. This phase II multi-institutional study (WJOG5308L) was designed to evaluate the feasibility of induction chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy (50 Gy) followed by surgery and postoperative consolidation chemotherapy in IIIA-N2 NSCLC. METHODS: Patients with resectable c-stage IIIA-N2 were eligible, and pathological confirmation of N2 disease was mandatory...
June 8, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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