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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146215/-acute-methotrexate-related-neurotoxicity-and-pseudo-stroke-syndrome
#1
V Deneux, N Leboucq, L Saumet, S Haouy, T Akbaraly, N Sirvent
Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia requires high-dose systemic and/or intrathecal methotrexate to prevent and/or treat central nervous system disorders. Acute neurotoxicity of methotrexate, of unknown etiopathogenesis, is characterized by the polymorphism of clinical manifestations, responsible for a potentially harmful diagnostic delay in these immunosuppressed patients. We describe five episodes of transient acute leukoencephalopathy mimicking a stroke, reported in the literature as "pseudo-stroke syndrome"...
November 13, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140606/mr-textural-analysis-on-t2-flair-images-for-the-prediction-of-true-oligodendroglioma-by-the-2016-who-genetic-classification
#2
Wenting Rui, Yan Ren, Yin Wang, Xinyi Gao, Xiao Xu, Zhenwei Yao
BACKGROUND: The genetic status of 1p/19q is important for differentiating oligodendroglioma, isocitrate-dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant, and 1p/19q-codeleted from diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. PURPOSE: To assess the value of magnetic resonance textural analysis (MRTA) on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for making a genetically integrated diagnosis of true oligodendroglioma by WHO guidelines...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134354/conventional-and-synthetic-mri-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-comparative-study
#3
Wolfgang Krauss, Martin Gunnarsson, Margareta Nilsson, Per Thunberg
OBJECTIVES: To compare the assessment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using synthetic and conventional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synthetic and conventional axial images were prospectively acquired for 52 patients with diagnosed MS. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) was used for measuring proton density and relaxation times (T1, T2) and then, based on these parameters, synthetic T1W, T2W and FLAIR images were calculated. Image stacks were reviewed blindly, independently and in random order by two radiologists...
November 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133703/cns-small-vessel-vasculitis-distinct-mri-features-and-histopathological-correlation
#4
Kamble J Harsha, Sujit A Jagtap, Tirur R Kapilamoorthy, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Bejoy Thomas, Neelima Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is an uncommon disease, which is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for physicians. Large and medium vessel vasculitis is relatively easy to diagnose by angiogram compared to small vessel vasculitis, where angiograms are often normal; imaging features described till date are sensitive but not specific. PURPOSE: Here, we describe distinct magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of CNS small vessel vasculitis...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132940/bullseye-s-representation-of-cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities
#5
Carole H Sudre, Beatriz Gomez Anson, Indran Davagnanamd, Anne Schmitt, Alex F Mendelson, Ferran Prados, Lorna Smith, David Atkinson, Alun David Hughes, Nish Chaturvedi, M Jorge Cardoso, Frederik Barkhof, Hans Rolf Jaeger, Sébastien Ourselin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Visual rating scales have limited capacities to depict the regional distribution of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We present a regional-zonal volumetric analysis alongside a visualization tool to compare and deconstruct visual rating scales. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D T1-weighted, T2-weighted spin-echo and FLAIR images were acquired on a 3T system, from 82 elderly participants in a population-based study. Images were automatically segmented for WMH...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110365/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-canine-gliomatosis-cerebri
#6
Daniela Schweizer-Gorgas, Diana Henke, Anna Oevermann, Johann Lang, Marc Vandevelde, Frank Steffen
A retrospective, case series study was undertaken to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of gliomatosis cerebri in dogs. Fourteen dogs were included by review of histopathological records and contemporaneous MRI. On MRI, all lesions presented as ill-defined, intraaxial lesions within the left and right forebrain hemispheres with involvement of white and gray matter. Lesions presented as hyperintense areas on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences and as hypointense or isointense areas on T1-weighted images, with mild parenchymal contrast enhancement in three dogs...
November 6, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095877/volumetric-brain-tumour-detection-from-mri-using-visual-saliency
#7
Somosmita Mitra, Subhashis Banerjee, Yoichi Hayashi
Medical image processing has become a major player in the world of automatic tumour region detection and is tantamount to the incipient stages of computer aided design. Saliency detection is a crucial application of medical image processing, and serves in its potential aid to medical practitioners by making the affected area stand out in the foreground from the rest of the background image. The algorithm developed here is a new approach to the detection of saliency in a three dimensional multi channel MR image sequence for the glioblastoma multiforme (a form of malignant brain tumour)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090483/a-1-minute-full-brain-mr-exam-using-a-multicontrast-epi-sequence
#8
Stefan Skare, Tim Sprenger, Ola Norbeck, Henric Rydén, Lars Blomberg, Enrico Avventi, Mathias Engström
PURPOSE: A new multicontrast echo-planar imaging (EPI)-based sequence is proposed for brain MRI, which can directly generate six MR contrasts (T1 -FLAIR, T2 -w, diffusion-weighted (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2*-w, T2 -FLAIR) in 1 min with full brain coverage. This could enable clinical MR clinical screening in similar time as a conventional CT exam but with more soft-tissue information. METHODS: Eleven sequence modules were created as dynamic building blocks for the sequence...
