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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440550/political-drivers-of-epidemic-response-foreign-healthcare-workers-and-the-2014-ebola-outbreak
#1
Daniel Nohrstedt, Erik Baekkeskov
This study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing of national pledges and the deployment of HCWs to states experiencing outbreaks of the virus disease (principally, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), it shows that few foreign nations deployed HCWs early, some made pledges but then fulfilled them slowly, and most sent no HCWs at all. To aid understanding of such national responses, the paper reviews five theoretical perspectives that offer potentially competing or complementary explanations of foreign government medical assistance for international public health emergencies...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440096/strategies-in-ebola-virus-disease-evd-diagnostics-at-the-point-of-care
#2
Chad T Coarsey, Nwadiuto Esiobu, Ramswamy Narayanan, Mirjana Pavlovic, Hadi Shafiee, Waseem Asghar
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a devastating, highly infectious illness with a high mortality rate. The disease is endemic to regions of Central and West Africa, where there is limited laboratory infrastructure and trained staff. The recent 2014 West African EVD outbreak has been unprecedented in case numbers and fatalities, and has proven that such regional outbreaks can become a potential threat to global public health, as it became the source for the subsequent transmission events in Spain and the USA. The urgent need for rapid and affordable means of detecting Ebola is crucial to control the spread of EVD and prevent devastating fatalities...
April 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439448/spatial-determinants-of-ebola-virus-disease-risk-for-the-west-african-epidemic
#3
Kate Zinszer, Kathryn Morrison, Aman Verma, John S Brownstein
INTRODUCTION: Although many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target limited public health resources during an EVD outbreak. We examined several environmental and population-level demographic predictors of EVD risk from the West African epidemic...
March 31, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437843/a-bayesian-belief-network-model-assessing-the-risk-to-wastewater-workers-of-contracting-ebola-virus-disease-during-an-outbreak
#4
Joseph W Zabinski, Kelsey J Pieper, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437766/cyanobacterial-lectins-characteristics-and-their-role-as-antiviral-agents
#5
REVIEW
Ram Sarup Singh, Amandeep Kaur Walia, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Davinder Pal Singh, John F Kennedy
Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434944/dose-dependent-t-cell-dynamics-and-cytokine-cascade-following-rvsv-zebov-immunization
#6
Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Krähling, Madeleine E Zinser, Nadine Biedenkopf, Sarah K Fehling, My L Ly, Anne Rechtien, Hans C Stubbe, Flaminia Olearo, Saskia Borregaard, Alen Jambrecina, Felix Stahl, Thomas Strecker, Markus Eickmann, Marc Lütgehetmann, Michael Spohn, Stefan Schmiedel, Ansgar W Lohse, Stephan Becker, Marylyn M Addo
BACKGROUND: The recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date...
April 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431862/application-of-the-cdc-ebolaresponse-modeling-tool-to-disease-predictions
#7
Robert H Gaffey, Cécile Viboud
Model-based predictions were critical in eliciting a vigorous international public health response to the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa. Here, we describe the performances of an extension of the CDC-initiated EbolaResponse Modeling tool to the Ebola Forecasting Challenge, which offered a controlled environment for epidemiological predictions. In the EbolaResponse tool, transmission risks and proportions of population affected by interventions were fitted to data via least square fitting. Prediction performances were evaluated for 5 prediction time points of 4 synthetic outbreaks...
