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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922494/magnetic-nanotransducers-in-biomedicine
#1
Agostina Grillone, Gianni Ciofani
Owing to their abilities to identify diseased conditions, to modulate biological process, and to control cellular activities, magnetic nanoparticles have become one of the most popular nanomaterials exploited in the biomedical field. Targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, hyperthermia treatments, imaging, and stimulation of several biological entities are just some of the several tasks that can be accomplished by taking advantage of magnetic nanoparticles in tandem with magnetic fields. The huge interest towards this class of nanomaterials rises from the possibility to physically drive their spatiotemporal localization inside the body, and to deliver an externally applied stimulation at a target site...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#2
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921961/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-nuclear-envelope-architecture-using-dual-color-metal-induced-energy-transfer-imaging
#3
Anna M Chizhik, Daja Ruhlandt, Janine Pfaff, Narain Karedla, Alexey I Chizhik, Ingo Gregor, Ralph Heinz Kehlenbach, Joerg Enderlein
The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively...
September 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921719/inflammation-alters-ampa-stimulated-calcium-responses-in-dorsal-striatal-d2-but-not-d1-spiny-projection-neurons
#4
Carissa D Winland, Nora Welsh, Alberto Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Stefano Vicini, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss
Neuroinflammation precedes neuronal loss in striatal neurodegenerative diseases and can be exacerbated by the release of proinflammatory molecules by microglia. These molecules can affect trafficking of AMPARs. The preferential trafficking of calcium-permeable versus impermeable AMPARs can result in disruptions of [Ca(2+) ]i and alter cellular functions. In striatal neurodegenerative diseases, changes in [Ca(2+) ]i and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been reported. Therefore, the present study sought to determine whether a proinflammatory environment alters AMPA-stimulated [Ca(2+) ]i through calcium-permeable AMPARs and/or L-type VGCCs in dopamine-2 and dopamine-1 expressing striatal spiny projection neurons (D2 and D1 SPNs) in the dorsal striatum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921635/prediction-of-phosphorylation-sites-based-on-krawtchouk-image-moments
#5
Xue Wang, Min Li Xu, Bao Qiong Li, Hong Lin Zhai, Jin Jin Liu, Shuyan Li
Protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications and regulates diverse cellular processes in organisms. Under the catalysis of protein kinases, protein phosphorylation usually occurred in the residues serine (S), threonine (T) or tyrosine (Y). In this contribution, we proposed a novel scheme (named KMPhos) for the theoretical prediction of protein phosphorylation sites. First, the numerical matrix was obtained from a protein sequence fragment by replacing the characters of the residues with the chemical descriptors of amino acid molecules to approximately describe the chemical environment of the protein fragment, which was turned to the grayscale image...
September 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920524/remotely-supported-prehospital-ultrasound-a-feasibility-study-of-real-time-image-transmission-and-expert-guidance-to-aid-diagnosis-in-remote-and-rural-communities
#7
Leila Eadie, John Mulhern, Luke Regan, Alasdair Mort, Helen Shannon, Ashish Macaden, Philip Wilson
Introduction Our aim is to expedite prehospital assessment of remote and rural patients using remotely-supported ultrasound and satellite/cellular communications. In this paradigm, paramedics are remotely-supported ultrasound operators, guided by hospital-based specialists, to record images before receiving diagnostic advice. Technology can support users in areas with little access to medical imaging and suboptimal communications coverage by connecting to multiple cellular networks and/or satellites to stream live ultrasound and audio-video...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920150/molecular-basis-of-cd-2-stress-response-in-candida-tropicalis
#8
Zaman Khan, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Saima Zafar, Syed Zajif Hussain, Inga Zerr, Irshad Hussain, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Arif
This study examines the bioremediation potential and cadmium-induced cellular response on a molecular level in Candida tropicalis 3Aer. Spectroscopic analysis clearly illustrated the involvement of yeast cell wall components in biosorption. Cadmium bioaccumulation was confirmed by TEM, SEM, and EDX examination. TEM images revealed extracellular as well as cytoplasmic and vacuolar cadmium nanoparticle formation, further validated by presence of ycf1 gene and increased biosynthesis of GSH under cadmium stress...
September 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919343/characterizing-pathology-in-erythrocytes-using-morphological-and-biophysical-membrane-properties-relation-to-impaired-hemorheology-and-cardiovascular-function-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Oore-Ofe O Olumuyiwa-Akeredolu, Prashilla Soma, Antoinette V Buys, Legesse Kassa Debusho, Etheresia Pretorius
The inflammatory burden of the complex Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) disease affects several organ-systems, including rheological properties of blood and its formed elements. Red blood cells (RBCs) are constantly exposed to circulating dysregulated inflammatory molecules that are co-transported within the vasculature; and their membranes may be particularly vulnerable to the accompanying oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigate biophysical and ultrastructural characteristics of RBCs obtained from a cohort of patients using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy (CM)...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919293/correlation-between-histological-and-ultrasonographic-findings-of-soft-tissue-tumors-to-verify-the-possibility-of-cell-like-resolution-in-ultrasonography
#10
Ching-Lan Wu, Yi-Chen Lai, Hsin-Kai Wang, Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Hong-Jen Chiou
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of obtained cell-like resolution in soft tissue tumors on the basis of ultrasound echotexture. METHODS: This is a prospective study consisting of 57 patients (29 females and 28 males, age range: 9-83 years, average age: 44.5 years) with palpable soft tissue mass, referred from the Departments of Orthopedics and Oncology for ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy. The study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of our hospital...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919131/optogenetic-targeting-of-cardiac-myocytes-and-non-myocytes-tools-challenges-and-utility
#11
Callum M Johnston, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Eike M Wülfers, Torsten Houwaart, Urszula Siedlecka, Thomas Knöpfel, Peter Kohl, Franziska Schneider-Warme
In optogenetics, light-activated proteins are used to monitor and modulate cellular behaviour with light. Combining genetic targeting of distinct cellular populations with defined patterns of optical stimulation enables one to study specific cell classes in complex biological tissues. In the current study we attempted to investigate the functional relevance of heterocellular electrotonic coupling in cardiac tissue in situ. In order to do that, we used a Cre-Lox approach to express the light-gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) specifically in either cardiac myocytes or non-myocytes...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#12
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916966/evaluation-of-in-vitro-efficacy-of-docetaxel-loaded-calcium-carbonate-aragonite-nanoparticles-dtx-caco3np-on-4t1-mouse-breast-cancer-cell-line
#13
Nahidah Ibrahim Hammadi, Yusuf Abba, Mohd Noor Mohd Hezmee, Intan Shameha Abdul Razak, Aminu Umar Kura, Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria
Cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles have shown promising potentials as slow drug-releasing compounds in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of docetaxel (DTX)-loaded CaCO3NP on 4T1 cell line. This was achieved by evaluating the following: cytotoxicity using MTT assay, fluorescence imaging, apoptosis with Annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scratch assay. Based on the results, DTX-CaCO3NP with a DTX concentration of 0...
