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S Gasparini, M R Melo, G M F Andrade-Franzé, J C Geerling, J V Menani, E Colombari
Aldosterone infusion into the 4th ventricle (4th V), upstream the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), produces strong 0.3 M NaCl intake. In the present study, we investigated whether aldosterone infusion into the 4th V activates HSD2 neurons, changes renal excretion, or alters blood pressure and cardiovascular reflexes. Chronic infusion of aldosterone (100 ng/h) into the 4th V increased daily 0.3 M NaCl intake (up to 44 ± 10, vs. vehicle: 5.6 ± 3.4 ml/24 h) and also c-Fos expression in HSD2 neurons in the NTS and in non-HSD2 neurons in the NTS...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
Liang Xiong, Yu Liu, Mingmin Zhou, Guangji Wang, Dajun Quan, Wei Shuai, Caijie Shen, Bin Kong, Congxin Huang, He Huang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In this study, we investigated whether targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons (TACSN) could suppress myocardial infarction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction. What is the main finding and its importance? TACSN significantly alleviated sympathetic remodeling and neuroendocrine activation, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improved the left ventricular function. Thus, TACSN may have a beneficial effect on adverse post-infarction remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Brandon A Kemp, Nancy L Howell, Shetal H Padia
The intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GR) is localized to collecting duct (CD) cells where it increases αENaC-dependent sodium reabsorption in rodents. We hypothesized that chronic GR inhibition with intrarenal GR siRNA lowers blood pressure (BP) in Angiotensin II-dependent hypertension via reductions in αENaC-dependent sodium reabsorption. Uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (N=121) received subcutaneous osmotic pumps for chronic systemic delivery of Angiotensin II or vehicle (5% dextrose in water). Rats also received intrarenal infusion of vehicle, GR siRNA, or scrambled (SCR) siRNA...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Lei Yang, Shuhua Xu, Xiaoyun Guo, Shinichi Uchida, Alan M Weinstein, Tong Wang, Lawrence G Palmer
Changes in the expression of Na transport proteins were measured in the kidneys of mice with increased dietary K intake for 1 week. The epithelial Na channel (ENaC) was upregulated, with enhanced expression of full-length and cleaved forms of αENaC and cleaved γENaC. At the same time, the amount of the NaCl cotransporter (NCC) and its phosphorylated form decreased by ~50% and ~80% respectively. The expression of the phosphorylated form of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 also decreased, despite an increase in overall protein content...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Qiwei Zhu, Ping Ye, Leiming Luo
Heart failure (HF) is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the most widely studied and commonly applied natriuretic peptide (NP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has the effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation, anti-hypertrophy, and anti-fibrosis and it inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems to maintain cardiorenal homeostasis and counteract the effects of HF. Both BNP and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are applied as diagnostic, managing, and prognostic tools for HF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carmen Campino, Rene Baudrand, Carolina Valdivia, Cristian Carvajal, Andrea Vecchiola, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Hernán Garcia, Lorena García, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Cristóbal Fuentes, Calos F Lagos, Maria Paulina Rojas, Doris Muñoz, Carlos Fardella
Background: Mounting evidence has associated high sodium intake with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We investigated whether high sodium intake modulates the parameters of endothelial damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design including 223 Chilean subjects (6.9-65.0 years old). We measured aldosterone, renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, adiponectin, leptin, hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, PAI-1, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Dimitrios Oikonomou, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Vassiliki Katsi, Chris Kourek, Constantinos Tsioufis, Alexendra Alexopoulou, Evaggelia Koutli, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review summarizing the existing evidence on the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypertension (HT) independent of other components of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We searched the literature through Medline and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the relationship between hypertension and fatty liver disease. RESULTS: Studies testing this association are limited, but agree that HT and fatty liver disease are inter-related independent of other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes mellitus...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Christina Bradshaw, Yuanchao Zheng, Samuel A Silver, Glenn M Chertow, Jin Long, Shuchi Anand
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal illness is a major reason for hospitalization, but data on consequent acute kidney injury (AKI) are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of AKI in infectious and non-infectious diarrheal illness requiring hospitalization and to identify correlates and outcomes of diarrhea-associated AKI. DESIGN: Using data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), we created a cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of diarrheal illness...
June 18, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Suk-Won Choi, Seongwoo Han, Wan Joo Shim, Dong-Ju Choi, Yong-Jin Kim, Byung-Su Yoo, Kyung-Kuk Hwang, Hui Kyung Jeon, Mi-Seung Shin, Kyu-Hyung Ryu
Background: We aimed to evaluate effect of heart rate (HR) reduction on left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) in Korean patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: Ambulatory patients with HFrEF, who had paired echocardiograms, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and global assessment score (GAS) at baseline and 6-month (n = 157), were followed up on preset treatment schedule with bisoprolol. Results: The LVRR occurred in 49 patients (32%) at 6-month...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Jos W Twisk, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Jaap A Joles, Mark M Smits, Daniël H van Raalte
The prolonged treatment effects of a short-acting GLP-1RA (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist), such as lixisenatide, on fasting and postprandial systemic hemodynamics in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are unknown. In this secondary analysis, we included 34 overweight insulin glargine-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (mean±SD age, 62±7 years; HbA1c , 8.0±0.9%; systolic blood pressure [BP], 133.9±16.1 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 75.4±8.39 mm Hg) that were randomized to once-daily lixisenatide 20 μg or once-daily titrated insulin glulisine for 8 weeks...
