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Hidehito Kimura, Masaaki Taniguchi, Tatsuya Mori, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
We present a rare case of a patient suffering temporary aphasia after an extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, which was shown as a transient hypointense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, evidence of postoperative hyperperfusion. Postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome after EC-IC bypass causing temporary neurological deterioration has been reported rarely as isosignal intensity on DWI with hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image as an expression of vasogenic edema...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Carina Sander, Paul Eling, Katrin Hanken, Jan Klein, Andreas Kastrup, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a disabling syndrome in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may be associated with inflammation and faster disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the significance of cognitive fatigue for subsequent disease progression. METHOD: We followed 46 MS patients and 14 healthy controls in a study over 17 months. At the beginning (t1) and at the end (t2) of the study participants scored their fatigue, performed the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and received MRI scanning, encompassing MPR T1, FLAIR, and DTI sequences...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhen-Guo Huang, Xiao-Liang Chen, Kai-Ning Shi, Ran Yan, He Chen, Min-Xing Yang, Bao-Xiang Gao, Queenie Chan, Guo-Chun Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of T2-weighted spectral presaturation inversion recovery combined with fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2W SPIR-FLAIR) in the diagnosis of hip synovitis in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA). METHODS: Ten volunteers underwent a T2W SPIR and four T2W SPIR-FLAIR sequence scans with different inversion time (TI) to determine the optimum TI that could effectively suppress the intra-articular fluid signals...
September 23, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Yasuaki Okada, Sachiyuki Tsukada, Masayoshi Saito, Atsushi Tasaki
Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a rare disorder characterized by acute severe coxalgia and temporary osteopenia in the proximal femur. Although most cases were unilateral or staged bilateral TOH, some authors reported that the pregnant patients simultaneously had TOH in their bilateral hips. However, there has been no report of simultaneous bilateral TOH in the patient without pregnancy. A 25-year-old Japanese woman without pregnancy had acute simultaneous bilateral hip pain. Plain X-ray of the bilateral hips did not show a periarticular osteopenia...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Eunmi Lee, Ji Eun Park, Mayu Iida, Tomoya Fujie, Toshiyuki Kaji, Gaku Ichihara, Young Cheol Weon, Yangho Kim
We report the clinical and neuroimaging findings of 4 men who worked in the production of inorganic metal tin ingot from organotin scrap who presented with similar episodes of reversible amnesia. T2-weighted-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (FLAIR MRI) scans in 3 of the patients showed symmetric hyperintensity in the frontoparietal periventricular white matter and the corpus callosum, and reduced apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). One patient had symmetric faint hyperintensity in the parietal periventricular white matter only in the FLAIR images...
September 11, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Ernesto Roldan-Valadez, Camilo Rios, Daniel Motola-Kuba, Juan Matus-Santos, Antonio R Villa, Sergio Moreno-Jimenez
OBJECTIVE: A long-lasting concern has prevailed for the identification of predictive biomarkers for high-grade gliomas (HGGs) using MRI. However, a consensus of which imaging parameters assemble a significant survival model is still missing in the literature; we investigated the significant positive or negative contribution of several MR biomarkers in this tumour prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of supratentorial HGGs [11 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 17 anaplastic astrocytomas] included 28 patients (9 females and 19 males, respectively, with a mean age of 50...
November 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Thomas Wychowski, Ali Hussain, Madalina E Tivarus, Gretchen L Birbeck, Michel J Berg, Michael Potchen
PURPOSE: To determine whether Double Inversion Recovery (DIR) on 3T MRI can enhance detection of epileptogenic lesions Methods: 29 adult patients with DRE were enrolled in a prospective pilot study. Brain MRIs were obtained using a specialized protocol that included: (1) Fast-Spin EchoT2, (2) T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and (3) DIR sequences. Two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical information independently reviewed each sequence in the order listed above for T2-hyperintense lesions...
