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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641074/development-of-novel-antigen-receptors-for-car-t-cell-therapy-directed-toward-solid-malignancies
#1
REVIEW
David Chen, James Yang
Development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have led to remarkable successes in the treatment of B-cell malignancies with anti-CD19 CAR. Here we discuss the development of novel antigen receptors for use in solid malignancies with respect to target antigens, receptor design, and T cell manipulations.
June 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638457/upregulation-of-coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-sensitizes-cisplatin-resistant-lung-cancer-cells-to-crad-induced-inhibition
#2
Ali Sakhawat, Yanan Liu, Ling Ma, Tahir Muhammad, Shensen Wang, Lina Zhang, Xianling Cong, Yinghui Huang
Objective. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) have been proven potent oncolytic viruses in previous studies. They selectively replicate in the tumor cells because of incorporated survivin promoter and ultimately lead to their killing with minimal side effects on normal tissue. Chemotherapy with cisplatin is commonly employed for treating tumors, but its cytotoxic effects and development of resistance remained major concerns to be dealt with. The aim of this study was to explore the anticancer potential of survivin regulated CRAd alone or in combination with cisplatin in the A549 lung cancer cell line and cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell line, A549-DDPR...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629762/targeting-the-tumor-and-its-associated-stroma-one-and-one-can-make-three-in-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#3
Anna Mondino, Gerlanda Vella, Laura Icardi
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has become a promising immunotherapeutic option for cancer patients. The proof for ACT therapeutic efficacy was first obtained with allogenic T cells and then reproduced with T cells isolated from patients' tumor samples (i.e. tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). It is now clear that specificity of ACT products can be educated by genetically engineering T cells with classical T Cell Receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). To date a poor accessibility of the tumor mass and a hostile microenvironment, influenced by genetic and epigenetic instability, mainly limit ACT therapeutic efficacy in the case of solid tumors...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613086/exploiting-natural-killer-group-2d-receptors-for-car-t-cell-therapy
#4
Benjamin Demoulin, W James Cook, Joana Murad, David J Graber, Marie-Louise Sentman, Caroline Lonez, David E Gilham, Charles L Sentman, Sophie Agaugue
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically engineered proteins that combine an extracellular antigen-specific recognition domain with one or several intracellular T-cell signaling domains. When expressed in T cells, these CARs specifically trigger T-cell activation upon antigen recognition. While the clinical proof of principle of CAR T-cell therapy has been established in hematological cancers, CAR T cells are only at the early stages of being explored to tackle solid cancers. This special report discusses the concept of exploiting natural killer cell receptors as an approach that could broaden the specificity of CAR T cells and potentially enhance the efficacy of this therapy against solid tumors...
June 14, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612710/yc-1-induces-g0-g1-phase-arrest-and-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis-in-cisplatin-resistant-human-oral-cancer-car-cells
#5
Miau-Rong Lee, Chingju Lin, Chi-Cheng Lu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Je-Wei Tsao, Yu-Ning Juan, Hong-Yi Chiu, Fang-Yu Lee, Jai-Sing Yang, Fuu-Jen Tsai
Oral cancer is a serious and fatal disease. Cisplatin is the first line of chemotherapeutic agent for oral cancer therapy. However, the development of drug resistance and severe side effects cause tremendous problems clinically. In this study, we investigated the pharmacologic mechanisms of YC-1 on cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer cell line, CAR. Our results indicated that YC-1 induced a concentration-dependent and time-dependent decrease in viability of CAR cells analyzed by MTT assay. Real-time image analysis of CAR cells by IncuCyte™ Kinetic Live Cell Imaging System demonstrated that YC-1 inhibited cell proliferation and reduced cell confluence in a time-dependent manner...
