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Aldosteronism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455953/the-comprehensive-characterization-of-adrenocortical-steroidogenesis-using-two-dimensional-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Gellért Karvaly, Krisztián Kovács, Katalin Mészáros, Ibolya Kocsis, Attila Patócs, Barna Vásárhelyi
The perturbation of the homeostasis of adrenocortical steroids plays a fundamental role in several pathological conditions. Currently, only a few of the substances involved in steroidogenesis are routinely analysed in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of these conditions. Recently, interest has grown over the development of clinical assays of endogenous steroids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, no approaches have assessed the adrenocortical steroidogenesis comprehensively...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455241/cox-2-derived-pge-2-triggers-hyperplastic-renin-expression-and-hyperreninemia-in-aldosterone-synthase-deficient-mice
#2
Christian Karger, Katharina Machura, André Schneider, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov, Armin Kurtz
Pharmacological inhibition or genetic loss of function defects of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) causes compensatory renin cell hyperplasia and hyperreninemia. The triggers for the compensatory stimulation of renin synthesis and secretion in this situation may be multimodal. Since cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa is frequently increased in states of a defective RAAS, we have investigated a potential role of COX-2 and its derived prostaglandins for renin expression and secretion in aldosterone synthase-deficient mice (AS-/- ) as a model for a genetic defect of the RAAS...
February 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453922/a-short-review-of-primary-aldosteronism-in-a-question-and-answer-fashion
#3
Frederick-Anthony Farrugia, Nicolaos Zavras, Georgios Martikos, Panagiotis Tzanetis, Anestis Charalampopoulos, Evangelos P Misiakos, Dimitrios Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koliakos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA). PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. METHODS: We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449503/early-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-improved-short-term-and-longterm-renal-outcomes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-with-antiphospholipid-associated-nephropathy
#4
Cai Yue, Guanhong Li, Yubing Wen, Xuemei Li, Ruitong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the renal protective effects of early renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with antiphospholipid-associated nephropathy (aPLN). METHODS: Medical data of 57 SLE patients with biopsy-proven aPLN were analyzed. Early RAAS blockade was defined as administration of RASI within 3 months after kidney biopsy and continued for ≥ 12 months...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449364/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-update-of-mechanisms-contributing-to-this-clinical-entity
#5
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445908/gender-differences-in-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Paolo Di Giosia, Paolo Giorgini, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Marco Petrarca, Claudio Ferri, Amirhossein Sahebkar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. RECENT FINDINGS: Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women...
February 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445488/glucocorticoid-remediable-aldosteronism-in-a-young-adult-with-a-family-history-of-conn-s-syndrome
#7
Heiko Methe, Sinan Pehlivanli
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism is a hereditary form of primary hyperaldosteronism and the most common monogenic cause of hypertension. We present the case of a 24-year-old man with a family history of Conn's syndrome. Yet, in the index patient, classical characteristics of mineralocorticoid excess could be reversed by exogenous glucocorticoids.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444898/significant-prevalence-of-nr3c1-mutations-in-incidentally-discovered-bilateral-adrenal-hyperplasia-results-of-the-french-muta-gr-study
#8
Geraldine Vitellius, Séverine Trabado, Christine Hoeffel-Fornes, Jerome Bouligand, Antoine Bennet, Frédéric Castinetti, Bénédicte Decoudier, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Marc Lombes, Brigitte Delemer
Recently discovered mutations of NR3C1 gene, encoding for the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), in patients with glucocorticoid resistance and bilateral adrenal incidentalomas prompted us to investigate whether GR mutations might be associated with adrenal hyperplasia. OBJECTIVE: The multicenter French Clinical Research Program (Muta-GR) was set up to determine the prevalence of GR mutations and polymorphisms in patients harboring bilateral adrenal incidentalomas associated with hypertension and/or biological hypercortisolism without clinical Cushing's signs...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442523/patterns-of-heart-failure-symptoms-are-associated-with-self-care-behaviors-over-6-months
#9
Jonathan P Auld, James O Mudd, Jill M Gelow, Karen S Lyons, Shirin O Hiatt, Christopher S Lee