June 18, 2018: Hypertension
Jan Terock, Anke Hannemann, Deborah Janowitz, Harald J Freyberger, Stephan B Felix, Marcus Dörr, Matthias Nauck, Henry Völzke, Hans J Grabe
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that exposure to traumatic events during childhood and adulthood and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with a dysregulation of different neuroendocrine systems. However, the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) in relation to trauma/PTSD has been largely neglected. METHODS: Traumatization, PTSD, and plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone were measured in 3092 individuals from the general population...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Angelo Karaboyas, Hairong Xu, Hal Morgenstern, Francesco Locatelli, Michel Jadoul, Kosaku Nitta, Indranil Dasgupta, Francesca Tentori, Friedrich K Port, Bruce M Robinson
The benefits of renin angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are well-established in the general population, particularly among those with diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF), or coronary artery disease (CAD). However, conflicting evidence from trials and concerns about hyperkalemia limit RAASi use in hemodialysis patients, relative to other antihypertensive agents, including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. Therefore, we investigated prescription patterns and associations with mortality for RAASi and other antihypertensive agents using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)...
June 13, 2018: Kidney International
T Hirai, R Yamaga, A Fujita, T Itoh
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) represent the cornerstones of hypertension and congestive heart failure treatment. Risk factors for hyperkalaemia associated with ACEI and ARB are chronic kidney disease and concomitant medications which increase serum potassium level. Body mass index (BMI) also affects pharmacokinetics of ACEI and ARB and potassium disposition. We evaluated the relationship between BMI and hyperkalaemia associated with ACEI and ARB treatments...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Qian Sun, Ronghe Chen, Fan Xin, Guohong Ruan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of three kinds of drinking water and its possible mechanism on blood pressure of hypertensive mice. METHODS: The water quality parameters were measured for three kinds of drinking water, and the parameters includedtotal dissolved solids( TDS), oxygen consumed( OC), p H, oxidation reduction potential( ORP), electric conductivity( EC), dissolved hydrogen, calcium and magnesium. Establishment of mouse model of high blood pressure by using N'-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride( L-NAME) for 30 days...
November 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Sheryl L Chow, Robert Lee Page, Christophe Depre
This review summarizes the current management of heart failure (HF) in patients with reduced ejection fraction and the potential role of heart rate lowering agents in select populations, as recommended in the updated guidelines. Areas covered: PubMed was searched for studies that evaluated the role of heart rate lowering or ivabradine in HF management. Expert commentary: Targeting heart rate may offer benefit when added to renin-angiotensin aldosterone antagonists, and beta-blockers. Ivabradine is a heart rate lowering agent that acts on the funny current (If ) in the sinoatrial node, thereby reducing heart rate without directly affecting cardiac contraction and relaxation...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Liza Grosman-Rimon, Michael A McDonald, Danit Freedman, Paul Yip, David Z Cherney, Vivek Rao
INTRODUCTION: The levels of neurohormones were assessed in continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) recipients and compared to patients with heart failure (HF) and to healthy controls (HCs), and CF-LVAD recipients with closed or open aortic valves (AVs). METHODS: Aldosterone, norepinephrine, and renin levels were assessed in a total of 46 participants, including CF-LVAD recipients (n = 18), HF patients (n = 14), and HC individuals (n = 14)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Mitsuhiro Kometani, Takashi Yoneda, Daisuke Aono, Shigehiro Karashima, Masashi Demura, Koshiro Nishimoto, Masakazu Yamagishi, Yoshiyu Takeda
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation is recommended in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism (PA) to improve the AVS success rate. However, this method can confound the subtype diagnosis. Gene mutations or pathological characteristics may be related to lateralization by AVS. This study aimed to compare the rate of diagnostic discrepancy by AVS pre- versus post-ACTH stimulation and to investigate the relationship between this discrepancy and findings from immunohistochemical and genetic analyses of PA...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Merlin C Thomas
Heart failure is a leading cause for hospitalisation and for readmission, especially in patients over the age of 65. Diabetes is an increasingly common companion to heart failure. The presence of diabetes and its associated comorbidity increases the risk of adverse outcomes and premature mortality in patients with heart failure. In particular, patients with diabetes are more likely to be readmitted to hospital soon after discharge. This may partly reflect the greater severity of heart disease in these patients...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
Katja Kalenyak, Romy M Heilmann
Canine hypoadrenocorticism (HoAC) results from a loss of functional adrenal cortex, the most common etiology of which is an immune-mediated destruction leading to an inadequate production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The term "atypical" HoAC is used for a subgroup of dogs with either an isolated glucocorticoid deficiency or a combined glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency but normal electrolytes. Dogs with HoAC can present with a large variety of clinical signs, ranging from shaking, weakness, and mild gastrointestinal signs to seizures, hypovolemic shock, and collapse...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Jie Weng, He Wu, Zhiyi Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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