October 31, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082510/brain-signal-intensity-changes-as-biomarkers-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Juan F Vázquez-Costa, Miguel Mazón, Joan Carreres-Polo, David Hervás, Jordi Pérez-Tur, Luis Martí-Bonmatí, Teresa Sevilla
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contribution of the demographical, clinical, analytical and genetic factors to brain signal intensity changes in T2-weighted MR images in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and controls. METHODS: Susceptibility-weighted and FLAIR sequences were obtained in a 3T MR scanner. Iron-related hypointensities in the motor cortex (IRhMC) and hyperintensities of the corticospinal tract (HCT) were qualitatively scored. Age, gender, family history and clinical variables were recorded...
October 29, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079522/image-processing-and-quality-control-for-the-first-10-000-brain-imaging-datasets-from-uk-biobank
#10
Fidel Alfaro-Almagro, Mark Jenkinson, Neal K Bangerter, Jesper L R Andersson, Ludovica Griffanti, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Moises Hernandez-Fernandez, Emmanuel Vallee, Diego Vidaurre, Matthew Webster, Paul McCarthy, Christopher Rorden, Alessandro Daducci, Daniel C Alexander, Hui Zhang, Iulius Dragonu, Paul M Matthews, Karla L Miller, Stephen M Smith
UK Biobank is a large-scale prospective epidemiological study with all data accessible to researchers worldwide. It is currently in the process of bringing back 100,000 of the original participants for brain, heart and body MRI, carotid ultrasound and low-dose bone/fat x-ray. The brain imaging component covers 6 modalities (T1, T2 FLAIR, susceptibility weighted MRI, Resting fMRI, Task fMRI and Diffusion MRI). Raw and processed data from the first 10,000 imaged subjects has recently been released for general research access...
October 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060549/classification-of-low-grade-and-high-grade-glioma-using-multi-modal-image-radiomics-features
#11
Hwan-Ho Cho, Hyunjin Park
Gliomas are primary brain tumors arising from glial cells. Gliomas can be classified into different histopathologic grades according to World Health Oraganization (WHO) grading system which represents malignancy. In this paper, we present a method to predict the grades of Gliomas using Radiomics imaging features. MICCAI Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge (BRATs 2015) training data, its segmentation ground truth and the ground truth labels were used for this work. 45 radiomics features based on histogram, shape and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from each FLAIR, T1, T1-Contrast, T2 image to quantify the property of Gliomas...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040911/a-deep-learning-model-integrating-fcnns-and-crfs-for-brain-tumor-segmentation
#12
Xiaomei Zhao, Yihong Wu, Guidong Song, Zhenye Li, Yazhuo Zhang, Yong Fan
Accurate and reliable brain tumor segmentation is a critical component in cancer diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment outcome evaluation. Build upon successful deep learning techniques, a novel brain tumor segmentation method is developed by integrating fully convolutional neural networks (FCNNs) and Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) in a unified framework to obtain segmentation results with appearance and spatial consistency. We train a deep learning based segmentation model using 2D image patches and image slices in following steps: 1) training FCNNs using image patches; 2) training CRFs as Recurrent Neural Networks (CRF-RNN) using image slices with parameters of FCNNs fixed; and 3) fine-tuning the FCNNs and the CRF-RNN using image slices...