September 3, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Chizoba C Umeh, Piyush Kalakoti, Michael K Greenberg, Silvio Notari, Yvonne Cohen, Pierluigi Gambetti, Adrian L Oblak, Bernardino Ghetti, Zoltan Mari
Parkinsonism-dystonia is rare in carriers of PRNP P102L mutation. Severity and distribution of prion protein (PrP) deposition may influence the clinical presentation. We present such clinic-pathological correlation in a 56-year-old male with a PRNP P102L mutation associated with a phenotype characterized by rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia. The patient was studied clinically (videotaped exams, brain MRIs); molecular genetically (gene sequence analysis); and neuropathologically (histology, immunohistochemistry) during his 7-month disease course...
July 2016: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Amod Jog, Aaron Carass, Snehashis Roy, Dzung L Pham, Jerry L Prince
By choosing different pulse sequences and their parameters, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can generate a large variety of tissue contrasts. This very flexibility, however, can yield inconsistencies with MRI acquisitions across datasets or scanning sessions that can in turn cause inconsistent automated image analysis. Although image synthesis of MR images has been shown to be helpful in addressing this problem, an inability to synthesize both T2-weighted brain images that include the skull and FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images has been reported...
August 31, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Wen-Xiong Chen, Hong-Sheng Liu, Si-Da Yang, Si-Hui Zeng, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Zhi-Hong Du, Xiao-Jing Li, Hai-Sheng Lin, Hui-Ci Liang, Jian-Ning Mai
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features of reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) in children. METHODS: Retrospectively analyzed clinical features of RESLES in children and compared differences between severe and non-severe group, classified by clinical global impression-scale; summarized clinical features of children with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) from case series. RESULTS: 16 episodes of RESLES occurring in 15 Chinese children were analyzed, with 13 episodes having MERS and 3 episodes with epilepsy...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Cezar J Mizrahi, José E Cohen, J M Gomori, Yigal Shoshan, Sergey Spektor, Samuel Moscovici
We review our experience with four patients who presented to our Medical Center from 2005-2015 with adult idiopathic occlusion of the foramen of Monro (FM). All patients underwent CT scanning and MRI. Standard MRI was performed in each patient to rule out a secondary cause of obstruction (T1-weighted without- and with gadolinium, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR] and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] protocols). When occlusion of the FM appeared to be idiopathic, further high-resolution MRI with multiplanar reconstructions for evaluation of stenosis or an occluding membrane at the level of the FM was performed (T1-weighted without- and with gadolinium, T2-weighted 3D turbo spin-echo)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
M Mascalchi, A Bianchi, M Basile, P Gulino, M R Trifan, D Difeo, E Bartolini, C Defilippi, S Diciotti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: T2-weighted FLAIR can be combined with 3D-FSE sequences with isotropic voxels, yielding higher signal-to-noise ratio than 2D-FLAIR. Our aim was to explore whether a T2-weighted FLAIR-volume isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition sequence (FLAIR-VISTA) with fat suppression shows areas of abnormal brain T2 hyperintensities with better conspicuity in children than a single 2D-FLAIR sequence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One week after a joint training session with 20 3T MR imaging examinations (8 under sedation), 3 radiologists independently evaluated the presence and conspicuity of abnormal areas of T2 hyperintensities of the brain in FLAIR-VISTA with fat suppression (sagittal source and axial and coronal reformatted images) and in axial 2D-FLAIR without fat suppression in a test set of 100 3T MR imaging examinations (34 under sedation) of patients 2-18 years of age performed for several clinical indications...
September 1, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
José Luis Thenier-Villa, Raúl Alejandro Galárraga Campoverde, Adolfo Ramón DE LA Lama Zaragoza, Cesáreo Conde Alonso
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors. Since the adhesions in the plane of dissection are of interest in surgical planning, we suggest that digital image subtraction of FLAIR data from the T2 sequence of MRI may represent better the CSF spaces in the brain-tumor interface and may be a predictor of the intraoperative cleavage plane. From 2006 to 2016, 83 convexity meningiomas were resected in the Department of Neurosurgery of the University Hospital Complex of Vigo, an analysis of preoperative MRI was performed to assess peritumoral edema (PTE), tumor volume, among others; a digital subtraction of T2-FLAIR sequences was performed and analyzed in relationship to the cleavage plane described in the intraoperative report and postoperative neurological deficits...