June 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610774/false-positive-hiv-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing-during-car-t-cell-therapy
#6
Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Bruno P Granwehr, George M Viola, Micah Bhatti, James M Kelley, James Kochenderfer, Chitra Hosing
Advancements in immunotherapy have opened a new era in oncology, to include genetic modification of human T-cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that enables targeted tumor recognition (Kochenderfer et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2015; Maus and Levine 2016; Rosenberg et al., 2008). Herein, we report a false-positive HIV testing in a patient who had undergone CAR T-cell therapy created with a lentiviral vector.
June 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609515/amid-fda-approval-filings-another-car-t-therapy-patient-death
#7
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609257/characteristics-of-participants-enrolled-onto-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-palliative-care-for-patients-on-phase-i-studies
#8
Betty R Ferrell, Carly L Paterson, Mark T Hughes, Vincent Chung, Marianna Koczywas, Thomas J Smith
INTRODUCTION: Advanced cancer patients participating in phase 1 clinical trials experience considerable symptom burden. Palliative care (PC) may benefit these individuals by providing supportive care during clinical research participation. This study investigates integration of a PC intervention among phase 1 trial participants with advanced cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study is a multisite randomized clinical trial testing a concurrent PC intervention among phase 1 trial participants...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608730/novel-therapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Raoul Santiago, Stéphanie Vairy, Daniel Sinnett, Maja Krajinovic, Henrique Bittencourt
During recent decades, the prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved dramatically, nowadays, reaching a cure rate of almost 90%. These results are due to a better management and combination of old therapies, refined risk-group stratification and emergence of minimal residual disease (MRD) combined with treatment's intensification for high-risk subgroups. However, the subgroup of patients with refractory/relapsed ALL still presents a dismal prognosis indicating necessity for innovative therapeutic approaches...
June 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604239/continuing-challenges-and-current-issues-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
Ankit Kansagra, Saurabh Dahiya, Mark Litzow
Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has resulted into high cure rates for pediatric patients, however outcomes for adult patients remain suboptimal. The 5-year overall survival is only 30-40% in adults and elderly patients with ALL compared to 90% in children. We have seen major advances in our understanding and management of ALL related to identification of new cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities and development of novel targeted agents for the treatment of ALL...
June 11, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604120/current-and-developing-synthetic-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma
#11
Klaus Podar, Martin Pecherstorfer
The introduction of novel agents has significantly improved multiple myeloma (MM) patient outcome during the last two decades. MM received the most drug approvals for any one malignancy during this time period, both in the United States as well as in Europe. Areas covered: Proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies are prototype drug classes, which target both specific MM cell functions, as well as the tumor supportive bone marrow microenvironment, and represent current cornerstones of MM therapy...
June 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596938/genome-edited-t-cell-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Juliette M K M Delhove, Waseem Qasim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alternative approaches to conventional drug-based cancer treatments have seen T cell therapies deployed more widely over the last decade. This is largely due to their ability to target and kill specific cell types based on receptor recognition. Introduction of recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) using viral vectors and HLA-independent T cell therapies using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are discussed. This article reviews the tools used for genome editing, with particular emphasis on the applications of site-specific DNA nuclease mediated editing for T cell therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596644/highlights-of-multiple-myeloma-at-the-annual-meeting-of-american-society-of-hematology-2016
#13
REVIEW
Nidhi Tandon, Shaji K Kumar
This review discusses the landmark studies in the field of multiple myeloma (MM) which were presented at American society of hematology annual meeting, 2016. There were contrary results from two large phase III trials (one from US and one from Europe) that evaluated the role of additional interventions like tandem autologous transplant (ASCT) and consolidation after induction therapy followed by ASCT in newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients, but there were critical differences between the two studies. Novel agents like carfilzomib and ixazomib proved to be of benefit when used as induction and post ASCT consolidation and maintenance in NDMM...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592982/herbal-medicine-treatment-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Miran Bang, Sun Haeng Lee, Seung-Hun Cho, Sun-Ae Yu, Kibong Kim, Hsu Yuan Lu, Gyu Tae Chang, Sang Yeon Min
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. METHODS: Thirteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to November 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of herbal medicines alone or in combination with other Traditional Chinese Medicine treatments for ASD in children were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used and other data analyses were performed using RevMan (Version 5...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589771/imatinib-mesylate-in-desmoplastic-small-round-cell-tumors
#15
Rita De Sanctis, Alexia Bertuzzi, Gianni Bisogno, Modesto Carli, Andrea Ferrari, Alessandro Comandone, Armando Santoro
AIM: To investigate the possible role of imatinib, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of PDGF-R, in desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT). PATIENTS & METHODS: From August 2005 to June 2009, DSRCT patients refractory to conventional treatment were enrolled. Patients received imatinib 400 mg daily. Primary end point of this open label, prospective, Phase II trial was objective response rate. RESULTS: Of the 13 enrolled patients, eight were evaluable for response...