September 15, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916621/-64-cu-labeled-repebody-molecules-for-imaging-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-expressing-tumors
#14
Ayoung Pyo, Misun Yun, Hyeon-Sik Kim, Tae-Yoon Kim, Joong-Jae Lee, Jung Young Kim, Sunwoo Lee, Seong Young Kwon, Hee-Seung Bom, Hak-Sung Kim, Dong-Yeon Kim, Jung-Joon Min
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the erbB family of receptors and is overexpressed in many tumor types. A repebody is a newly designed non-antibody protein scaffold for tumor targeting that contains leucine-rich repeat modules. In this study, three (64)Cu-labeled anti-EGFR repebodies with different chelators were synthesized, and their biological characteristics were assessed in cultured cells and tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Repebodies (rEgAs) were synthesized with the chelators p-SCN-Bn-NOTA, DOTA-NHS ester, or p-SCN-Bn-DTPA in 1...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916105/selective-imaging-of-cancer-cells-with-a-ph-activatable-lysosome-targeting-fluorescent-probe
#15
Rongguang Shi, Lu Huang, Xiaoxue Duan, Guohao Sun, Gui Yin, Ruiyong Wang, Jun-Jie Zhu
Fluorescence imaging with tumor-specific fluorescent probe has emerged as a tool to aid surgeons in the identification and removal of tumor tissue. We report here a new lysosome-targeting fluorescent probe (NBOH) with BODIPY fluorephore to distinguish tumor tissue out of normal tissue based on different pH environment. The probe exhibited remarkable pH-dependent fluorescence behavior in a wide pH range from 3.0 to 11.0, especially a sensitive pH-dependent fluorescence change at pH range between 3.5 and 5.5, corresponding well to the acidic microenvironment of tumor cells, in aqueous solution...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916049/optical-imaging-paves-the-way-for-autophagy-research
#16
REVIEW
Yimin Wang, Yu Li, Fujing Wei, Yixiang Duan
Autophagy is a degradation process in eukaryotic cells that recycles cellular components for nutrition supply under environmental stress and plays a double-edged role in development of major human diseases. Noninvasive optical imaging enables us to clearly visualize various classes of structures involved in autophagy at macroscopic and microscopic dynamic levels. In this review, we discuss important trends of emerging optical imaging technologies used to explore autophagy and provide insights into the mechanistic investigation and structural study of autophagy in mammalian cells...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915791/segmentation-and-classification-of-two-channel-c-elegans-nucleus-labeled-fluorescence-images
#17
Mengdi Zhao, Jie An, Haiwen Li, Jiazhi Zhang, Shang-Tong Li, Xue-Mei Li, Meng-Qiu Dong, Heng Mao, Louis Tao
BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by a gradual breakdown of cellular structures. Nuclear abnormality is a hallmark of progeria in human. Analysis of age-dependent nuclear morphological changes in Caenorhabditis elegans is of great value to aging research, and this calls for an automatic image processing method that is suitable for both normal and abnormal structures. RESULTS: Our image processing method consists of nuclear segmentation, feature extraction and classification...
September 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915639/heptamethine-carbocyanine-dz-1-dye-for-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Jiaze An, Ningning Zhao, Caiqin Zhang, Yong Zhao, Dengxu Tan, Ya Zhao, Bing Bai, Hai Zhang, Boyang Jason Wu, Changhong Shi
Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dyes have recently emerged as promising tools for non-invasive imaging of different types of cancers. Here, we explored the potential utility of a NIRF DZ-1 dye, with dual imaging and tumour targeting functions, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We showed the preferential uptake of DZ-1 by HCC cells in vitro and in derived subcutaneous/orthotopic tumour xenografts, accompanied by a minimal effect on normal cells. DZ-1 simplified tumour growth profiling as well, since we were able to correlate NIRF signals with tumour volume and/or tumour-emitting luminescence in mice...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915442/electron-cryo-tomography-captures-macromolecular-complexes-in-native-environments
#19
REVIEW
Lindsay A Baker, Michael Grange, Kay Grünewald
Transmission electron microscopy has a long history in cellular biology. Fixed and stained samples have been used for cellular imaging for over 50 years, but suffer from sample preparation induced artifacts. Electron cryo-tomography (cryoET) instead uses frozen-hydrated samples, without chemical modification, to determine the structure of macromolecular complexes in their native environment. Recent developments in electron microscopes and associated technologies have greatly expanded our ability to visualize cellular features and determine the structures of macromolecular complexes in situ...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#20
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
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