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Radiotherapy cognitive

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#1
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112734/memantine-prevents-acute-radiation-induced-toxicities-at-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses
#2
Joseph G Duman, Jeffrey Dinh, Wei Zhou, Henry Cham, Vasilis C Mavratsas, Matea Paveškovic, Shalaka Mulherkar, Susan L McGovern, Kimberley F Tolias, David R Grosshans
Background: Memantine has shown clinical utility in preventing radiation-induced cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms underlying its protective effects remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal glutamate signaling causes radiation-induced abnormalities in neuronal structure and that memantine prevents synaptic toxicity. Methods: Hippocampal cultures expressing eGFP were irradiated or sham-treated and their dendritic spine morphology assessed at acute (minutes) and later (days) times using high-resolution confocal microscopy...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090030/cancer-related-fatigue-in-breast-cancer-survivors-in-correlation-to-demographic-factors
#3
Fatemeh Moghaddam Tabrizi, Saeedeh Alizadeh
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in cancer patients. However, its exact causes are still unknown, and this circumstance makes it complicated to encounter the problem. OBJECTIVE: The current research was carried out to investigate factors associated with fatigue in cancer patients without other diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research was conducted in 2013. A group of 150 randomly selected breast cancer patients who had successful surgical treatment and attending in oncology ward to receive chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
June 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089622/prognosis-of-hippocampal-function-after-sub-lethal-irradiation-brain-injury-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#4
Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Yoshifumi Abe, Pen-Tzu Fang, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Yung-I Yang, Tzu-Ying Lu, Shoji Oda, Hiroshi Mitani, Shi-Long Lian, Yu-Chang Tyan, Chih-Jen Huang, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
This work emphasizes the value of assessing hippocampal function by making a timely MRI-based prognosis following a minor dose of hippocampal irradiation after nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) radiotherapy. A quasi-experiment with case-control design and functional assessments (e.g., neuroimaging analysis with fMRI) was conducted to assess hippocampal function after radiotherapy. We delivered 70 Gy of irradiation to nasopharyngeal carcinomas by 6MV helical radiotherapy and collected data from twenty NPC patients and 24 healthy age-matched subjects...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076421/seizures-and-anticonvulsants-in-brain-tumours-frequency-mechanisms-and-anti-epileptic-management
#5
Charles Vecht, Louis Royer-Perron, Caroline Houillier, Gilles Huberfeld
In cancer, epilepsy can be the manifestation of a primary brain tumour, metastatic disease, vascular or surgical complications, opportunistic infection or secondary to anti-tumour therapy. Seizures are frequently the first symptom of a brain tumour. The epilepsy is related to elevated extracellular glutamate stimulating NMDA- and AMPA-receptors and to the formation of D-2HG which resembles glutamate in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Epilepsy as presenting sign is associated with a longer survival in low- and high- grade gliomas, particularly with the IDH1 mutation...
October 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067503/clinical-features-radiologic-findings-and-treatment-of-pediatric-germ-cell-tumors-involving-the-basal-ganglia-and-thalamus-a-retrospective-series-of-15-cases-at-a-single-center
#6
Mengmeng Wang, Peizhi Zhou, Shizhen Zhang, Xueyou Liu, Liang Lv, Zeming Wang, Feng Ye, Yan Ju, Shu Jiang
PURPOSE: Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are relatively rare neoplasms which have not been extensively described. We here summarize the clinical and radiological features of a series of such tumors and discuss optimal treatment strategies based upon our experience. METHODS: A total of 15 pediatric patients with basal ganglionic and thalamic GCTs were treated between 2011 and 2016 at West China Hospital. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging findings, and treatment strategies were reviewed retrospectively...