March 10, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430779/a-coevolution-analysis-for-identifying-protein-protein-interactions-by-fourier-transform
#8
Changchuan Yin, Stephen S-T Yau
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428619/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-a-previously-unknown-role-for-cd8-t-cells-in-rvsv-ebov-mediated-protection
#9
Andrea R Menicucci, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
Ebola virus (EBOV) poses a significant threat to human health as highlighted by the recent epidemic in West Africa. Data from animal studies and a ring vaccination clinical trial conducted in Guinea during the recent epidemic demonstrated that a recombinant VSV where G protein is replaced with EBOV GP (rVSV-EBOV) is safe and highly efficacious. We previously established that antibodies are essential for rVSV-EBOV mediated protection against EBOV; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine induces a humoral response and the role of T-cells in rVSV-EBOV mediated protection remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427845/development-of-a-micro-neutralization-assay-for-ebolaviruses-using-a-replication-competent-vesicular-stomatitis-hybrid-virus-and-a-quantitative-pcr-readout
#10
Stella S Lee, Kathryn Phy, Keith Peden, Li Sheng-Fowler
Development of vaccines against highly pathogenic viruses that could also be used as agents of bioterrorism is both a public health issue and a national security priority. Methods that can quantify neutralizing antibodies will likely be crucial in demonstrating vaccine effectiveness, as most licensed viral vaccines are effective due to their capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Assays to determine whether antibodies are neutralizing traditionally involve infectious virus, and the assay most commonly used is the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
April 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424108/a-systematic-review-of-early-modelling-studies-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-corrigendum
#11
Z S Y Wong, C M Bui, A A Chughtai, C R Macintyre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421931/back-to-former-ebola-zone
#12
(no author information available yet)
Pauline Cafferkey is planning to return to Sierra Leone for the first time since falling seriously ill with the Ebola virus in 2014.
April 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420487/personal-protective-equipment-solution-for-uk-military-medical-personnel-working-in-an-ebola-virus-disease-treatment-unit-in-sierra-leone
#13
P Reidy, T Fletcher, C Shieber, J Shallcross, H Towler, M Ping, L Kenworthy, N Silman, E Aarons
The combination of personal protective equipment (PPE) together with donning and doffing protocols was designed to protect British and Canadian military medical personnel in the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in Sierra Leone. The PPE solution was selected to protect medical staff from infectious risks, notably Ebola virus, and chemical (hypochlorite) exposure. PPE maximized dexterity, enabled personnel to work in hot temperatures for periods of up to 2h, protected mucosal membranes when doffing outer layers, and minimized potential contamination of the doffing area with infectious material by reducing the requirement to spray PPE with hypochlorite...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418440/an-all-atom-molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-anti-interferon-signaling-of-ebola-virus-interaction-mechanisms-of-ebov-vp24-binding-to-karyopherin-alpha5
#14
Jing-Na Ding, Yan-Jun Zhang, Hui Zhong, Cheng-Cheng Ao, Jing Li, Ju-Guang Han
Ebola virus (EBOV) is highly lethal due to virally encoded immune antagonists, and the combination of EBOV VP24 with karyopherin alpha (KPNA) will trigger anti-interferon (IFN) signaling. The crystal structure of VP24-KPNA5 has been proposed in recent studies, but the precise binding mechanisms are still unclear. In order to explore the VP24-KPNA5 protein binding micro-mechanisms, Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations and Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-GB/SA) energy calculation are performed...
April 18, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412830/expression-and-immunogenicity-of-vp40-protein-of-zebov
#15
Yinbiao Wang, Xiao Liu, Ling Tao, Pengwei Xu, Xia Gao, Huijun Li, Zhongzhi Yang, Weidong Wu
BACKGROUND: EBOV outbreaks continue to threaten the world due to the absence of effective vaccines and therapeutics. Easy-to-use and rapid diagnostic tests for EBOV are highly desired for prevention and control of the EVD epidemic. METHODS: Escherichia coli expression system was used to express VP40 protein of Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) as water-soluble protein upon optimization of temperature, time, and IPTG concentration. VP40 protein was purified through Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and applied to immunize rabbits for immunogenicity analysis...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410486/how-to-treat-ebola-virus-infections-a-lesson-from-the-field
#16
REVIEW
Sophie Duraffour, Denis Malvy, Daouda Sissoko
The reported case fatality ratios (CFR) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been as high as 90% in previous outbreaks. While the cumulative CFR among patients medically evacuated and treated in Western countries was inferior to 20%, it peaked to approximately 75% between September and December 2014 in West Africa, thereafter decreasing to less than 40% (May 2015) without current evidence of major virus mutations capable to alter virus pathogenicity over the course of the epidemic. Therefore, the observed diminution of CFR is likely to reflect improvement of EVD patient care...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408587/the-evolving-ebola-virus-host-response
#17
EDITORIAL
Lindsey Pujanandez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407038/emmaw-computing-minimal-absent-words-in-external-memory
#18
Alice Heliou, Solon P Pissis, Simon J Puglisi
Motivation: The biological significance of minimal absent words has been investigated in genomes of organisms from all domains of life. For instance, three minimal absent words of the human genome were found in Ebola virus genomes (Silva et al., Bioinf., 2015). There exists an O(n)-time and O(n)-space algorithm for computing all minimal absent words of a sequence of length n on a fixed-sized alphabet based on suffix arrays (Barton et al., BMC Bioinf., 2014). A standard implementation of this algorithm, when applied to a large sequence of length n, requires more than 20n bytes of RAM...
