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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#1
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644722/the-effects-of-polyvictimization-and-quality-of-caregiver-attachment-on-disclosure-of-illegal-sexual-behavior
#2
Megan E Harrelson, Apryl A Alexander, Hugo B Morais, Barry R Burkhart
The current study examined the relationship among self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors and two conceptually relevant constructs in psychotherapy: childhood polyvictimization (i.e., cumulative types of victimization experienced during childhood) and caregiver attachment. Participants consisted of 63 adolescent males participating in mandated treatment for illegal sexual behavior. Childhood polyvictimization and caregiver attachment were expected to predict self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors. Quality of caregiver attachment was also expected to mediate the relationship between polyvictimization and disclosure...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642253/military-related-sexual-assault-in-canada-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Kimberley Watkins, Rachel Bennett, Mark A Zamorski, Isabelle Richer
BACKGROUND: Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. METHODS: We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696)...
June 22, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638703/childhood-trauma-and-negative-memory-bias-as-shared-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-comorbidity-in-a-naturalistic-psychiatric-patient-sample
#4
Janna N Vrijsen, Camiel T van Amen, Bauke Koekkoek, Iris van Oostrom, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Both childhood trauma and negative memory bias are associated with the onset and severity level of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders. Studies on these risk factors, however, generally use homogeneous noncomorbid samples. Hence, studies in naturalistic psychiatric samples are lacking. Moreover, we know little about the quantitative relationship between the frequency of traumatic childhood events, strength of memory bias and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; the latter being an index of severity...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633060/childhood-adversity-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-major-depression
#5
Katharina Dannehl, Winfried Rief, Frank Euteneuer
OBJECTIVE: Major depression is often accompanied by deficits in cognitive functioning and lowered executive functions. However, not all depressed patients show impairments in these domains. The aim of this study was to examine whether different kinds of childhood adversity might account for cognitive deficits in patients with major depression. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with major depression (DSM-IV) and 40 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, processing speed and executive functions...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620321/treating-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-female-victims-of-trafficking-using-narrative-exposure-therapy-a-retrospective-audit
#6
Katy Robjant, Jackie Roberts, Cornelius Katona
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves the forced movement of people internally within countries, or externally across borders. Victims who are trafficked for sexual exploitation are subject to repeated, multiple trauma, and high rates of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD. METHODS: In this retrospective audit, we record the results of NET to treat 10 women who had been trafficked for sexual exploitation who were diagnosed with PTSD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619247/childhood-maltreatment-severity-is-associated-with-elevated-c-reactive-protein-and-body-mass-index-in-adult-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-diagnoses
#7
Monica Aas, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Eva Hoseth, Ragni Mørch, Elina Reponen, Nils Eiel Steen, Jannicke F Anderssen, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Several studies have described an association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers in the psychotic disorders (schizophrenia [SZ] and bipolar disorder [BD]). Previous studies have been relatively small (<50 participants), and the severity of abuse and the putative influence of body mass index (BMI) have not been properly investigated. METHODS: The combined effects of childhood abuse severity and clinical diagnosis on inflammatory markers were investigated in a large sample (n=483) of patients with a disorder on the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls (HCs)...
June 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618391/daily-level-associations-between-ptsd-and-cannabis-use-among-young-sexual-minority-women
#8
Emily R Dworkin, Debra Kaysen, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Isaac C Rhew, Christine M Lee
INTRODUCTION: Sexual minority women have elevated trauma exposure and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to heterosexual women and they are also more likely to use cannabis, although no research has examined relationships between PTSD and cannabis use in this population. Daily-level methodologies are necessary to examine proximal associations between PTSD and use. METHODS: This study included 90 trauma-exposed young adult women who identified as sexual minorities (34...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608020/feminine-discrepancy-stress-and-psychosocial-maladjustment-among-adolescent-girls
#9
Dennis E Reidy, Poco D Kernsmith, Carolyn A Malone, Alana M Vivolo-Kantor, Joanne P Smith-Darden
Discrepancy stress, stress about being perceived to not conform to one's gender role (i.e., gender role discrepancy), has demonstrated effects on risky sexual and violent behaviors. However, evidence of these effects has been limited to men and boys, neglecting the impact gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress may have on girls. In addition, no study to date, has assessed the mental health correlates of gender role discrepancy and discrepancy stress. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the relationship between perceived feminine discrepancy and feminine discrepancy stress and psychosocial maladjustment while controlling for trauma symptoms stemming from the potential repercussions of feminine discrepancy...