October 5, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040640/pathology-mri-correlations-in-diffuse-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-tumors
#13
Aliya Al-Hajri, Salim Al-Mughairi, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Joan Liu, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Tarek Yousry, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Maria Thom
It is recognized that IDH mutation negative, low-grade epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) can show diffuse growth patterns and lack the diagnostic hallmarks of either classical dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) or typical ganglioglioma. "Nonspecific or diffuse DNT" and more recently "polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young" have been terms used for these entities. There are few reports on the MRI recognition of these diffuse glioneuronal tumors (dGNT), which is important in planning the extent of surgical resection...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974389/high-prevalence-of-small-vessel-disease-long-after-cranial-irradiation
#14
Masatomo Miura, Makoto Nakajima, Akiko Fujimoto, Yasuyuki Kaku, Takayuki Kawano, Masaki Watanabe, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Yukio Ando
Accelerated atherosclerosis of intra- or extracranial large arteries is a major cause of radiation-induced strokes. Recent development of MRI techniques has enabled detection of another important vasculopathy: microinfarcts or microbleeds after cranial irradiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of small vessel disease after cranial irradiation. MR images and clinical records of 102 outpatients who had undergone cranial irradiation to brain tumors were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974152/encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-the-gabab-receptor-seizures-as-the-most-common-presentation-at-admission
#15
Xueping Chen, Fan Liu, Jin-Mei Li, Xiao-Qi Xie, Qiong Wang, Dong Zhou, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (GABABR) has not been described in detail in Chinese patients. METHODS: Patients with anti-GABABR encephalitis treated between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed in terms of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, tumor presence, autoantibody patterns, treatment response and outcomes. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified (male, N = 8; female, N = 3), with the median age of 51 years...
November 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971799/human-and-nonhuman-primate-meninges-harbor-lymphatic-vessels-that-can-be-visualized-noninvasively-by-mri
#16
Martina Absinta, Seung-Kwon Ha, Govind Nair, Pascal Sati, Nicholas J Luciano, Maryknoll Palisoc, Antoine Louveau, Kareem A Zaghloul, Stefania Pittaluga, Jonathan Kipnis, Daniel S Reich
Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents...
October 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966303/appearance-of-the-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-on-contrast-enhanced-mr-imaging
#17
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiaki Taoka, Hisashi Kawai, Masahiro Yamazaki, Kojiro Suzuki
PURPOSE: Circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack a blood brain barrier and are also called "brain windows". Among CVOs, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) is an osmotic regulator involved in the release of vasopressin. In a previous study of healthy subjects, it was reported that contrast enhancement in the OVLT can be recognized in only 34% of 3 Tesla thin slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the leakage of gadolinium contrast from the OVLT in healthy subjects using heavily T2-weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) (HF) imaging...
September 29, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957339/focal-t2-and-flair-hyperintensities-within-the-infarcted-area-a-suitable-marker-for-patient-selection-for-treatment
#18
Julia Meisterernst, Pascal P Klinger-Gratz, Lars Leidolt, Matthias F Lang, Gerhard Schroth, Pasquale Mordasini, Mirjam R Heldner, Marie-Luise Mono, Rebekka Kurmann, Monika Buehlmann, Urs Fischer, Marcel Arnold, Jan Gralla, Heinrich P Mattle, Marwan El-Koussy, Simon Jung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some authors use FLAIR imaging to select patients for stroke treatment. However, the effect of hyperintensity on FLAIR images on outcome and bleeding has been addressed in only few studies with conflicting results. METHODS: 466 patients with anterior circulation strokes were included in this study. They all were examined with MRI before intravenous or endovascular treatment. Baseline data and 3 months outcome were recorded prospectively. Focal T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities within the ischemic lesion were evaluated by two raters, and the PROACT II classification was applied to assess bleeding complications on follow up imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947980/added-value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-pediatric-central-nervous-system-embryonal-tumors-surveillance
#19
Giovanni Morana, Cesar Augusto Alves, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Paolo Nozza, Armando Cama, Marcello Ravegnani, Gabriella D'Apolito, Alessandro Raso, Claudia Milanaccio, Claudia da Costa Leite, Maria Luisa Garrè, Andrea Rossi
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has an established role in primary CNS embryonal tumor (ET) characterization; however, its diagnostic utility in detecting relapse has never been determined. We aimed to compare DWI and conventional MRI sensitivity in CNS ET recurrence detection, and to evaluate the DWI properties of contrast-enhancing radiation induced lesions (RIL). Fifty-six patients with CNS ET (25 with disease relapse, 6 with RIL and 25 with neither disease relapse nor RIL) were retrospectively evaluated with DWI, conventional MRI (including both T2/FLAIR and post-contrast images), or contrast-enhanced MR imaging (CE-MRI) alone...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943053/our-experience-with-500-patients-with-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-reexploring-aetiology-and-reevaluating-mri-investigation
#20
Fei Tan, Constantin Bartels, Rory McConn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: To explore the aetiology of and to evaluate the importance of MRI investigation on the posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an Irish population. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of 500 patients with posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, diagnosed and treated by the senior author over a 10-year period. Most patients underwent an MRI brain and inner ear, following the same scan protocol...
September 21, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
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