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Cellular Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647645/adding-dimension-to-cellular-mechanotransduction-advances-in-biomedical-engineering-of-multiaxial-cell-stretch-systems-and-their-application-to-cardiovascular-biomechanics-and-mechano-signaling
#1
REVIEW
O Friedrich, D Schneidereit, Y A Nikolaev, V Nikolova-Krstevski, S Schürmann, A Wirth-Hücking, A L Merten, D Fatkin, B Martinac
Hollow organs (e.g. heart) experience pressure-induced mechanical wall stress sensed by molecular mechano-biosensors, including mechanosensitive ion channels, to translate into intracellular signaling. For direct mechanistic studies, stretch devices to apply defined extensions to cells adhered to elastomeric membranes have stimulated mechanotransduction research. However, most engineered systems only exploit unilateral cellular stretch. In addition, it is often taken for granted that stretch applied by hardware translates 1:1 to the cell membrane...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647589/mannose-conjugated-layered-double-hydroxide-nanocomposite-for-targeted-sirna-delivery-to-enhanced-cancer-therapy
#2
Li Li, Run Zhang, Wenyi Gu, Zhi Ping Xu
Sheet-like layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDH NPs) have showed great potentials in biomedical applications such as nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery, biosensors and imaging agents. However, target delivery of drugs and genes using LDH NPs to the desired tumor sites is a major challenge in cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to develop a functional LDH-based nanocomposite for target delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Mannose as a targeting moiety was firstly conjugated onto SiO2-coated LDH nanocomposite...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647083/the-production-of-3d-tumor-spheroids-for-cancer-drug-discovery
#3
REVIEW
Shilpa Sant, Paul A Johnston
New cancer drug approval rates are ≤5% despite significant investments in cancer research, drug discovery and development. One strategy to improve the rate of success of new cancer drugs transitioning into the clinic would be to more closely align the cellular models used in the early lead discovery with pre-clinical animal models and patient tumors. For solid tumors, this would mandate the development and implementation of three dimensional (3D) in vitro tumor models that more accurately recapitulate human solid tumor architecture and biology...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646682/sensing-nadh-conformation-using-phasor-analysis-on-fluorescence-spectra
#4
Dylan Palo, Jeff Maltas, Laxmi Risal, Paul Urayama
Phasor analysis on fluorescence signals is a sensitive approach for analyzing multicomponent systems. Initially developed for time-resolved measurements, a spectral version has been used for the rapid identification of regions during the spectral imaging of biological systems. Here we show that quantitative information regarding conformation can be obtained from phasor analysis of fluorescence spectrum shape. Methanol denaturation of NADH and NADH binding to various dehydrogenase proteins are used as model reactions...
June 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646414/dynamic-meso-scale-anchorage-of-gpi-anchored-receptors-in-the-plasma-membrane-prion-protein-vs-thy1
#5
Yuri L Nemoto, Roger J Morris, Hiroko Hijikata, Taka A Tsunoyama, Akihiro C E Shibata, Rinshi S Kasai, Akihiro Kusumi, Takahiro K Fujiwara
The central mechanism for the transmission of the prion protein misfolding is the structural conversion of the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded prion protein, by the interaction with misfolded prion protein. This process might be enhanced due to the homo-dimerization/oligomerization of normal prion protein. However, the behaviors of normal prion protein in the plasma membrane have remained largely unknown. Here, using single fluorescent-molecule imaging, we found that both prion protein and Thy1, a control glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, exhibited very similar intermittent transient immobilizations lasting for a few seconds within an area of 24...
June 24, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646166/atp-release-during-cell-swelling-activates-a-ca-2-dependent-cl-current-by-autocrine-mechanism-in-mouse-hippocampal-microglia
#6
E Murana, F Pagani, B Basilico, M Sundukova, L Batti, S Di Angelantonio, B Cortese, A Grimaldi, A Francioso, P Heppenstall, P Bregestovski, C Limatola, D Ragozzino
Microglia cells, resident immune cells of the brain, survey brain parenchyma by dynamically extending and retracting their processes. Cl(-) channels, activated in the cellular response to stretch/swelling, take part in several functions deeply connected with microglia physiology, including cell shape changes, proliferation, differentiation and migration. However, the molecular identity and functional properties of these Cl(-) channels are largely unknown. We investigated the properties of swelling-activated currents in microglial from acute hippocampal slices of Cx3cr1 (+/GFP) mice by whole-cell patch-clamp and imaging techniques...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646146/optical-coherence-microscopy-as-a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-the-4d-live-imaging-of-early-mammalian-embryos
#7
Karol Karnowski, Anna Ajduk, Bartosz Wieloch, Szymon Tamborski, Krzysztof Krawiec, Maciej Wojtkowski, Maciej Szkulmowski
Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645370/xenopus-laevis-as-model-system-to-study-dna-damage-response-and-replication-fork-stability
#8
Vincenzo Sannino, Federica Pezzimenti, Stefania Bertora, Vincenzo Costanzo
Although many players of the DNA damage response and DNA repair have been identified in several systems their biochemical role is still poorly understood. The use of the Xenopus laevis egg extract cell-free system allowed biochemical dissection of DNA replication and cell cycle events in a complex biological context. The possibility of manipulating the protein content by using protein depletion procedures makes egg extract a powerful system to study proteins whose inactivation results in cellular lethality...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644811/applying-pattern-recognition-to-high-resolution-images-to-determine-cellular-signaling-status
#9
Michael F Lohrer, Darrin M Hanna, Yang Liu, Kang-Hsin Wang, Fu-Tong Liu, Ted A Laurence, Gang-Yu Liu
Two frequently used tools to acquire high-resolution images of cells are scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The former provides a nanometer resolution view of cellular features rapidly and with high throughput, while the latter enables visualizing hydrated and living cells. In current practice, these images are viewed by eye to determine cellular status, e.g. activated versus resting. Automatic and quantitative data analysis is lacking. This work develops an algorithm of pattern recognition that works very effectively for AFM and SEM images...
