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T2 FLAIR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220103/hippocampal-damage-and-atrophy-secondary-to-status-epilepticus-in-a-patient-with-schizophrenia
#1
Elaine Keiko Fujisao, Nathalia Raquel Cristaldo, Aline Marques da Silva Braga, Paulina Rodrigues Cunha, Seizo Yamashita, Luiz Eduardo Betting
A 59-year-old man was admitted with respiratory tract infection, compromised conscience and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. His medical history included schizophrenia diagnosis, for which he had been being treated since he was 27 years old. EEG disclosed non-convulsive status epilepticus. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) acquired 3 days later showed increased left hippocampal volume with hyperintensity on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. After being treated with antibiotics and antiepileptic medications, the patient's condition improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208149/distal-middle-cerebral-artery-branch-recanalization-does-not-affect-final-lesion-volume-in-ischemic-stroke
#2
Verena van Ginneken, Daniel Gierhake, Heinrich J Audebert, Jochen B Fiebach
BACKGROUND: Early recanalization in ischemic stroke is associated with favorable outcome. However, limited data are available on the effect of recanalization on infarct growth and functional outcome in stroke with distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) pathology. This study was aimed at determining the effect of recanalization in acute stroke patients with perfusion-diffusion mismatch and occlusion or high-grade stenosis of a distal MCA branch. METHODS: We prospectively examined 34 consecutive stroke patients with perfusion-diffusion mismatch and M3 or M4 pathology within 24 h of symptom onset...
February 17, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192386/spectrum-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-unilateral-optic-tract-dysfunction
#3
Kristopher M Kowal, Francisco F Rivas Rodriguez, Ashok Srinivasan, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: Optic tract dysfunction may be the predominant or only clinical manifestation of an intracranial disorder including mass legion, ischemic infarct, inflammatory disease, and trauma. Documentation of the neuroimaging features of these lesions is limited to reports mostly published before the availability of MRI. This study was undertaken to document the spectrum of MRI features in patients presenting with optic tract dysfunction. METHODS: A retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 at a single tertiary care neuro-ophthalmology service of 24 patients who had unilateral optic tract dysfunction defined by a homonymous hemianopia and a relative afferent pupil defect that could not be attributed to optic neuropathy or retinopathy...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188918/evaluation-of-multimodal-segmentation-based-on-3d-t1-t2-and-flair-weighted-images-the-difficulty-of-choosing
#4
Tobias Lindig, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Daniel Schweikardt, Pascal Martin, Friedemann Bender, Uwe Klose, Ulrike Ernemann, Niels K Focke, Benjamin Bender
Voxel-based morphometry is still mainly based on T1-weighted MRI scans. Misclassification of vessels and dura mater as gray matter has been previously reported. Goal of the present work was to evaluate the effect of multimodal segmentation methods available in SPM12, and their influence on identification of age related atrophy and lesion detection in epilepsy patients. 3D T1-, T2- and FLAIR-images of 77 healthy adults (mean age 35.8 years, 19-66 years, 45 females), 7 patients with malformation of cortical development (MCD) (mean age 28...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183840/imaging-characteristics-of-pediatric-diffuse-midline-gliomas-with-histone-h3-k27m-mutation
#5
M S Aboian, D A Solomon, E Felton, M C Mabray, J E Villanueva-Meyer, S Mueller, S Cha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System includes "diffuse midline glioma with histone H3 K27M mutation" as a new diagnostic entity. We describe the MR imaging characteristics of this new tumor entity in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed imaging features of pediatric patients with midline gliomas with or without the histone H3 K27 mutation. We evaluated the imaging features of these tumors on the basis of location, enhancement pattern, and necrosis...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182114/evolution-of-cerebral-atrophy-in-a-patient-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-treated-with-barbiturate-coma
#6
Christopher R Newey, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christine Ahrens, Stephen Hantus, Aarti Sarwal
Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162137/are-parkinson-s-patients-more-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-study
#7
Jacob D Jones, Jared J Tanner, Michael Okun, Catherine C Price, Dawn Bowers
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. METHODS: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154532/whole-brain-magnetic-resonance-image-atlases-a-systematic-review-of-existing-atlases-and-caveats-for-use-in-population-imaging
#8
REVIEW
David Alexander Dickie, Susan D Shenkin, Devasuda Anblagan, Juyoung Lee, Manuel Blesa Cabez, David Rodriguez, James P Boardman, Adam Waldman, Dominic E Job, Joanna M Wardlaw