June 12, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606501/childhood-trauma-and-lifetime-syncope-burden-among-older-adults
#10
Celia O'Hare, Cathal McCrory, Neil O'Leary, Helen O'Brien, Rose Anne Kenny
OBJECTIVE: Vasovagal syncope is governed by the autonomic nervous system and often precipitated by highly salient emotional situations. We hypothesized that a lifetime tendency towards vasovagal syncope may be precipitated by exposure to childhood trauma. METHODS: We examined data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) of adults aged 50+ (n=6497) who were asked to report lifetime syncope frequency and any history of childhood sexual or physical abuse...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606495/personality-traits-in-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-and-psychogenic-movement-disorder-pmd-neuroticism-and-perfectionism
#11
Vindhya Ekanayake, Sarah Kranick, Kathrin LaFaver, Arshi Naz, Anne Frank Webb, W Curt LaFrance, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic movement disorder (PMD) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are two subtypes of conversion disorder (CD). In this case-control study, we asked whether these subtypes varied as a function of personality and history of childhood abuse. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with PMD from the Human Motor Control Section Clinic at the National Institutes of Health, 43 patients with PNES from the Rhode Island Hospital Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology Division, and 26 healthy volunteers (HC) received a battery of neurological, psychiatric and psychological assessments, including the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601667/association-between-childhood-trauma-and-accelerated-telomere-erosion-in-adulthood-a-meta-analytic-study
#12
Zongchang Li, Ying He, Dong Wang, Jingsong Tang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has long-term sequelae on health status and contributes to numbers of somatic and mental disorders in later life. Findings from experimental studies in animals suggest that telomere erosion may be a mediator of this relationship. However, results from human studies are heterogeneous. To address these inconsistencies, we performed a meta-analysis regarding the association between childhood trauma and telomere length in adulthood. METHOD: Articles were identified by systematically searching the Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science databases...
October 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595479/psychobiology-of-cumulative-trauma-hair-cortisol-as-a-risk-marker-for-stress-exposure-in-women
#13
Matthew C Morris, James L Abelson, Alyssa S Mielock, Uma Rao
Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i...
June 8, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593599/behavioral-symptoms-of-reported-abuse-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-inpatient-settings
#14
Jamie Brenner, Zhaoxing Pan, Carla Mazefsky, Kahsi A Smith, Robin Gabriels
The objective of this study was to examine how behavioral manifestations of trauma due to abuse are expressed in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) compared outcomes between patients with a caregiver reported history of abuse and those without. Findings indicate that patients with ASD and reported abuse (i.e. physical, sexual, and/or emotional) have more intrusive thoughts, distressing memories, loss of interest, irritability, and lethargy than those without reported maltreatment...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593483/adverse-childhood-experiences-in-a-post-bariatric-surgery-psychiatric-inpatient-sample
#15
Kathryn Fink, Colin A Ross
BACKGROUND: Sixty-three inpatients in a psychiatric hospital who had previously undergone bariatric surgery were interviewed by the hospital dietitian. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences in this population. METHODS: Participants completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Scale. RESULTS: The average score on the ACE was 5.4 (3.3); 76% of participants reported childhood emotional neglect, 70% childhood verbal abuse, and 64% childhood sexual abuse; only two participants reported no adverse childhood experiences...
June 8, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589545/tonic-immobility-during-sexual-assault-a-common-reaction-predicting-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-severe-depression
#16
Anna Möller, Hans Peter Söndergaard, Lotti Helström
Active resistance is considered to be the "normal" reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder and severe depression MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault...
June 7, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581316/the-relationship-between-childhood-abuse-and-violent-victimization-in-homeless-and-marginally-housed-women-the-role-of-dissociation-as-a-potential-mediator
#17
Dmitri A Young, Martha Shumway, Annesa Flentje, Elise D Riley
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have established a link between childhood abuse and dissociation. Other work has shown childhood abuse increases the likelihood of violent victimization in adulthood. Although it has been posited that dissociation may mediate childhood abuse and adult violent victimization, research investigating this hypothesis is sparse, particularly for extremely vulnerable populations such as homeless and unstably housed individuals. investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and dissociation on violent victimization in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed women...
June 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580807/adverse-childhood-environment-relationship-with-sexual-risk-behaviors-and-marital-status-in-a-large-american-sample
#18
Kermyt G Anderson
A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580070/isolated-spongy-urethral-rupture-from-abrupt-coital-distractive-force
#19
Brian J McArdle, Mark A Wille, Courtney Mp Hollowell
The classic presentation of penile fracture is a cracking or snap sound, with sharp pain, immediate detumescence, swelling, deformation and ecchymosis. A penile fracture involves rupture of the tunica albuginea of one or both corpora cavernosa. Concomitant urethral rupture is reported to occur in 10% to 20% of penile fracture cases. Isolated urethral injury without penile fracture is extremely rare. We report the first case of isolated pendulous urethral rupture from an abrupt coital distractive force. We include a literature review and discussion of isolated urethral trauma secondary to sexual intercourse...
February 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570129/sexual-self-schemas-in-the-real-world-investigating-the-ecological-validity-of-language-based-markers-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#20
Amelia M Stanton, Cindy M Meston, Ryan L Boyd
This is the first study to examine language use and sexual self-schemas in natural language data extracted from posts to a large online forum. Recently, two studies applied advanced text analysis techniques to examine differences in language use and sexual self-schemas between women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse. The aim of the current study was to test the ecological validity of the differences in language use and sexual self-schema themes that emerged between these two groups of women in the laboratory...
June 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
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