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Gesa Cohrs, Monika Huhndorf, Nils Niemczyk, Lukas J Volz, Alexander Bernsmeier, Ash Singhal, Naomi Larsen, Michael Synowitz, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging tool which lacks the burden of ionizing radiation. It is not established as primary diagnostic tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI as initial imaging modality in the emergency management of mild pediatric TBI. METHODS: Children (0-18 years, sub-divided in four age-groups) with mild TBI who received MRI in the emergency department were identified...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Roberta Di Giacomo, Macarena Vásquez, Claudia Cárcamo, Jaime Godoy, Giorgio Lo Russo, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this retrospective study was to explore whether corpus callosum atrophy could predict the post-surgical seizure control in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS). METHODS: We used the Corpus Callosum Index (CCI) obtained from best mid-sagittal T2/FLAIR or T1-weighted MRI at two time-points, more than one year apart. CCI has been mainly used in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but not in epilepsy, so we tested the validity of our results performing a proof of concept cohort, incorporating MS patients with and without epilepsy...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
E V Aleksandrova, A I Batalov, E L Pogosbekyan, N E Zakharova, L M Fadeeva, A D Kravchuk, I N Pronin, A A Potapov
The study purpose was to develop a technique for intravital visualization of the brainstem reticular formation fibers in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 21 subjects (13 males and 8 females) aged 21 to 62 years. The study was performed on a magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a magnetic field strength of 3 T in T1, T2, T2-FLAIR, DWI, and SWI modes. A CSD-HARDI algorithm was used to identify thin intersecting fibers of the reticular formatio...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Thomas K F Foo, Evangelos Laskaris, Mark Vermilyea, Minfeng Xu, Paul Thompson, Gene Conte, Christopher Van Epps, Christopher Immer, Seung-Kyun Lee, Ek T Tan, Dominic Graziani, Jean-Baptise Mathieu, Christopher J Hardy, John F Schenck, Eric Fiveland, Wolfgang Stautner, Justin Ricci, Joseph Piel, Keith Park, Yihe Hua, Ye Bai, Alex Kagan, David Stanley, Paul T Weavers, Erin Gray, Yunhong Shu, Matthew A Frick, Norbert G Campeau, Joshua Trzasko, John Huston, Matt A Bernstein
PURPOSE: To build and evaluate a small-footprint, lightweight, high-performance 3T MRI scanner for advanced brain imaging with image quality that is equal to or better than conventional whole-body clinical 3T MRI scanners, while achieving substantial reductions in installation costs. METHODS: A conduction-cooled magnet was developed that uses less than 12 liters of liquid helium in a gas-charged sealed system, and standard NbTi wire, and weighs approximately 2000 kg...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
S C Thust, S Heiland, A Falini, H R Jäger, A D Waldman, P C Sundgren, C Godi, V K Katsaros, A Ramos, N Bargallo, M W Vernooij, T Yousry, M Bendszus, M Smits
OBJECTIVES: At a European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR) Annual Meeting 2015 workshop, commonalities in practice, current controversies and technical hurdles in glioma MRI were discussed. We aimed to formulate guidance on MRI of glioma and determine its feasibility, by seeking information on glioma imaging practices from the European Neuroradiology community. METHODS: Invitations to a structured survey were emailed to ESNR members (n=1,662) and associates (n=6,400), European national radiologists' societies and distributed via social media...