Brain MRI atlases may be used to characterize brain structural changes across the life course. Atlases have important applications in research, e.g., as registration and segmentation targets to underpin image analysis in population imaging studies, and potentially in future in clinical practice, e.g., as templates for identifying brain structural changes out with normal limits, and increasingly for use in surgical planning. However, there are several caveats and limitations which must be considered before successfully applying brain MRI atlases to research and clinical problems...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125598/a-feasibility-study-of-quantifying-longitudinal-brain-changes-in-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-encephalitis-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-and-stereology
#9
Sylviane Defres, Simon S Keller, Kumar Das, Rishma Vidyasagar, Laura M Parkes, Girvan Burnside, Michael Griffiths, Michael Kopelman, Neil Roberts, Tom Solomon
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether it is feasible to quantify acute change in temporal lobe volume and total oedema volumes in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis as a preliminary to a trial of corticosteroid therapy. METHODS: The study analysed serially acquired magnetic resonance images (MRI), of patients with acute HSV encephalitis who had neuroimaging repeated within four weeks of the first scan. We performed volumetric measurements of the left and right temporal lobes and of cerebral oedema visible on T2 weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images using stereology in conjunction with point counting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112022/structural-and-physiological-neurovascular-changes-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-clinical-phenotypes
#10
Sarah Al-Bachari, Rishma Vidyasagar, Hedley Ca Emsley, Laura M Parkes
Neurovascular changes are likely to interact importantly with the neurodegenerative process in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Markers of neurovascular status (NVS) include white matter lesion (WML) burden and arterial spin labelling (ASL) measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT). We investigated NVS in IPD, including an analysis of IPD clinical phenotypes, by comparison with two control groups, one with a history of clinical cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (control positive, CP) and one without CVD (control negative, CN)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104248/continuous-hemifacial-myokymia-as-the-revealing-symptom-of-demyelinating-disease-of-the-cns
#11
Frédéric London, Nawal Hadhoum, Hélène Zéphir, Patrick Vermersch, Olivier Outteryck
Facial myokymia (FM) is an uncommon involuntary movement, disorder of the musculature supplied by the facial nerve and, characterized by spontaneous undulating, vermicular movements beneath the, skin. It has rarely been described as a form of presentation of multiple, sclerosis. We describe a 31-year-old man presenting with continuous, unilateral facial myokymia as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating, disorder of central nervous system. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, showed an ipsilateral pontine T2/FLAIR hyperintensity close to the, postgenu course of facial nerve, suggestive of a segmental demyelination, of facial nerve causing facial nuclear hyperactivity and resulting in FM...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089760/enhanced-long-term-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evaluation-of-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#12
Nancy S Green, Monica Bhatia, Erica Y Griffith, Mahvish Qureshi, Courtney Briamonte, Mirko Savone, Stephen Sands, Margaret T Lee, Angela Lignelli, Adam M Brickman
Progressive neurovasculopathy in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) results in decreased cognitive function and quality of life (QoL). Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is believed to halt progression of neurovasculopathy. Quantitative analysis of T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden provides a meaningful estimate of small vessel cerebrovascular disease. We asked if quantitative analysis of WMH could complement standardized clinical assessment of MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for assessing SCD central nervous system vasculopathy before and after HCT...
January 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089561/characterizing-deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-patients-with-symptomatic-isolated-cortical-superficial-siderosis
#13
Dimitri Renard, Lavinia Tatu, Christophe Demattei, Christophe Hirtz, Sylvain Lehmann, Eric Thouvenot
BACKGROUND: In patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) presenting with lobar hemorrhage (LH), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) white matter hyperintensities (WMH) tend to be predominant in posterior regions with the "multiple subcortical spots" WMH pattern as the most frequent topographical WMH pattern. Our aim was to analyze WMH severity and topographical distribution in patients with cortical superficial siderosis (CSS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed MRIs from consecutive symptomatic isolated (i...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072657/assessment-of-cochlea-endolymphatic-hydrops-using-3-d-flair-and-3-d-real-ir-sequence-in-guinea-pigs-via-3t-mri-after-intratympanic-gadolinium-a-histopathological-comparison
#14
Feng Wang, Huiying Lyu, Menglong Zhao, Yan Sha, Fang Zhang, Yushu Cheng, Wenhu Huang, Wenlin Tang, Youzhou Xie, Ping Lu
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether the three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (3-D FLAIR) and three-dimensional inversion-recovery with real reconstruction (3-D real IR) sequences can be used to detect cochlea endolymphatic hydrops (EHs) in guinea pigs using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI). The results of 3-D real IR imaging were compared with histopathological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy men and women albino guinea pigs were used in this study...
