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Cellular Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#1
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544675/cyclotides-overview-and-biotechnological-applications
#2
REVIEW
Andrew Gould, Julio A Camarero
Cyclotides are globular microproteins with a unique head-to-tail cyclized backbone, stabilized by three disulfide bonds forming a cystine knot. This unique circular backbone topology and knotted arrangement of three disulfide bonds makes them exceptionally stable to chemical, thermal, and biological degradation compared to other peptides of similar size. In addition, cyclotides have been shown to be highly tolerant to sequence variability, aside from the conserved residues forming the cystine knot. Cyclotides can also cross cellular membranes and are able to modulate intracellular protein-protein interactions, both in vitro and in vivo...
May 24, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544497/cell-tracking-using-gold-nanoparticles-and-computed-tomography-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer
Cell-based therapies utilize transplantation of living cells with therapeutic traits to alleviate numerous diseases and disorders. The use of such biological agents is an attractive alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot effectively treat. Although very promising, translating cell therapy to the clinic has proven to be challenging, due to inconsistent results in preclinical and clinical studies. To examine the underlying cause for these inconsistencies, it is crucial to noninvasively monitor the accuracy of cell injection, and cell survival and migration patterns...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542649/evaluation-of-connectivity-map-discovered-celastrol-as-a-radiosensitizing-agent-in-a-murine-lung-carcinoma-model-feasibility-study-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Hong Young Jun, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jin Woo Choi, Young Hwan Lee, Kang Kyoo Lee, Kwon-Ha Yoon
This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS) agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542141/an-enhanced-bioluminescence-based-annexin-v-probe-for-apoptosis-detection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Trajen Head, Peter Dau, Stephanie Duffort, Pirouz Daftarian, Pratibha M Joshi, Roberto Vazquez-Padron, Sapna K Deo, Sylvia Daunert
The process of controlled cellular death known as apoptosis has an important central role not only in normal homeostatic maintenance of tissues, but also in numerous diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases. As a result, new technologies with the capability to selectively detect apoptotic cells represent a central focus of research for the study of these conditions. We have developed a new biosensor for the detection of apoptotic cells, incorporating the targeted selectivity for apoptotic cells from Annexin V with the sensitivity of bioluminescence signal generation from a serum-stable mutant of Renilla luciferase (RLuc8)...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541416/serial-block-face-sem-visualization-of-unusual-plant-nuclear-tubular-extensions-in-a-carnivorous-plant-utricularia-lentibulariaceae
#6
Bartosz J Plachno, Piotr Swiatek, Richard W Jobson, Karol Malota, Wojciech Brutkowski
Background and Aims: In Utricularia nelumbifolia , the nuclei of placental nutritive tissue possess unusually shaped projections not known to occur in any other flowering plant. The main aim of the study was to document the morphology and ultrastructure of these unusual nuclei. In addition, the literature was searched to find examples of nuclear tubular projections in other plant groups, and the nuclei of closely related species of Utricularia (i.e. sects Iperua , Orchidioides , Foliosa and Utricularia ) were examined...
May 24, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539064/recent-advances-in-applying-mass-spectrometry-and-systems-biology-to-determine-brain-dynamics
#7
Enzo Scifo, Giulio Calza, Martin Fuhrmann, Rabah Soliymani, Marc Baumann, Maciej Lalowski
Neurological disorders encompass various pathologies which disrupt normal brain physiology and function. Poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms and their societal burden argues for the necessity of novel prevention strategies, early diagnostic techniques and alternative treatment options to reduce the scale of their expected increase. Areas Covered: This review scrutinizes mass spectrometry based approaches used to investigate brain dynamics in various conditions, including neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders...
May 24, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538724/applying-systems-level-spectral-imaging-and-analysis-to-reveal-the-organelle-interactome
#8
Alex M Valm, Sarah Cohen, Wesley R Legant, Justin Melunis, Uri Hershberg, Eric Wait, Andrew R Cohen, Michael W Davidson, Eric Betzig, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538196/self-assembly-of-gd-3-sds-hepes-complex-and-curcumin-entrapment-for-enhanced-stability-fluorescence-image-in-cellular-system
#9
Chonticha Sahub, Gamolwan Tumcharern, Prae Chirawatkul, Vithaya Ruangpornvisuti, Sanong Ekgasit, Supasorn Wanichweacharungruang, Thawatchai Tuntulani, Tanapat Palaga, Boosayarat Tomapatanaget
At present, strategies to disperse hydrophobic molecules in water without altering their chemical structures include conventional surfactant-based micellar and vesicular systems, encapsulation into water dispersible polymeric nanoparticles, and loading onto the surface of various metal nanoparticles. Here, we report a simple and low cost platform to incorporate hydrophobic molecules into a stable water dispersible nanostructure that can significantly increase the stability of the encapsulated materials. The platform is based on the incorporation of hydrophobic molecules into the self-assembled complex of gadolinium ion (Gd(3+)), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) called GdSH...