March 13, 2018: European Radiology
Taichi Ishiguro, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takakazu Kawamata
BACKGROUND: Transient focal MRI abnormalities after status epilepticus (SE) are rarely seen in patients with benign brain tumors, and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. We report a rare case of cerebral cavernous malformation with transient focal MRI abnormalities around the tumor and accumulation of 11C-methionine on PET after SE. These findings mimicked those of a glioma because the MRI and methionine PET findings were similar. We also speculate about the cause of this phenomenon in relation to pathological findings of this case...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Michael G Dwyer, Jesper Hagemeier, Niels Bergsland, Dana Horakova, Jonathan R Korn, Nasreen Khan, Tomas Uher, Jennie Medin, Diego Silva, Manuela Vaneckova, Eva Kubala Havrdova, Robert Zivadinov
Background: A percent brain volume change (PBVC) cut-off of -0.4% per year has been proposed to distinguish between pathological and physiological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, standardized PBVC measurement is not always feasible on scans acquired outside research studies or academic centers. Percent lateral ventricular volume change (PLVVC) is a strong surrogate measure of PBVC, and may be more feasible for atrophy assessment on real-world scans. However, the PLVVC rate corresponding to the established PBVC cut-off of -0...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Cen Zhang, John A Detre, Scott E Kasner, Brett Cucchiara
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine whether structural features of the vertebrobasilar arterial system are related to migraine. Background: Alterations in cerebral vascular structure and function have been associated with migraine, possibly mediated by hypoperfusion and/or endothelial dysfunction triggering cortical spreading depression. Vessel tortuosity, in particular, has been associated with both altered hemodynamics and endothelial function...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
A Lasocki, F Gaillard, A Gorelik, M Gonzales
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System mandates codeletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q for the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. We studied whether conventional MR imaging features could predict 1p/19q status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with previous 1p/19q testing were identified through pathology department records, typically performed on the basis of an oligodendroglial component on routine histology; 69 patients met the inclusion criteria...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
T D Nguyen, S Zhang, A Gupta, Y Zhao, S A Gauthier, Y Wang
We developed a robust automated algorithm called statistical detection of changes for detecting morphologic changes of multiple sclerosis lesions between 2 T2-weighted FLAIR brain images. Results from 30 patients showed that statistical detection of changes achieved significantly higher sensitivity and specificity (0.964, 95% CI, 0.823-0.994; 0.691, 95% CI, 0.612-0.761) than with the lesion-prediction algorithm (0.614, 95% CI, 0.410-0.784; 0.281, 95% CI, 0.228-0.314), while resulting in a 49% reduction in human review time ( P = ...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Makoto Ideguchi, Takafumi Nishizaki, Norio Ikeda, Tomomi Okamura, Yasue Tanaka, Natsumi Fujii, Machiko Ohno, Taichi Shimabukuro, Tokuhiro Kimura, Eiji Ikeda, Kazuyoshi Suga
The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of 11C-methionine (MET) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the hyperintense area in T2 weighted imaging (T2WI) in glioma with no or poor gadolinium enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI). Cases were also analyzed pathologically. We prospectively investigated 16 patients with non- or minimally enhancing (< 10% volume) glioma. All patients underwent MET-PET and FDG-PET scans preoperatively...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Sjoerd B Vos, Caroline Micallef, Frederik Barkhof, Andrea Hill, Gavin P Winston, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
T2-FLAIR is the single most sensitive MRI contrast to detect lesions underlying focal epilepsies but 3D sequences used to obtain isotropic high-resolution images are susceptible to motion artefacts. Prospective motion correction (PMC) - demonstrated to improve 3D-T1 image quality in a pediatric population - was applied to high-resolution 3D-T2-FLAIR scans in adult epilepsy patients to evaluate its clinical benefit. Coronal 3D-T2-FLAIR scans were acquired with a 1mm isotropic resolution on a 3T MRI scanner. Two expert neuroradiologists reviewed 40 scans without PMC and 40 with navigator-based PMC...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Yu Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Lifang Wang, Miao Shi, Hui Deng