April 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405027/virus-genomes-reveal-factors-that-spread-and-sustained-the-ebola-epidemic
#19
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford, Andrew J Tatem, Guy Baele, Nuno R Faria, Daniel J Park, Jason T Ladner, Armando Arias, Danny Asogun, Filip Bielejec, Sarah L Caddy, Matthew Cotten, Jonathan D'Ambrozio, Simon Dellicour, Antonino Di Caro, Joseph W Diclaro, Sophie Duraffour, Michael J Elmore, Lawrence S Fakoli, Ousmane Faye, Merle L Gilbert, Sahr M Gevao, Stephen Gire, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Augustine Goba, Donald S Grant, Bart L Haagmans, Julian A Hiscox, Umaru Jah, Jeffrey R Kugelman, Di Liu, Jia Lu, Christine M Malboeuf, Suzanne Mate, David A Matthews, Christian B Matranga, Luke W Meredith, James Qu, Joshua Quick, Suzan D Pas, My V T Phan, Georgios Pollakis, Chantal B Reusken, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Stephen F Schaffner, John S Schieffelin, Rachel S Sealfon, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Saskia L Smits, Kilian Stoecker, Lucy Thorne, Ekaete Alice Tobin, Mohamed A Vandi, Simon J Watson, Kendra West, Shannon Whitmer, Michael R Wiley, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Roman Wölfel, Nathan L Yozwiak, Kristian G Andersen, Sylvia O Blyden, Fatorma Bolay, Miles W Carroll, Bernice Dahn, Boubacar Diallo, Pierre Formenty, Christophe Fraser, George F Gao, Robert F Garry, Ian Goodfellow, Stephan Günther, Christian T Happi, Edward C Holmes, Brima Kargbo, Sakoba Keïta, Paul Kellam, Marion P G Koopmans, Jens H Kuhn, Nicholas J Loman, N'Faly Magassouba, Dhamari Naidoo, Stuart T Nichol, Tolbert Nyenswah, Gustavo Palacios, Oliver G Pybus, Pardis C Sabeti, Amadou Sall, Ute Ströher, Isatta Wurie, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Andrew Rambaut
The 2013-2016 West African epidemic caused by the Ebola virus was of unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Here we reconstruct the dispersal, proliferation and decline of Ebola virus throughout the region by analysing 1,610 Ebola virus genomes, which represent over 5% of the known cases. We test the association of geography, climate and demography with viral movement among administrative regions, inferring a classic 'gravity' model, with intense dispersal between larger and closer populations. Despite attenuation of international dispersal after border closures, cross-border transmission had already sown the seeds for an international epidemic, rendering these measures ineffective at curbing the epidemic...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404864/longitudinal-peripheral-blood-transcriptional-analysis-of-a-patient-with-severe-ebola-virus-disease
#20
John C Kash, Kathie-Anne Walters, Jason Kindrachuk, David Baxter, Kelsey Scherler, Krisztina B Janosko, Rick D Adams, Andrew S Herbert, Rebekah M James, Spencer W Stonier, Matthew J Memoli, John M Dye, Richard T Davey, Daniel S Chertow, Jeffery K Taubenberger
The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U...
April 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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