January 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060696/acute-pancreatitis-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Vítor Magno Pereira, Luís Marote Correia, Tiago Rodrigues, Gorete Serrão Faria
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059711/t1-recovery-is-predominantly-found-in-black-holes-and-is-associated-with-clinical-improvement-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
C Thaler, T D Faizy, J Sedlacik, B Holst, K Stürner, C Heesen, J-P Stellmann, J Fiehler, S Siemonsen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative MR imaging parameters help to evaluate disease progression in multiple sclerosis and increase correlation with clinical disability. We therefore hypothesized that T1 values might be a marker for ongoing tissue damage or even remyelination and may help increase clinical correlation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 17 patients with relapsing-remitting MS at baseline and after 12 months of starting immunotherapy with dimethyl fumarate...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056870/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-antibody-encephalitis-presents-in-atypical-types-and-coexists-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-or-neurosyphilis
#17
Kaiyu Qin, Wenqing Wu, Yuming Huang, Dongmei Xu, Lei Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Meijuan Jiang, Cheng Kou, Junhua Gao, Wurong Li, Jinglin Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yanfei Luan, Chaoling Yan, Dan Xu, Xinmei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, psychosis, dyskinesia, consciousness impairments, and autonomic instability. Symptoms are always various. Sometimes it presents in milder or incomplete forms. We report 4 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with incomplete forms, 3 cases of which were accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or neurosyphilis respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man presented with dysarthria, movement disorder and occasional seizures...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053996/zika-virus-causing-encephalomyelitis-associated-with-immunoactivation
#18
Rafael Mello Galliez, Mariana Spitz, Patricia Piazza Rafful, Marcelo Cagy, Claudia Escosteguy, Caroline Spósito Brito Germano, Elisa Sasse, Alessandro Luis Gonçalves, Paola Paz Silveira, Paula Pezzuto, Alice Maria de Magalhães Ornelas, Amilcar Tanuri, Renato Santana Aguiar, Fernanda Tovar Moll
Brazil has experienced a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak with increased incidence of congenital malformations and neurological manifestations. We describe a case of a 26-year-old Brazilian Caucasian man infected with ZIKV and diagnosed with encephalomyelitis. Brain and spinal cord images showed hyperintense lesions on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid showed a remarkable increase of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. The observed pattern suggests immune activation during the acute phase, along with the neurological impairment, with normalization in the recovery phase...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048899/we-fg-202-09-voxel-level-analysis-of-adverse-treatment-response-in-pediatric-patients-treated-for-ependymoma-with-passive-scattering-proton-therapy
#19
C Peeler, D Mirkovic, U Titt, D Grosshans, R Mohan
PURPOSE: We identified patients treated for ependymoma with passive scattering proton therapy who subsequently developed treatment-related imaging changes on MRI. We sought to determine if there is any spatial correlation between imaged response, dose, and LET. METHODS: A group of 14 patients treated for ependymoma were identified as having post-treatment MR imaging changes observable as T2-FLAIR hyperintensity with or without enhancement on T1 post-contrast sequences...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048805/su-f-r-42-association-of-radiomic-and-metabolic-tumor-volumes-in-radiation-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
C Lopez, N Nagornaya, N Parra, D Kwon, F Ishkanian, A Markoe, A Maudsley, R Stoyanova
PURPOSE: High-throughput extraction of imaging and metabolomic quantitative features from MRI and MR Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) results in tens of variables per patient. In radiotherapy (RT) of GBM, the relevant metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) are related to aberrant levels of N-acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and Choline (Cho). Corresponding Clinical Target Volumes (CTVs) for RT planning are based on Contrast Enhancing T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1w) and T2-weighted/Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MRI...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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