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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238624/biochemical-basis-for-increased-activity-of-ebola-glycoprotein-in-the-2013-16-epidemic
#1
May K Wang, Sun-Young Lim, Soo Mi Lee, James M Cunningham
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is characterized by sporadic outbreaks caused by zoonotic transmission. Fixed changes in amino acid sequence, such as A82V in the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) that occurred early in the 2013-16 epidemic, are suspected to confer a selective advantage to the virus. We used biochemical assays of GP function to show that A82V, as well as a polymorphism in residue 544 identified in other outbreaks, enhances infection by decreasing the threshold for activation of membrane fusion activity triggered by the host factors cathepsin B and Niemann-Pick C1...
February 18, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237501/vaccines-shaping-global-health
#2
Sonia Pagliusi, Ching-Chia Ting, Fernando Lobos
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237443/ebola-virus-disease-in-children-presents-special-challenges
#3
Sarah S Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237252/effect-of-ebola-virus-disease-on-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-guinea-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#4
Alexandre Delamou, Alison M El Ayadi, Sidikiba Sidibe, Therese Delvaux, Bienvenu S Camara, Sah D Sandouno, Abdoul H Beavogui, Georges W Rutherford, Junko Okumura, Wei-Hong Zhang, Vincent De Brouwere
BACKGROUND: The 2014 west African epidemic of Ebola virus disease posed a major threat to the health systems of the countries affected. We sought to quantify the consequences of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in the highly-affected Forest region of Guinea. METHODS: We did a retrospective, observational cohort study of women and children attending public health facilities for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and immunisation services in six of seven health districts in the Forest region (Beyla, Guéckédou, Kissidougou, Lola, Macenta, and N'Zérékoré)...
February 22, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237251/the-end-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic-has-the-work-just-begun
#5
Mark J Siedner, John D Kraemer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231311/handwashing-and-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-a-randomized-comparison-of-soap-hand-sanitizer-and-0-05-chlorine-solutions-on-the-inactivation-and-removal-of-model-organisms-phi6-and-e-coli-from-hands-and-persistence-in-rinse-water
#6
Marlene K Wolfe, Karin Gallandat, Kyle Daniels, Anne Marie Desmarais, Pamela Scheinman, Daniele Lantagne
To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231247/favipiravir-pharmacokinetics-in-ebola-infected-patients-of-the-jiki-trial-reveals-concentrations-lower-than-targeted
#7
Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Jérémie Guedj, Xavier Anglaret, Cédric Laouénan, Vincent Madelain, Anne-Marie Taburet, Sylvain Baize, Daouda Sissoko, Boris Pastorino, Anne Rodallec, Géraldine Piorkowski, Sara Carazo, Mamoudou N Conde, Jean-Luc Gala, Joseph Akoi Bore, Caroline Carbonnelle, Frédéric Jacquot, Hervé Raoul, Denis Malvy, Xavier de Lamballerie, France Mentré
BACKGROUND: In 2014-2015, we assessed favipiravir tolerance and efficacy in patients with Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) in Guinea (JIKI trial). Because the drug had never been used before for this indication and that high concentrations of the drugs were needed to achieve antiviral efficacy against EBOV, a pharmacokinetic model had been used to propose relevant dosing regimen. Here we report the favipiravir plasma concentrations that were achieved in participants in the JIKI trial and put them in perspective with the model-based targeted concentrations...
February 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231242/predicting-ebola-infection-a-malaria-sensitive-triage-score-for-ebola-virus-disease
#8
Mary-Anne Hartley, Alyssa Young, Anh-Minh Tran, Harry Henry Okoni-Williams, Mohamed Suma, Brooke Mancuso, Ahmed Al-Dikhari, Mohamed Faouzi
BACKGROUND: The non-specific symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) pose a major problem to triage and isolation efforts at Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs). Under the current triage protocol, half the patients allocated to high-risk "probable" wards were EVD(-): a misclassification speculated to predispose nosocomial EVD infection. A better understanding of the statistical relevance of individual triage symptoms is essential in resource-poor settings where rapid, laboratory-confirmed diagnostics are often unavailable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228590/a-polymorphism-within-the-internal-fusion-loop-of-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-modulates-host-cell-entry
#9
Markus Hoffmann, Lisa Crone, Erik Dietzel, Jennifer Paijo, Mariana González-Hernández, Inga Nehlmeier, Ulrich Kalinke, Stephan Becker, Stefan Pöhlmann
The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two non-human primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225767/interferon-%C3%AE-1a-for-the-treatment-of-ebola-virus-disease-a-historically-controlled-single-arm-proof-of-concept-trial
#10
Mandy Kader Konde, Darren P Baker, Fode Amara Traore, Mamadou Saliou Sow, Alioune Camara, Alpha Amadou Barry, Doussou Mara, Abdoulaye Barry, Moussa Cone, Ibrahima Kaba, Amento Ablam Richard, Abdoul Habib Beavogui, Stephan Günther, Melania Pintilie, Eleanor N Fish