August 31, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Malgorzata Kolecka, Kerstin von Pückler, Steven De Decker, Stefano Cortellini, Gabriel Wurtinger, Martin J Schmidt
This paper presents magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of three dogs after carbon monoxide intoxication. In the first and second cases, MRI changes were confined to both caudate nuclei and in the first case also to the putamen as bilaterally symmetric diffuse homogenous T2 and FLAIR hyperintense, T1 hypointense lesions. No contrast enhancement was seen. In the third case MRI revealed multiple areas of hyperintensity bilaterally on T2 and FLAIR as well as ill-defined areas within the frontal, parietal and occipital grey matter...
August 31, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Snehashis Roy, Aaron Carass, Jerry L Prince, Dzung L Pham
Segmenting T2-hyperintense white matter lesions from longitudinal MR images is essential in understanding progression of multiple sclerosis. Most lesion segmentation techniques find lesions independently at each time point, even though there are different noise and image contrast variations at each point in the time series. In this paper, we present a patch based 4D lesion segmentation method that takes advantage of the temporal component of longitudinal data. For each subject with multiple time-points, 4D patches are constructed from the T 1-w and FLAIR scans of all time-points...
October 2015: Machine Learning in Medical Imaging
Luis Cartier, José Manuel Matamala, Alonso Yáñez
Posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is a condition characterized by T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, localized preferentially in the occipital-parietal white matter regions. Pathological MRI images located in midbrain, pons, medulla and spinal cord, that could be asymptomatic, were recently included in this entity. These images are interpreted as vasogenic edema, which is caused by arterial hypertension or eclampsia, neurotoxicity related to immunosuppressive agents or chemotherapy, among other causes...
May 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Claudia Speciale, Aurelia Banco, Francesco Bencivinni, Massimo Midiri
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), compared with T2*-weighted gradient echo (GRE) imaging in assessing cerebral cavernous malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 21 patients with a familial form of cavernous malformation. Magnetic resonance (MR) protocol included non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced fast-spin echo (FSE) T1-weighted sequences, FSE T2-weighted sequences, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), GRE T2*-weighted and SWI sequences...
October 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
Sara Hocker, Elanagan Nagarajan, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Dennis Hanson, Jeffrey W Britton
Importance: Prolonged seizures in super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) have been shown to cause neuronal death and reorganization, and visual inspection in individual case studies has demonstrated progressive cortical and subcortical atrophy. At present, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that evaluate brain atrophy in SRSE are lacking. Objectives: To document and quantify the development of atrophy over time in SRSE. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective medical record review included all patients with SRSE who were admitted to a tertiary referral campus of the Mayo Clinic Hospital with SRSE from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
T Nanda
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease most common in immunodeficient patients. It occurs due to reactivation of the John Cunningham Virus (JCV) and carries a poor prognosis, with a median life expectancy of 6 months. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with a history of HCV related cirrhosis (HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who was found to have PML in the setting of a negative viral load in the CSF and a CD4+ >200. He initially presented with two weeks of mild confusion and word-finding difficulty concerning for hepatic encephalopathy...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Gao Lan, Lian Yunmin, Wang Pu, Huai Haili
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe and evaluate six 3.0 T sequences of metallic artifacts produced by metal dental crowns. METHODS: Dental crowns fabricated with four different materials (Co-Gr, Ni-Gr, Ti alloy and pure Ti) were evaluated. A mature crossbreed dog was used as the experimental animal, and crowns were fabricated for its upper right second premolar. Each crown was examined through head MRI (3.0 T) with six sequences, namely, T₁ weighted-imaging of spin echo (T₁W/SE), T₂ weighted-imaging of inversion recovery (T₂W/IR), T₂ star gradient echo (T₂*/GRE), T2 weighted-imaging of fast spin echo (T₂W/FSE), T₁ weighted-imaging of fluid attenuate inversion recovery (T₂W/FLAIR), and T₂ weighted-imaging of propeller (T₂W/PROP)...
June 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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