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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932506/synthetic-mri-in-the-detection-of-multiple-sclerosis-plaques
#1
A Hagiwara, M Hori, K Yokoyama, M Y Takemura, C Andica, T Tabata, K Kamagata, M Suzuki, K K Kumamaru, M Nakazawa, N Takano, H Kawasaki, N Hamasaki, A Kunimatsu, S Aoki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Synthetic MR imaging enables the creation of various contrast-weighted images including double inversion recovery and phase-sensitive inversion recovery from a single MR imaging quantification scan. Here, we assessed whether synthetic MR imaging is suitable for detecting MS plaques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative and conventional MR imaging data on 12 patients with MS were retrospectively analyzed. Synthetic T2-weighted, FLAIR, double inversion recovery, and phase-sensitive inversion recovery images were produced after quantification of T1 and T2 values and proton density...
December 8, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919188/clinical-analysis-of-neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-as-intractable-nausea-vomiting-and-hiccups
#2
Xuehong Jin, Shaofang Pei, Yi Liu, Xia Li
Vomiting and hiccups can be the manifestations of numerous systemic and neurological illnesses.Intractable nausea,vomiting,and hiccups (INH) are reported as possible initial manifestations of neuromyelitis optica (NMO),but not correctly identified.Awareness of these atypical presentations is conducive to NMO early diagnosis and proper treatment to prevent further disability.In this paper,12 NMO were reported,whom intractable vomiting and hiccups were the sole manifestations of the first attack and other attacks involving spinal cord and optic nerves developed later...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918139/an-observational-study-to-assess-brain-mri-change-and-disease-progression-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-practice-the-ms-mrius-study
#3
Robert Zivadinov, Nasreen Khan, Jennie Medin, Pia Christoffersen, Jennifer Price, Jonathan R Korn, Ian Bonzani, Michael G Dwyer, Niels Bergsland, Ellen Carl, Diego Silva, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: To describe methodology, interim baseline, and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition parameter characteristics of the multiple sclerosis clinical outcome and MRI in the United States (MS-MRIUS). MATERIAL & METHODS: The MS-MRIUS is an ongoing longitudinal and retrospective study of MS patients on fingolimod. Clinical and brain MRI image scan data were collected from 600 patients across 33 MS centers in the United States. MRI brain outcomes included change in whole-brain volume, lateral ventricle volume, T2- and T1-lesion volumes, and new/enlarging T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910089/bilateral-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-a-patient-with-migraine-variant-without-vertigo-a-case-report
#4
Isabelle Y Liu, Akira Ishiyama, Ali R Sepahdari, Kevin Johnson, Gail Ishiyama
OBJECTIVE: To use modern high-resolution inner ear imaging modalities to evaluate for endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in a patient with migraine-associated fluctuating hearing loss without vertigo spells or dizziness. BACKGROUND: EH has been well described in patients with Meniere's disease on both human temporal bone studies and modern high-resolution imaging; however, there is no study to date, to our knowledge, that examines the presence of EH in a patient with migraine and bilateral hearing loss...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896903/imaging-diagnosis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-neuronal-heterotopia-in-the-brain-of-a-cat
#5
Antonia DeJesus, Bradley J Turek, Evelyn Galban, Jantra Ngosuwan Suran
A domestic shorthair kitten was presented for evaluation and further treatment of seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large multilobulated mass in the third ventricle extending into the right lateral ventricle with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. The mass was homogeneously isointense to gray matter on T2W, T2-FLAIR, T2(*) W, T1W, and ADC images, and hyperintense on DW-EPI. There was no appreciable contrast enhancement. Seizures were managed medically and with subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896065/analysis-of-ageing-associated-grey-matter-volume-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-shows-excess-atrophy-in-subcortical-regions
#6