To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Based on our in vitro evidence of antiviral activity of interferon (IFN)-ß activity against Ebola virus, we conducted a single arm clinical study in Guinea to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of IFN β-1a treatment for EVD. Nine individuals infected with Ebola virus were treated with IFN β-1a and compared retrospectively with a matched cohort of 21 infected patients receiving standardized supportive care only during the same time period at the same treatment unit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221131/spatiotemporal-fluctuations-and-triggers-of-ebola-virus-spillover
#11
John Paul Schmidt, Andrew W Park, Andrew M Kramer, Barbara A Han, Laura W Alexander, John M Drake
Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219991/impacts-on-global-health-from-nursing-research
#12
Kimberly Baltzell, Monica McLemore, Mona Shattell, Sally Rankin
Infectious disease continues to adversely affect populations in low- and middle-income countries. Investments in solutions often focus on technology, yet health-care workers remain in short supply. Nurses are the largest cadre of health-care workers and are largely responsible for patient care around the world. In fact, it is estimated that nurses care for nine out of every 10 patients seen. Importantly, sound nursing science contributes to solutions that directly impact patient care, especially, those that pertain to infectious disease...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216237/development-of-an-anti-ferret-cd4-monoclonal-antibody-for-the-characterisation-of-ferret-t-lymphocytes
#13
Daniel S Layton, Xiaowen Xiao, John D Bentley, Louis Lu, Cameron R Stewart, Andrew G D Bean, Timothy E Adams
The ferret is an established animal model for a number of human respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus and more recently, Ebola virus. However, a paucity of immunological reagents has hampered the study of cellular immune responses. Here we describe the development and characterisation of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the ferret CD4 antigen and the characterisation of ferret CD4 T lymphocytes. Recombinant production and purification of the ferret CD4 ectodomain soluble protein allowed hybridoma generation and the generation of a mAb (FeCD4) showing strong binding to ferret CD4 protein and lymphoid cells by flow cytometry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216187/recombinant-proteins-of-zaire-ebolavirus-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-and-protect-against-live-virus-infection-in-mice
#14
Axel T Lehrer, Teri-Ann S Wong, Michael M Lieberman, Tom Humphreys, David E Clements, Russell R Bakken, Mary Kate Hart, William D Pratt, John M Dye
Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216184/vaccine-development-for-emerging-virulent-infectious-diseases
#15
Joel N Maslow
The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214732/persistent-rna-virus-infections-do-pamps-drive-chronic-disease
#16
REVIEW
Mary K McCarthy, Thomas E Morrison
Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208277/ultrasensitive-ebola-virus-detection-based-on-electroluminescent-nanospheres-and-immunomagnetic-separation
#17
Zhen Wu, Jiao Hu, Tao Zeng, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Yuhai Bi, Dai-Wen Pang
The 2014-16 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa has attracted widespread concern. Rapid and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Here, we propose a novel method for EBOV detection based on efficient amplification of electroluminescent nanospheres (ENs) coupled with immunomagnetic separation. Uniform ENs are made by embedding abundant amounts of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) into copolymer nanospheres through simple ultrasound. Compared to QDs, ENs can enhance electroluminescence (ECL) signals by approximately 85-fold, achieving a signal-to-background ratio high enough for EBOV detection...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207078/emerging-infectious-diseases-animals-and-future-epidemics
#18
Herbert L DuPont
Emerging and reemerging infections have become prevalent in the United States since the 1970s, causing illness, death, and fear among the public. The published literature was reviewed to offer a perspective on risk factors for disease acquisition and to allow a prediction of the next microbial assault after Ebola and Zika. Four well-integrated factors likely will contribute simultaneously: animals colonized or infected by pathogens capable of human transmission, microbes recurrently changing their virulence, a growing number of susceptible people, and climatic and environmental factors encouraging disease transmission...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207062/impact-of-interventions-and-the-incidence-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-liberia-implications-for-future-epidemics
#19
Thomas D Kirsch, Heidi Moseson, Moses Massaquoi, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Rachel Goodermote, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Justin Lessler, Derek A T Cumings, David H Peters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205249/exploration-micromechanism-of-vp35-iid-interaction-and-recognition-dsrna-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#20
Yan-Jun Zhang, Jing-Na Ding, Hui Zhong, Ju-Guang Han
Multifunctional viral protein (VP35) encoded by the highly pathogenic Ebola viruses (EBOVs) can antagonize host double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors and immune response because of the simultaneous recognition of dsRNA backbone and blunt ends. Mutation of select hydrophobic conserved basic residues within the VP35 inhibitory domain (IID) abrogates its dsRNA-binding activity, and impairs VP35-mediated interferon (IFN) antagonism. Herein the detailed binding mechanism between dsRNA and WT, single mutant, and double mutant were investigated by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and binding energy calculation...
February 16, 2017: Proteins
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