BACKGROUND: Both heart failure symptoms and self-care are associated with patient outcomes. Although it is thought that symptoms drive self-care, there is limited evidence to support this assumption over time. AIMS: To determine whether patterns of physical symptoms are significantly associated with heart failure self-care over time. METHOD: Latent mixture analysis was used to identify subgroups based on physical symptoms of dyspnea, sleepiness and edema (using the heart failure somatic perception and Epworth sleepiness scales)...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442351/milk-alkali-syndrome-mas-as-a-complication-of-the-treatment-of-hypoparathyroidism
#10
Agata Skwarek, Janusz Pachucki, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Zuzanna Żurecka, Michał Popow
Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), characterized by renal failure, metabolic alkalosis and hypercalcemia, is a severe and life-threatening complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. The clinical course is often sudden and is not preceded by any prodromal symptoms. Occurrence does not depend on the duration of hypoparathyroidism treatment, although it is closely related to the applied therapy, especially the dose of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D preparations. Drugs influencing the glomerular filtration rate (angiotensin receptor blockers, sartans, aldosterone receptor antagonists, thiazide diuretics), lack of adequate routine control, changing the calcium carbonate supplementation, dehydration, a diet rich in pH-basic foods (i...
February 14, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440699/vascular-dysfunction-in-obese-diabetic-db-db-mice-involves-the-interplay-between-aldosterone-mineralocorticoid-receptor-and-rho-kinase-signaling
#11
Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Glaucia E Callera, Malou Friederich-Persson, Ana Sanchez, Maria Gabriela Dulak-Lis, Sofia Tsiropoulou, Augusto C Montezano, Ying He, Ana M Briones, Frederic Jaisser, Rhian M Touyz
Activation of aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been implicated in vascular dysfunction of diabetes. Underlying mechanisms are elusive. Therefore, we investigated the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in aldosterone/MR signaling and vascular dysfunction in a model of diabetes. Diabetic obese mice (db/db) and control counterparts (db/+) were treated with MR antagonist (MRA, potassium canrenoate, 30 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks) or ROCK inhibitor, fasudil (30 mg/kg/day, 3 weeks). Plasma aldosterone was increased in db/db versus db/+...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440332/downregulated-serum-14-15-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-is-associated-with-abdominal-aortic-calcification-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#12
Pinming Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Jingwei Gao, Ying Lin, Guangzi Shi, Wanbing He, Rhian M Touyz, Li Yan, Hui Huang
Patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) have increased risk of target-organ damage, among which vascular calcification is an important indicator of cardiovascular mortality. 14, 15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14, 15-EET) has been shown to have beneficial effects in vascular remodeling. However, whether 14, 15-EET associates with vascular calcification in PA is unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between 14, 15-EET and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in patients with PA. Sixty-nine patients with PA and 69 controls with essential hypertension, matched for age, sex, and blood pressure, were studied...
February 12, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440130/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-myocardial-mass-and-fibrosis-in-primary-aldosteronism
#13
Marianne Aardal Grytaas, Kjersti Sellevåg, Hrafnkell Baldur Thordarson, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Kristian Løvås, Terje Hjalmar Larsen
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, presumably due to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the degree of fibrosis has not been extensively studied. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) contrast enhancement and novel sensitive T1 mapping to estimate increased extracellular volume (ECV) are available to measure the extent of fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess LV mass and fibrosis before and after treatment of PA using CMR with contrast enhancement and T1 mapping...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437744/can-aldosterone-break-your-heart-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-primary-aldosteronism
#14
Dominika M Zoltowska, Yashwant Agrawal, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta
We report a case of a 47-year-old Caucasian woman with medical history of hypertension and hypokalemia, who presented to Emergency Room with symptoms resembling acute coronary syndrome ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram revealed clear coronary arteries and left ventriculogram confirmed the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. She was treated conservatively with good clinical outcome. Subsequent testing revealed underlying primary aldosteronism.