Courtney A Bishop, Rexford D Newbould, Jean Sz Lee, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca Quest, Alessandro Colasanti, Rehiana Ali, Miriam Mattoscio, Antonio Cortese, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews, Paolo A Muraro, Adam D Waldman
Age of onset in multiple sclerosis (MS) exerts an influence on the course of disease. This study examined whether global and regional brain volumes differed between "younger" and "older" onset MS subjects who were matched for short disease duration, mean 1.9 years and burden as measured by the MS Severity Score and relapses. 21 younger-onset MS subjects (age 30.4 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 17 older-onset (age 48.7 ± 3.3 years) as well as age-matched controls (n = 31, 31.9 ± 3.5 years and n = 21, 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881833/apixaban-for-treatment-of-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source-atticus-randomized-trial-rationale-and-study-design
#7
Tobias Geisler, Sven Poli, Christoph Meisner, Juergen Schreieck, Christine S Zuern, Thomas Nägele, Johannes Brachmann, Werner Jung, Georg Gahn, Elisabeth Schmid, Hansjörg Bäezner, Timea Keller, Gabor C Petzold, Jan-Wilko Schrickel, Jan Liman, Rolf Wachter, Frauke Schön, Martin Schabet, Alfred Lindner, Albert C Ludolph, Hubert Kimmig, Sebastian Jander, Uwe Schlegel, Meinrad Gawaz, Ulf Ziemann
RATIONALE: Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. AIM: The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865819/buzz-juice-neurological-sequelae-of-synthetic-cannabinoids
#8
Manisha Kak, Fadi Mikhail, Sho T Yano, Rui Guan, Rimas V Lukas
The use of synthetic cannabinoids is becoming more widespread. Familiarity with the potential toxicities associated with these agents will grow in importance. We present a case of a woman who developed onset of confusion, visual hallucinations, and ataxia after vaporizing synthetic cannabinoids. MRI imaging demonstrated restricted diffusion and increased T2/FLAIR signal in the corpus callosum and cerebellar peduncles.
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864579/automated-segmentation-reveals-silent-radiographic-progression-in-adult-onset-vanishing-white-matter-disease
#9
Thomas Huber, Marina Herwerth, Esther Alberts, Jan S Kirschke, Claus Zimmer, Ruediger Ilg
Adult-onset vanishing white-matter disease (VWM) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with neurological symptoms such as ataxia and paraparesis, showing extensive white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Besides symptom-specific scores like the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), there is no established tool to monitor disease progression. Because of extensive WMH, visual comparison of MR images is challenging. Here, we report the results of an automated method of segmentation to detect alterations in T2-weighted fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences in a one-year follow-up study of a clinically stable patient with genetically diagnosed VWM...
November 18, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863964/clinical-evidence-of-variable-proton-biological-effectiveness-in-pediatric-patients-treated-for-ependymoma
#10
Christopher R Peeler, Dragan Mirkovic, Uwe Titt, Pierre Blanchard, Jillian R Gunther, Anita Mahajan, Radhe Mohan, David R Grosshans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used for clinical proton therapy; however, experimental evidence indicates that RBE can vary. We analyzed pediatric ependymoma patients who received proton therapy to determine if areas of normal tissue damage indicated by post-treatment image changes were associated with increased biological dose effectiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen of 34 children showed T2-FLAIR hyperintensity on post-treatment magnetic resonance (MR) images...
November 16, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856439/early-stage-glioblastomas-mr-imaging-based-classification-and-imaging-evidence-of-progressive-growth
#11
C H Toh, M Castillo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The serial imaging changes describing the growth of glioblastomas from small to large tumors are seldom reported. Our aim was to classify the imaging patterns of early-stage glioblastomas and to define the order of appearance of different imaging patterns that occur during the growth of small glioblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records and preoperative MR imaging studies of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between 2006 and 2013 were reviewed...