RATIONALE: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is characterized by contiguous inflammatory lesions of spinal cord extending to ≥3 vertebral segments. The etiology of LETM is complicated, including various infection, autoimmune disease, and so on. Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the most common cause of LETM. Several case reports have suggested the associations between NMOSD and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). PATIENT CONCERNS: Patient 1, a 20-year-old woman who had a past history of PTB, presented with weakness, numbness, and pain in the limbs...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qiang Zeng, Chenhan Ling, Feina Shi, Fei Dong, Biao Jiang, Jianmin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Glioma cells may infiltrate beyond the tumor margins revealed on conventional structural images. PURPOSE: To investigate whether the presence of a glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of gliomas. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective cohort. SUBJECTS: Fifty-two patients with gliomas (14 WHO grade II; 13 WHO grade III; 25 WHO grade IV). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jing Zhou, Jianxin Tan, Dingyuan Ma, Jingjing Zhang, Jian Cheng, Chunyu Luo, Gang Liu, Yuguo Wang, Zhengfeng Xu
Merosin-deficient CMD type 1A (MDC1A), caused by mutations of laminin subunit alpha 2 (LAMA2), is a predominant subtype of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Herein, we described a Chinese patient with MDC1A who was admitted to hospital 17 days after birth because of marasmus and feeding difficulties. Mutations were identified by targeted capture and next generation sequencing (NGS) and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Paternity was confirmed by short tandem repeat analysis. Physical examination showed malnutrition, poor suck and appendicular hypotonia...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Sofia S Sánchez, Hector H García, Alessandra Nicoletti
Human toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent helminthiases worldwide. Toxocara canis larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier leading to the neurotoxocariasis. The clinical presentation consists of a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, but asymptomatic infection is probably common. Neurotoxocariasis is not a frequent diagnosis probably due to the non-specific nature of its symptoms as well as the lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of neurotoxocariasis is based on the presence of a high titer of anti- Toxocara antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid or in the serum, presence of eosinophilia in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and clinical and radiological improvement after anthelmintic therapy; however, universally accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Cornelia Brendle, Johann-Martin Hempel, Jens Schittenhelm, Marco Skardelly, Gerald Reischl, Benjamin Bender, Ulrike Ernemann, Christian la Fougère, Uwe Klose
PURPOSE: The use of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion and11 C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) for glioma grading is currently not standardized. The purpose of this study was to identify regions of interest (ROIs) that enable the best performance and clinical applicability in both methods, as well as to evaluate the complementarity of DSC perfusion and MET-PET in spatial hotspot definition. METHODS: In 41 patient PET/MRI datasets, different ROIs were drawn: in T2-hyperintense tumour, in T2-hyperintense tumour and adjacent oedema and in tumour areas with contrast enhancement, altered perfusion or pathological radiotracer uptake...
February 20, 2018: Neuroradiology
Etsuko Hattori, Akinori Miyakoshi, Kohichi Go, Toshiharu Aotake, Yoshiyuki Kawakami, Masato Sakamoto, Takeshi Kawauchi, Yuuki Oichi, Noritaka Sano, Makoto Hayase, Makoto Ohta, Yuki Hirose, Hiroki Toda
OBJECTIVE: Molecularly targeted therapy has been adopted to treat a number of cancers. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, is a representative agent used in molecularly targeted therapeutic regimens. However, the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab for the treatment of brain metastases remains unknown. We report the clinical effects of low dose bevacizumab(≤2.5mg/kg/week)to treat recurrent brain metastases. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with brain metastases who had been treated with bevacizumab between 2012 and 2016 at our institution...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Yang Liu, Xi Zhang, Na Feng, Lulu Yin, Yalong He, Xiaopan Xu, Hongbing Lu
Background Quantitative evaluation of the effect of glioblastoma (GBM) heterogeneity on survival stratification would be critical for the diagnosis, treatment decision, and follow-up management. Purpose To evaluate the effect of GBM heterogeneity on survival stratification, using texture analysis on multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Material and Methods A total of 119 GBM patients (65 in long-term and 54 in short-term survival group, separated by overall survival of 12 months) were selected from the Cancer Genome Atlas, who underwent the T1-weighted (T1W) contrast-enhanced (CE), T1W, T2-weighted (T2W), and FLAIR sequences...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Tao Yuan, Guoli Ren, Guanmin Quan, Duo Gao
BACKGROUND: Outcome prediction of asymmetrical prominent cortical veins (APCVs) on infarction is still debated and may help in selecting patients for reperfusion treatment. PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between fewer peripheral APCVs and the outcome in the patients of acute/subacute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions as well as the relationship between this sign and stenosis of ipsilateral MCA. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective case-control study...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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