June 7, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588060/sending-car-t-cells-after-multiple-myeloma
#16
(no author information available yet)
Preliminary results from an ongoing phase I clinical trial in China suggest that chimeric antigen receptor T cells engineered to home in on a protein called BCMA may be a potent therapeutic option for multiple myeloma. The therapy was well tolerated and induced complete, durable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.
June 6, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587412/erk1-2-pathway-regulates-coxsackie-and-adenovirus-receptor-expression-in-mouse-cardiac-stem-cells
#17
Jingjin Liu, Qiang Sun, Yongshun Wang, Jinjin Cui, Maomao Zhang, Lili Li, Haibo Jia, Lulu Zhang, Bin Zhu, Miaomiao Jiang, Bo Yu, Shuo Zhang
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are the most promising and effective candidates for the therapy of cardiac regenerative diseases; however, they have marked limitations. For instance, the implantation of CSCs is hampered by factors such as their sustainability and long-term durability. Gene modification appears to be the most effective method of optimizing CSCs and gene therapy trials have demonstrated that efficient gene transfer is key to achieving therapeutic efficacy. However, the transduction ability of adenovirus (Ad) is limited...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586264/practical-considerations-for-chimeric-antigen-receptor-design-and-delivery
#18
Robyn A A Oldham, Jeffrey A Medin
The development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified immune cells has become a highly active field of research since the introduction of this approach in 1989. New ideas are constantly being proposed and tested, resulting in CARs that are more effective and specialized. Areas covered: Many aspects of CAR design and administration can be varied in order to achieve the best possible outcomes; optimization of this therapeutic schema is an active area of research. Here, the authors summarize the work that has been carried out thus far to assess different adaptations for each portion of the CAR itself...
June 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578933/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-pulmonary-embolectomy-and-right-ventricular-assist-device-for-massive-pulmonary-embolism
#19
Carly L Lodewyks, Joseph M Bednarczyk, Owen T Mooney, Rakesh C Arora, Rohit K Singal
Consensus regarding the management of massive pulmonary embolism (PE) and persistent shock after thrombolysis is lacking. A 30-year-old man collapsed with massive PE 3 days after an exploratory laparotomy for penetrating trauma, and he remained hypoxic and hypotensive despite thrombolytic therapy. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was instituted as a bridge to surgical embolectomy, and placement of a right ventricular assist device (RVAD) was used to facilitate separation from cardiopulmonary bypass...
March 31, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577279/role-of-pet-to-evaluate-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-in-non-ischemic-cardiomyopathies
#20
REVIEW
Paco E Bravo, Marcelo F Di Carli, Sharmila Dorbala
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) can result from structural and functional abnormalities at the intramural and small coronary vessel level affecting coronary blood flow autoregulation and consequently leading to impaired coronary flow reserve. CMD often co-exists with epicardial coronary artery disease but is also commonly seen in patients with various forms of heart disease, including dilated, hypertrophic, and infiltrative cardiomyopathies. CMD can go unnoticed without any symptoms, or manifest as angina, and/or dyspnea, and contribute to the development of heart failure, and even sudden death especially when co-existing with myocardial fibrosis...
June 3, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
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