June 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644040/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-does-not-explain-all-regional-perfusion-redistribution-in-asthma
#10
Vanessa J Kelly, Kathryn A Hibbert, Puja Kohli, Mamary Kone, Elliot E Greenblatt, Jose G Venegas, Tilo Winkler, R Scott Harris
RATIONALE: Regional hypoventilation in bronchoconstricted asthmatics is spatially associated with reduced perfusion, which is proposed to result from Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction (HPV). Our study aimed to determine the role of HPV in the regional perfusion redistribution in bronchoconstricted asthmatics. METHODS: Eight asthmatics completed PET-CT lung imaging at baseline and after bronchoconstriction, breathing either Room Air or 80% Oxygen (80%O2, separate days)...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643467/a-core-shell-satellite-structured-fe3-o4-g-c3-n4-ucnps-peg-for-t1-t2-weighted-dual-modal-mri-guided-photodynamic-therapy
#11
Lili Feng, Dan Yang, Fei He, Shili Gai, Chunxia Li, Yunlu Dai, Piaoping Yang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the specific tumor site plays the key role in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, a multifunctional nanoplatform is designed by absorbing ultrasmall upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) on mesoporous graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanospheres, then further modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG)molecules (abbreviated as Fe3 O4 @g-C3 N4 -UCNPs-PEG). The inert g-C3 N4 layer between Fe3 O4 core and outer UCNPs can substantially depress the quenching effect of Fe3 O4 on the upconversion emission...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643319/-progress-of-the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-gastrointestinal-tumor-surgery
#12
Yongsheng Li, Hao Liu, Haipeng Huang, Yu Zhu, Haijun Deng, Jiang Yu, Site Luo, Li Huo, Li Lin, Huikai Xie, Guoxin Li
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time, cross-sectional optical imaging technology. It is analogous to ultrasonography, except that OCT uses light waves instead of sound waves, and can provide three-dimensional morphological images of living tissues with a micrometer resolution. Through the use of endoscopes, needles, catheters and laparoscopes, OCT has demonstrated tremendous imaging potential in tumor surgery. The current studies suggest that OCT has potential for clinical applications in the following fields of gastrointestinal tumor surgery: (1) Early tumor detection and diagnosis: OCT can distinguish differences between polyp tissue, normal tissue and malignant tissue...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642699/cerebral-blood-flow-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-interact-to-affect-memory-performance-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#13
Katherine J Bangen, Alexandra L Clark, Emily C Edmonds, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine L Werhane, Kelsey R Thomas, Lyzette E Locano, My Tran, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years) underwent neuroimaging and memory testing...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642595/3d-bayesian-cluster-analysis-of-super-resolution-data-reveals-lat-recruitment-to-the-t-cell-synapse
#14
Juliette Griffié, Leigh Shlomovich, David J Williamson, Michael Shannon, Jesse Aaron, Satya Khuon, Garth L Burn, Lies Boelen, Ruby Peters, Andrew P Cope, Edward A K Cohen, Patrick Rubin-Delanchy, Dylan M Owen
Single-molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM) allows the localisation of fluorophores with a precision of 10-30 nm, revealing the cell's nanoscale architecture at the molecular level. Recently, SMLM has been extended to 3D, providing a unique insight into cellular machinery. Although cluster analysis techniques have been developed for 2D SMLM data sets, few have been applied to 3D. This lack of quantification tools can be explained by the relative novelty of imaging techniques such as interferometric photo-activated localisation microscopy (iPALM)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642288/ferumoxytol-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessing-inflammation-after-myocardial-infarction
#15
Colin G Stirrat, Shirjel R Alam, Thomas J MacGillivray, Calum D Gray, Marc R Dweck, Jennifer Raftis, William Sa Jenkins, William A Wallace, Renzo Pessotto, Kelvin Hh Lim, Saeed Mirsadraee, Peter A Henriksen, Scott Ik Semple, David E Newby
OBJECTIVES: Macrophages play a central role in the cellular inflammatory response to myocardial infarction (MI) and predict subsequent clinical outcomes. We aimed to assess temporal changes in cellular inflammation and tissue oedema in patients with acute MI using ultrasmallsuperparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI. METHODS: Thirty-one patients were recruited following acute MI and followed up for 3 months with repeated T2 and USPIO-enhanced T2*-mapping MRI...