May 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537705/hypoxia-responsive-19-f-mri-probes-with-improved-redox-properties-and-biocompatibility
#10
Da Xie, Seyong Kim, Vikraant Kohli, Arnab Banerjee, Meng Yu, José S Enriquez, Jeffrey J Luci, Emily L Que
(19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an emerging modality in biomedical imaging, has shown promise for in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Here we present a series of fluorinated Cu(II)ATSM derivatives for potential use as (19)F magnetic resonance agents for sensing cellular hypoxia. The synthesized complexes feature a hypoxia-targeting Cu(2+) coordination core, nine equivalent fluorine atoms connected via a variable-length poly(ethylene glycol) linker. Introduction of the fluorine moiety maintains the planar coordination geometry of the Cu(2+) center, while the linker length modulates the Cu(2+/+) reduction potential, (19)F NMR relaxation properties, and lipophilicity...
May 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537098/nanotechnology-in-neurosurgery-thinking-small-dreaming-big
#11
Aaron Tan, Rebecca Jeyaraj, Keyoumars Ashkan
Nanotechnology has the power to transform neurosurgery by facilitating intervention at the cellular and subcellular level. The unique properties of nanomaterials will not only improve the management of conditions traditionally treated through neurosurgery, but also make neurosurgical intervention possible for diseases where there are currently limited treatment options. Specifically, nanotechnology appears to be a promising tool for improving molecular imaging, seamlessly integrating diagnosis and therapy in neuro-oncology, identifying targets for selective neuromodulation, as well as promoting neuroregeneration...
May 24, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536438/optimizing-radiotherapy-protocols-using-computer-automata-to-model-tumour-cell-death-as-a-function-of-oxygen-diffusion-processes
#12
Perrine Paul-Gilloteaux, Vincent Potiron, Grégory Delpon, Stéphane Supiot, Sophie Chiavassa, François Paris, Sylvain V Costes
The concept of hypofractionation is gaining momentum in radiation oncology centres, enabled by recent advances in radiotherapy apparatus. The gain of efficacy of this innovative treatment must be defined. We present a computer model based on translational murine data for in silico testing and optimization of various radiotherapy protocols with respect to tumour resistance and the microenvironment heterogeneity. This model combines automata approaches with image processing algorithms to simulate the cellular response of tumours exposed to ionizing radiation, modelling the alteration of oxygen permeabilization in blood vessels against repeated doses, and introducing mitotic catastrophe (as opposed to arbitrary delayed cell-death) as a means of modelling radiation-induced cell death...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536424/a-microfluidic-chamber-based-approach-to-map-the-shear-moduli-of-vascular-cells-and-other-soft-materials
#13
Béla Suki, Yingying Hu, Naohiko Murata, Jasmin Imsirovic, Jarred R Mondoñedo, Claudio L N de Oliveira, Niccole Schaible, Philip G Allen, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki
There is growing interest in quantifying vascular cell and tissue stiffness. Most measurement approaches, however, are incapable of assessing stiffness in the presence of physiological flows. We developed a microfluidic approach which allows measurement of shear modulus (G) during flow. The design included a chamber with glass windows allowing imaging with upright or inverted microscopes. Flow was controlled gravitationally to push culture media through the chamber. Fluorescent beads were conjugated to the sample surface and imaged before and during flow...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533936/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-64-cu-psma-617-targeted-for-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Can Cui, Masayuki Hanyu, Akiko Hatori, Yiding Zhang, Lin Xie, Tomoya Ohya, Masami Fukada, Hisashi Suzuki, Kotaro Nagatsu, Cuiping Jiang, Rui Luo, Guoqiang Shao, Mingrong Zhang, Feng Wang
We radiolabeled a ligand, PSMA-617, of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with copper-64 ((64)Cu), to evaluate the metabolism, biodistribution, and potential of [(64)Cu]PSMA-617 for PET imaging of prostate cancer. [(64)Cu]PSMA-617 was synthesized by heating PSMA-617 with [(64)Cu]CuCl2 in buffer solution at 90°C for 5 min. In vitro uptake was determined in two cell lines of prostate cancer. In vivo regional distributions were determined in normal and tumor-bearing mice. High radiolabeling efficiency of (64)Cu for PSMA-617 yielded [(64)Cu]PSMA-617 with >99% radiochemical purity...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533209/rationale-and-design-of-a-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-intracoronary-infusion-of-allogeneic-human-cardiac-stem-cells-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-the-randomized-multicenter-double-blind
#15
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Ana Casado Plasencia, Luis R Borlado, María Eugenia Fernández-Santos, Reem Al-Daccak, Piet Claus, Itziar Palacios, Rafael Sádaba, Dominique Charron, Jan Bogaert, Miguel Mulet, Raquel Yotti, Inmaculada Gilaberte, Antonio Bernad, Javier Bermejo, Stefan Janssens, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Rationale: Stem cell therapy has increased the therapeutic armamentarium in the fight against ischemic heart disease and heart failure (HF). The administration of exogenous stem cells has been investigated in patients suffering an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the final aim of salvaging jeopardized myocardium and preventing left ventricular adverse remodeling and functional deterioration. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous and "first-generation" stem cells have yielded inconsistent benefits and mixed results...
