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Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Gustavo J Rodrigo, Carlos E Rodriguez-Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the principal findings pertaining to most effective long-term pharmacologic treatment of childhood asthma. METHODS: Systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (SRCTs) on pharmacologic chronic treatment in children (1-18 years) with persistent asthma were retrieved through MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and CDSR (up to January2014). RESULTS: One hundred eighty-three SRCTs were searched from databases. Among those, 39 SRCTs were included: two were related to step 1, 24 to step 2, nine to steps 3 and 4, and four to step 5 (according with NAEPP and GINA guidelines)...
May 2015: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
A Prakash, K S Babu, J B Morjaria
Anti-cholinergics have been considered the first-choice bronchodilator therapy in the routine management of stable COPD. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors are expressed on most cell types and mediate cellular signalling via the natural ligand, acetylcholine. Antagonising cholinergic receptors may not only result in bronchodilation, but also have associated localised activity. Until recently the licensed anti-cholinergics were limited to ipatropium bromide, oxitropium bromide and tiotropium bromide; the latter being the only once-daily anti-cholinergic...
November 2013: Drug Discovery Today
G F Martin
The author of this article reviews the pharmacology of nasal medication, focusing on the indications and side-effects. The newer group of non-sedating antihistamines proves to be a useful supplement to disodium cromoglycate and the traditional antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The topical steroids (flunisolide and beclomethasone dipropionate) did not produce a significant incidence of adrenal suppression, mucosal atrophy, or nasal candidiasis. The anticholinergic ipatropium bromide shows promise in the treatment of rhinorrhea...
December 1988: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Valentin I Turiiski, Mariana D Argirova, Atanas D Krustev
INTRODUCTION: Tacrine is a cholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The drug also has an effect on a number of tissues and organs that are not targets of its therapeutical action in this disease. The gastrointestinal tract is one such affected organ. AIM: To investigate the in vitro effects of tacrine on rat stomach smooth muscles and determine the correlation between the anticholinesterase activity of the drug and the provoked smooth muscle mechanical responses...
2005: Folia Medica
Stephan R Williams, André Y Denault, Michel Pellerin, Raymond Martineau
PURPOSE: To describe the utility of vasopressin in the treatment of acute distributive shock clinically compatible with the diagnosis of aprotinin anaphylaxis. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 57-yr-old female patient underwent repeat cardiac surgery to treat prosthetic valve endocarditis. She had received aprotinin during her first surgery 60 days ago. Despite a negative test dose of i.v. aprotinin 20,000 KIU, when aprotinin loading was initiated during the repeat surgery, the patient developed bronchospasm and hypotension secondary to acute distributive shock...
February 2004: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Tom Jefferson
Vaccines are the mainstay of influenza prevention. In the treatment of a likely or certain case of influenza, ion channel inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) can be effective in reducing the duration of illness in adults. In the absence of a likely or certain influenza diagnosis, ion channel inhibitors or neuramindase inhibitors have lower effectiveness, and symptom relief becomes the rationale for treatment of influenza-like illness. Because both influenza and influenza-like illness are self-limiting, safety of interventions is paramount, especially in children...
June 2002: Current Infectious Disease Reports
M Ray, V Parmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1999: Indian Pediatrics
J Calderon, E Rubin, W L Sobota
Sialorrhea is reported by 31% of patients taking clozapine. Anticholinergic agents and adrenergic agonists are used for its treatment based on empirical evidence. In the present study, 10 patients who failed to respond to anticholinergic or adrenergic agents received intranasal ipatropium bromide (IPB) to minimize anticholinergic systemic absorption. Intranasal IPB was given to 10 patients for clozapine-induced sialorrhea who failed to respond to benztropine or clonidine. Pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up values were recorded on a single-item, 5-point Hypersalivation Rating Scale...
January 2000: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
D J Mertens, S Rhind, F Berkhoff, D Dugmore, P N Shek, R J Shephard
OBJECTIVE: Health, nutritional status, aerobic power, mood state and immune function were studied over 112 days of aerobic activity (a 7250 km cross-Canada run). TYPE OF STUDY: HASH(0x38ad338) CASE REPORT: a healthy nulliparous 43 yr old woman ran 65 km/day for 112 days at a 7.9 km/h pace. MEASURES: Food intake, Profile of Mood State and Beck Depression Inventory were monitored weekly. Resting lymphocyte subsets and cytokines were determined before the run, at 3324, 5700 and 7250 km, and after recovery...
June 1996: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
H Matthys, D Köhler, G Würtemberger
A special inhalative device is described for reproducible deposition patterns of radioactive aerosols to measure mucociliary and tussive clearance and to evaluate the effect of drugs on the bronchial tree. Additive actions on mucus transport exist between beta 2-agonists and theophylline, but not in combination with inhalative quaternary ammonium compounds (ipatropium and oxitropium bromide). Mucolytics are generally less effective on mucociliary clearance than beta 2-agonists and theophylline, positive, negative and nonresponders are often seen due to the different viscoelastic properties of the mucus...
1987: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
W Wiebicke, A Poynter, M Montgomery, R Pagtakhan
The main manifestation of cystic fibrosis (CF) of the lungs is an obstructive ventilation disturbance. The fact that the administration of atropine improves pulmonary function in patients with CF suggests a vagal mechanism for the development of bronchal obstruction. In a single-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of 250 micrograms of an inhalation solution of the anticholinergic substance ipatropium bromide (IB) on the pulmonary function of 11 patients with CF (age range: 8 to 29 years)...
February 1990: Pneumologie
Y Yamatake, S Sasagawa, S Yanaura, Y Okamiya
Antiasthmatic effect of ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) which is a quarternary ammonium derivative of atropine was investigated in comparison with atropine in anesthetized dogs. Asthmatic responses were provoked with inhalation of Ascaris suum antigen. Sch 1000 (0.1 approximately 0.3%) and atropine (0.1 approximately 0.3%) were given by inhalation for 10 min prior to or after the antigen inhalation. Pretreatment of Sch 1000 and atropine inhibited the increase in respiratory resistance (Rrs) induced by antigen by 55 approximately 75% and 25 approximately 50%, respectively...
October 1977: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
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