October 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062387/limitations-of-workers-diagnosed-with-cancer-evaluated-with-work-role-functioning-questionnaire-br
#7
Cristiane H Gallasch, Neusa Mc Alexandre, Sergio Cb Esteves, Helena F Gomes, Elaine Cl da Rocha, Patricia Cp Baptista
The main subject of the current study is to look into the limitations found in individuals diagnosed with cancer, considered a public health problem, especially in developing countries where the impact of this disease is expected to account for 80% of 20 million new cases estimated worldwide by 2025. For some patients undergoing treatment, continuing to be professionally active is challenging especially considering that work fosters a purpose in life, a sense of contribution, distraction, and self-esteem, which aids in physical, cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal recovery...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054815/whole-brain-radiotherapy-or-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-as-consolidation-strategies-after-high-dose-methotrexate-based-chemoimmunotherapy-in-patients-with-primary-cns-lymphoma-results-of-the-second-randomisation-of-the-international-extranodal-lymphoma
#8
Andrés J M Ferreri, Kate Cwynarski, Elisa Pulczynski, Christopher P Fox, Elisabeth Schorb, Paul La Rosée, Mascha Binder, Alberto Fabbri, Valter Torri, Eleonora Minacapelli, Monica Falautano, Fiorella Ilariucci, Achille Ambrosetti, Alexander Roth, Claire Hemmaway, Peter Johnson, Kim M Linton, Tobias Pukrop, Jette Sønderskov Gørløv, Monica Balzarotti, Georg Hess, Ulrich Keller, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Jens Panse, Alessandra Tucci, Lorella Orsucci, Francesco Pisani, Alessandro Levis, Stefan W Krause, Hans J Schmoll, Bernd Hertenstein, Mathias Rummel, Jeffery Smith, Michael Pfreundschuh, Giuseppina Cabras, Francesco Angrilli, Maurilio Ponzoni, Martina Deckert, Letterio S Politi, Jürgen Finke, Michele Reni, Franco Cavalli, Emanuele Zucca, Gerald Illerhaus
BACKGROUND: The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group-32 (IELSG32) trial is an international randomised phase 2 study that addresses two key clinical questions in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. Results of the first randomisation have demonstrated that methotrexate, cytarabine, thiotepa, and rituximab (called the MATRix regimen) is the induction combination associated with significantly better outcome compared with the other induction combinations tested...
October 17, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045710/radiation-induced-cognitive-toxicity-pathophysiology-and-interventions-to-reduce-toxicity-in-adults
#9
Christopher Wilke, David Grosshans, Joseph Duman, Paul Brown, Jing Li
Radiotherapy is ubiquitous in the treatment of patients with both primary brain tumors as well as disease which is metastatic to the brain. This therapy is not without cost, however, as cognitive decline is frequently associated with cranial radiation, particularly with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The precise mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced morbidity remain incompletely understood and continue to be an active area of ongoing research. In this article, we review the hypothetical means by which cranial radiation induces cognitive decline as well as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent, minimize or reverse treatment-induced cognitive deterioration...
October 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031036/-the-role-of-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#10
R Lakomý, T Kazda, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The standard postsurgical options for low-grade gliomas include watchful waiting or radiotherapy depending on the risk factors for recurrence. The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of this disease is generally controversial, although the recently published results of the first of two large randomized phase III clinical trials (RTOG 9802 a EORTC 22033-26033), focusing on the evaluation of chemotherapy for the upfront treatment of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas, are reassuring in this respect...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031035/-controversy-in-the-postoperative-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#11
T Kazda, R Lakomý, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the main treatment options. Despite advances in oncology, there are still a lot of uncertainties, and the optimal sequences, combinations, and timings of these procedures have not yet been optimized. It is still unclear whether temozolomide can replace effective, but toxic PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) and whether temozolomide can be used upfront alone instead of radiotherapy alone...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985716/selection-of-opioids-for-cancer-related-pain-using-a-biomarker-a-randomized-multi-institutional-open-label-trial-relief-study
#12
Hiromichi Matsuoka, Junji Tsurutani, Yasutaka Chiba, Yoshihiko Fujita, Masato Terashima, Takeshi Yoshida, Kiyohiro Sakai, Yoichi Otake, Atsuko Koyama, Kazuto Nishio, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients experience pain that has physiological, sensory, affective, cognitive, behavioral, and sociocultural dimensions. Opioids are used in treatment of pain in patients with various types of cancer. We previously showed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype is related to the plasma level of morphine and the required dose of morphine in an exploratory prospective study. The findings showed that a group of patients with a GG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in COMT required a significantly higher dose of morphine than a non-GG group...
October 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954500/quality-of-life-in-long-term-survivors-of-early-stage-endometrial-cancer
#13
Bożena Dobrzycka, Robert Terlikowski, Bożena Kulesza-Brończyk, Jacek Niklinski, Slawomir Jerzy Terlikowsk
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy in developed countries. Effective treatment of the early stage of the disease is achieved by surgery alone. An increasing number of patients with EC become long-term survivors; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the quality-of-life (QOL) of EC survivors. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 328 survivors who had completed cancer treatment more than 3 years ago, and had previously completed questionnaires concerning QOL - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and depression - Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947979/effects-of-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-chemoradiotherapy-on-attention-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#14
Qing Wei, Ling Li, Xiao-Dong Zhu, Ling Qin, Yan-Lin Mo, Zheng-You Liang, Jia-Li Deng, Su-Ping Tao
This study evaluated the short-term effects of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and cisplatin concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) on attention in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Timely detection and early prevention of cognitive decline are important in cancer patients, because long-term cognitive effects may be permanent and irreversible. Thirty-eight NPC patients treated with IMRT (17/38) or CCRT (21/38) and 38 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Neuropsychological tests were administered to each patient before treatment initiation and within a week after treatment completion...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927746/-proposal-of-screening-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-in-the-population-from-20-to-40years
#15
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Luc Taillandier, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are cerebral tumors occurring in young adults, with an inescapable progression to higher grade of malignancy, resulting in functional impairment and death. DLGG evolve in several phases: an asymptomatic period despite a slow radiological growth; a period in which inaugural symptoms occur, usually epilepsy with possible mild cognitive disorders; then a phase with malignant transformation generating disabling neurological deficits; and ultimately the terminal stage. Early maximal surgical resection significantly increases overall survival while preserving quality of life...