May 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532442/an-integrated-enhancement-and-reconstruction-strategy-for-the-quantitative-extraction-of-actin-stress-fibers-from-fluorescence-micrographs
#16
Zhen Zhang, Shumin Xia, Pakorn Kanchanawong
BACKGROUND: The stress fibers are prominent organization of actin filaments that perform important functions in cellular processes such as migration, polarization, and traction force generation, and whose collective organization reflects the physiological and mechanical activities of the cells. Easily visualized by fluorescence microscopy, the stress fibers are widely used as qualitative descriptors of cell phenotypes. However, due to the complexity of the stress fibers and the presence of other actin-containing cellular features, images of stress fibers are relatively challenging to quantitatively analyze using previously developed approaches, requiring significant user intervention...
May 22, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531986/biomimicking-synthesis-of-photoluminescent-molecular-lantern-catalyzed-by-in-situ-formation-of-nanogold-catalysts
#17
Yong Yu, Xin Ting Zheng, Boon Wei Yee, Yen Nee Tan
Bioluminescence has been widely recognized as a powerful imaging tool for biological investigations. Synthesis of molecular lanterns that mimic bioluminescence in nature is of great interest. Herein we report a synthesis of molecular lantern by utilizing the catalytic properties of ultrasmall (<2nm) gold nanoclusters (AuNC), which is inspired by the enzymatic light-up of luciferin in the biological system. Small molecules such as hydroquinone and Cys-Gly peptides are used to direct the synthesis of AuNC via a biotemplating approach, while the in-situ formation of AuNC simultaneously catalyze the formation of luciferin-like, brightly fluorescent dye (λem=520nm, QY=0...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530806/photoluminescent-hybrids-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-and-carbon-quantum-dots-as-cytocompatible-probes-for-in-vitro-bio-imaging
#18
Jiaqi Guo, Dongfei Liu, Ilari Filpponen, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Jani-Markus Malho, Sakeena Quraishi, Falk Liebner, Hélder A Santos, Orlando J Rojas
We present an approach to construct biocompatible and photoluminescent hybrid materials comprised of carbon quantum dots (CQD) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanocrystals (TO-CNC). First, the amino-functionalized carbon quantum dots (NH2-CQD) were synthesized using a simple microwave method and the TO-CNCs were prepared by hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis followed by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. The conjugation of NH2-CQD and TO-CNC was conducted via carbodiimide-assisted coupling chemistry. The synthesized TO-CNC@CQD hybrid nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cryo-transmittance electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy...
May 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530196/fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dyed-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-tracking-antioxidant-delivery
#19
Ladan Rashidi, Fariba Ganji, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani
This study investigated the cellular uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FITC-MSNs), amine-functionalised FITC-MSNs (AP-FITC-MSNs) and their gallic acid (GA)-loaded counterparts. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, functionalised by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (AP-FITC-MSNs) and then loaded by GA. All nanoparticles were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529634/novel-linear-peptides-with-high-affinity-to-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-for-precise-tumor-identification
#20
Yi Ma, Guanhua Ai, Congying Zhang, Menglu Zhao, Xue Dong, Zhihao Han, Zhaohui Wang, Min Zhang, Yuxi Liu, Weidong Gao, Siwen Li, Yueqing Gu
Development of alternative linear peptides for targeting αvβ3 integrin has attracted much attention, as the traditional peptide ligand, cyclic RGD, is limited by inferior water-solubility and complex synthesis. Using pharmacophore-based virtual screening and high-throughput molecular docking, we identified two novel linear small peptides RWr and RWrNM with high affinity and specificity to αvβ3 integrin. The competitive binding with cyclic RGD (c(RGDyK)) and cellular uptake related to the integrin expression levels verified their affinity to αvβ3 integrin...
2017: Theranostics
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