June 22, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640995/colloidal-gold-nanoparticles-induce-changes-in-cellular-and-subcellular-morphology
#16
Xiaowei Ma, Raimo Hartmann, Dorleta Jimenez de Aberasturi, Fang Yang, Stefaan J H Soenen, Bella B Manshian, Jonas Franz, Daniel Valdeperez, Beatriz Pelaz, Neus Feliu, Norbert Hampp, Christoph Riethmüller, Henning Vieker, Natalie Frese, Armin Gölzhäuser, Michael Simonich, Robert L Tanguay, Xing-Jie Liang, Wolfgang J Parak
Exposure of cells to colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) can have concentration-dependent harmful effects. Mostly, such effects are monitored with biochemical assays or probes from molecular biology, i.e. viability assays, gene expression profiles, etc., neglecting that the presence of NPs can also drastically affect cellular morphology. In the case of polymer-coated Au NPs we demonstrate that upon NP internalization, cells undergo lysosomal swelling, alterations in mitochondrial morphology, disturbances in actin and tubulin cytoskeleton and associated signaling, and reduction of focal adhesion contact area and number of filopodia...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640814/a-novel-algorithm-identifies-stress-induced-alterations-in-mitochondrial-connectivity-and-inner-membrane-structure-from-confocal-images
#17
Mathieu Ouellet, Gérald Guillebaud, Valerie Gervais, David Lupien St-Pierre, Marc Germain
Mitochondria exist as a highly interconnected network that is exquisitely sensitive to variations in nutrient availability, as well as a large array of cellular stresses. Changes in length and connectivity of this network, as well as alterations in the mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae), regulate cell fate by controlling metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Given the key roles of mitochondrial dynamics, the process by which mitochondria constantly fuse and fragment, the measure of mitochondrial length and connectivity provides crucial information on the health and activity of various cell populations...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640704/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors
#18
John H Sampson, Marcela V Maus, Carl H June
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor and remains a large, unmet medical need. This review focuses on recent advances in the neurosciences that converge with the broader field of immuno-oncology. Recent findings in neuroanatomy provide a basis for new approaches of cellular therapies for tumors that involve the CNS. The ultimate success of immunotherapy in the CNS will require improved imaging technologies and methods for analysis of the tumor microenvironment in patients with GBM. It is likely that combinatorial approaches with targeted immunotherapies will be required to exploit the vulnerabilities of GBM and other brain tumors...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640580/a-bio-inspired-alginate-gum-arabic-hydrogel-with-micro-nano-scale-structures-for-controlled-drug-release-in-chronic-wound-healing
#19
Mi Li, Haichang Li, Xiangguang Li, Hua Zhu, Zihui Xu, Lianqing Liu, Jianjie Ma, Mingjun Zhang
Bio-polymeric hydrogels have drawn increasingly research interests in biomaterials due to its tunable physical and chemical properties for both creating bioactive cellular micro-environment and serving as sustainable therapeutic reagents. Inspired by a naturally occurring hydrogel secreted from the carnivorous Sundew plant for trapping insects, here we have developed a bio-inspired hydrogel to deliver mitsugumin53 (MG53), an important protein in cell membrane repair, for chronic wound healing. Both chemical compositions and micro/nano morphological properties inherent from the natural Sundew hydrogel were mimicked using sodium alginate and gum arabic with calcium ion-mediated cross-linking...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640518/a-carborane-containing-fluorophore-as-a-stain-of-cellular-lipid-droplets
#20
Andrew Wu, Jacek L Kolanowski, Badwi B Boumelhem, Kylie Yang, Rebecca Lee, Amandeep Kaur, Stuart T Fraser, Elizabeth J New, Louis M Rendina
The use of fluorescent markers and probes greatly enhances biological investigations but relies on the provision of an array of fluorophores with diverse properties. Herein we report a novel carborane-containing coumarin, 5, which is sufficiently lipophilic to localise in cellular lipid droplets. In non-polar solvents which show comparable polarities to those of a lipid environment, compound 5 exhibits a fluorescence quantum yield two orders of magnitude greater than found in aqueous solvents, adding a further degree of selectivity to lipid droplet imaging...
June 22, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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