October 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893524/-hippocampus-brainstem-and-brain-dose-volume-constraints-for-fractionated-3-d-radiotherapy-and-for-stereotactic-radiation-therapy-limits-and-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
M Gérard, R Jumeau, B Pichon, J Biau, E Blais, J Horion, G Noël
Cerebral radiation-induced toxicities after radiotherapy (RT) of brain tumors are frequent. The protection of organs at risk (OAR) is crucial, especially for brain tumors, to preserve cognition in cancer survivors. Dose constraints of cerebral OAR used in conventional RT, radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are debated. In fact, they are based on historical cohorts or calculated with old mathematical models. Values of α/β ratio of cerebral OAR are also controversial leading to misestimate the equivalent dose in 2Gy fractions or the biological equivalent dose, especially during hypofractionated RT...
October 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891772/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-plus-hypnosis-for-distress-during-breast-radiotherapy-a-randomized-trial
#17
Guy H Montgomery, Madalina Sucala, Matthew J Dillon, Julie B Schnur
Radiotherapy is a common and effective treatment for women with breast cancer. However, radiotherapy has also been shown to adversely affect patients' emotional well-being. Currently, few mind-body interventions are designed to improve patients' quality of life during radiotherapy. One intervention which has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the breast cancer radiotherapy setting is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy...
October 2017: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868253/relationships-between-regional-radiation-doses-and-cognitive-decline-in-children-treated-with-cranio-spinal-irradiation-for-posterior-fossa-tumors
#18
Elodie Doger de Speville, Charlotte Robert, Martin Perez-Guevara, Antoine Grigis, Stephanie Bolle, Clemence Pinaud, Christelle Dufour, Anne Beaudré, Virginie Kieffer, Audrey Longaud, Jacques Grill, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Eric Deutsch, Dimitri Lefkopoulos, Catherine Chiron, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Marion Noulhiane
Pediatric posterior fossa tumor (PFT) survivors who have been treated with cranial radiation therapy often suffer from cognitive impairments that might relate to IQ decline. Radiotherapy (RT) distinctly affects brain regions involved in different cognitive functions. However, the relative contribution of regional irradiation to the different cognitive impairments still remains unclear. We investigated the relationships between the changes in different cognitive scores and radiation dose distribution in 30 children treated for a PFT...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866326/progesterone-improves-neurocognitive-outcomes-following-therapeutic-cranial-irradiation-in-mice
#19
Seema Yousuf, Daniel J Brat, Hui-Kuo Shu, Ya Wang, Donald G Stein, Fahim Atif
Despite improved therapeutic methods, CNS toxicity resulting from cancer treatment remains a major cause of post-treatment morbidity. More than half of adult patients with cranial irradiation for brain cancer develop neurobehavioral/cognitive deficits that severely impact quality of life. We examined the neuroprotective effects of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG) against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced neurobehavioral/cognitive deficits in mice. Male C57/BL mice were exposed to one of two fractionated dose regimens of IR (3Gy×3 or 3Gy×5)...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861706/xerostomia-quality-of-life-scale-xeqols-questionnaire-validation-of-italian-version-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#20
Luciana Lastrucci, Silvia Bertocci, Vittorio Bini, Simona Borghesi, Roberta De Majo, Andrea Rampini, Pietro Giovanni Gennari, Paola Pernici
AIM: To translate the Xerostomia Quality-of-Life Scale (XeQoLS) into Italian language (XeQoLS-IT). Xerostomia is the most relevant acute and late toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are subjective report on patient perception of health status. The XeQoLS consists of 15 items and measures the impact of salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia on the four major domains of oral health-related QoL. METHODS: The XeQoLS-IT was created through a linguistic validation multi-step process: forward translation (TF), backward translation (TB) and administration of the questionnaire to 35 Italian patients with head and neck cancer...
August 31, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
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