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436637/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-of-the-rat
#15
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Paulina Milecka, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Ruciński
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats. At 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of eNampt (4 µg/100 g) in adult male rats, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) and aldosterone levels remained unchanged, while corticosterone levels were notably elevated compared with the control group, as determined by ELISA...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436482/the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-in-%C3%A2-human-adrenocortical-zona-glomerulosa-and-in-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-low-expression-and-no-functional-role
#16
Paul Emmanuel Vanderriele, Brasilina Caroccia, Teresa Maria Seccia, Maria Piazza, Livia Lenzini, Francesca Torresan, Maurizio Iacobone, Thomas Unger, Gian Paolo Rossi
The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor (MasR) play a cardiovascular protective role by counter-regulating angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects, but whether this involves blunting of adrenocortical hormone secretion is unknown. We investigated the presence of AT1R, AT2R and MasR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a condition featuring hyperaldosteronism, and in APA-adjacent tissue. The effect of C21, an AT2R agonist, on CYP11B1 (cortisol synthase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) gene expression in NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue was also assessed using the AT1R antagonist irbesartan to ascertain the specificity of C21 effect...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436384/increasing-mortality-in-adults-with-diabetes-and-low-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-the-absence-of-albuminuria
#17
Holly Kramer, Robert E Boucher, David Leehey, Linda Fried, Guo Wei, Tom Greene, Sylvia E Rosas, Richard Cooper, Guichan Cao, Srinivasan Beddhu
OBJECTIVE: Improved blood pressure control and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers has altered the clinical presentation or phenotype of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in U.S. adults with diabetes. These changes may influence mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1988-2006 were used to examine mortality trends in adults with diabetes, defined as physician diagnosis, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, hemoglobin A 1c >6...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436152/immersion-enhanced-fluid-redistribution-can-prevent-intradialytic-hypotension-a-prospective-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial
#18
Keren Doenyas-Barak, Nedal Garra, Ilia Beberashvili, Shai Efrati
INTRODUCTION: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis patients. We used an immersion model to evaluate the role of reduced effective circulating volume, and to examine whether facilitated refilling can prevent IDH. METHODS: Ten male hemodialysis patients who had frequent episodes of IDH were randomized to a mid-week "wet" or "dry" hemodialysis session, and subsequently underwent the other session in a crossover manner...
February 13, 2018: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433578/resistant-hypertension-on-treatment-reshypot-sequential-nephron-blockade-compared-to-dual-blockade-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-plus-bisoprolol-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-arterial-hypertension-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Elizabeth do Espirito Santo Cestário, Letícia Aparecida Barufi Fernandes, Luiz Tadeu Giollo-Júnior, Jéssica Rodrigues Roma Uyemura, Camila Suemi Sato Matarucco, Manoel Idelfonso Paz Landim, Luciana Neves Cosenso-Martin, Lúcia Helena Bonalume Tácito, Heitor Moreno, José Fernando Vilela-Martin, Juan Carlos Yugar-Toledo
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension is characterized when the blood pressure (BP) remains above the recommended goal after taking three antihypertensive drugs with synergistic actions at their maximum recommended tolerated doses, preferably including a diuretic. Identifying the contribution of intravascular volume and serum renin in maintaining BP levels could help tailor more effective hypertension treatment, whether acting on the control of intravascular volume or sodium balance, or acting on the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the kidney...
February 12, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432366/systemic-hemodynamic-response-to-terlipressin-predicts-development-of-hepatorenal-syndrome-and-survival-in-advanced-cirrhosis
#20
Georgios N Kalambokis, Ilias Tsiakas, Maria Christaki, Christina Koustousi, Leonidas Christou, Gerasimos Baltayiannis, Dimitrios Christodoulou
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to predict the occurrence of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and death in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 2-year data of 78 patients with cirrhosis and ascites (Child-Pugh B/C: 45/43). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured in all patients just before administration of 2 mg of terlipressin and 30 min later. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was calculated as MAP/CO...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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