November 17, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843906/t2-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-imaging-of-uveal-melanomas-and-other-ocular-pathology
#12
Gena M Damento, Kelly K Koeller, Diva R Salomão, Jose S Pulido
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study describes patterns of intraocular lesions on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, exploring a prospective role of FLAIR imaging sequence in diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective study of orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies from the years 2000 to 2015 was performed. MRI sequences included: pre-contrast T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2 FLAIR, and postcontrast T1 and T2 imaging gadolinium, which were evaluated by a neuroradiologist...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834541/supervised-learning-technique-for-the-automated-identification-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
James R Stone, Elisabeth A Wilde, Brian A Taylor, David F Tate, Harvey Levin, Erin D Bigler, Randall S Scheibel, Mary R Newsome, Andrew R Mayer, Tracy Abildskov, Garrett M Black, Michael J Lennon, Gerald E York, Rajan Agarwal, Jorge DeVillasante, John L Ritter, Peter B Walker, Stephen T Ahlers, Nicholas J Tustison
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are foci of abnormal signal intensity in white matter regions seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). WMHs are associated with normal ageing and have shown prognostic value in neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The impracticality of manually quantifying these lesions limits their clinical utility and motivates the utilization of machine learning techniques for automated segmentation workflows. METHODS: This study develops a concatenated random forest framework with image features for segmenting WMHs in a TBI cohort...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811355/clinical-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-type-ii-and-type-i-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#14
Kun Yao, Zejun Duan, Jian Zhou, Lin Li, Feng Zhai, Yanting Dong, Xiaoyan Wang, Zhong Ma, Yu Bian, Xueling Qi, Liang Li
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) II and I are major causes for drug-resistant epilepsy. In order to gain insight into the possible correlations between FCD II and FCD I, different clinical characteristics and immunohistochemical expression characteristics in FCD I and II were analyzed. The median age of onset and duration of epilepsy in FCD I and FCD II patients were 2.1 years and 5.3 years vs 2.4 years and 4.5 years. Therefore, the median age of onset and duration of epilepsy were similar in the two groups. Pathological lesions were predominantly located in frontal lobe in FCD II and temporal in FCD I...
November 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806705/neuroimaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-state-of-the-art-review
#15
REVIEW
Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Gary A Rosenberg, Alexander Thiel, Rok Berlot, Jacques de Reuck
Imaging is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of dementia, particularly in vascular cognitive impairment, due to the visualization of ischemic and hemorrhagic injury of gray and white matter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) provide structural and functional information. Clinical MRI is both generally available and versatile - T2-weighted images show infarcts, FLAIR shows white matter changes and lacunar infarcts, and susceptibility-weighted images reveal microbleeds...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798639/new-findings-classification-and-long-term-follow-up-study-based-on-mri-characterization-of-brainstem-encephalitis-induced-by-enterovirus-71
#16
Hongwu Zeng, Feiqiu Wen, Wenxian Huang, Yungen Gan, Weibin Zeng, Ranran Chen, Yanxia He, Yonker Wang, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang, Kelvin K L Wong
BACKGROUND: To report the diversity of MRI features of brainstem encephalitis (BE) induced by Enterovirus 71. This is supported by implementation and testing of our new classification scheme in order to improve the diagnostic level on this specific disease. METHODS: Neuroimaging of 91 pediatric patients who got EV71 related BE were hospitalized between March, 2010 to October, 2012, were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI scan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796652/prognostic-value-of-corpus-callosum-injuries-in-severe-head-trauma
#17
Marta Cicuendez, Ana Castaño-León, Ana Ramos, Amaya Hilario, Pedro A Gómez, Alfonso Lagares
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the relationship between corpus callosum (CC) injury and prognosis in traumatic axonal injury (TAI). METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 264 patients with severe head trauma who underwent a conventional MR imaging in the first 60 days after injury. They were selected from a prospectively collected database of 1048 patients with severe head trauma admitted in our hospital. TAI lesions were defined as areas of increased signal intensity on T2 and FLAIR or areas of decreased signal on gradient-echo T2...
October 31, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783098/-degenerative-cerebellar-diseases-and-differential-diagnoses
#18
W Reith, S Roumia, P Dietrich
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia...
October 25, 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782734/reference-based-mri
#19
Lior Weizman, Yonina C Eldar, Dafna Ben Bashat
PURPOSE: In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this paper the authors present a framework, referred to as FASTMER, for fast MRI by exploiting a reference image. METHODS: The proposed approach utilizes the possible similarity of the reference image to the acquired image, which exists in many clinical MRI imaging scenarios. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777786/progressive-cerebellar-degeneration-revealing-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-a-case-report
#20
Emna Farhat, Mourad Zouari, Ines Ben Abdelaziz, Cyrine Drissi, Rahma Beyrouti, Mohamed Ben Hammouda, Fayçal Hentati
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar ataxia represents a rare and severe complication of Sjӧgren syndrome (SS), especially with a progressive onset and cerebellar atrophy on imaging. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman, with a past history of dry eyes and mouth, who presented a severe cerebellar ataxia worsening over 4 years associated with tremor of the limbs and the head. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensities on T2 and FLAIR sequences, affecting periventricular white matter, with marked cerebellar atrophy...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
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