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Radiotherapy cognitive

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344836/boost-irradiation-integrated-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-the-management-of-brain-metastases
#1
Ágnes Dobi, Emese Fodor, Anikó Maráz, Zsófia Együd, Adrienne Cserháti, László Tiszlavicz, Zita Reisz, Pál Barzó, Zoltán Varga, Katalin Hideghéty
Our retrospective analysis aimed to evaluate the clinical value of dose intensification schemes: WBRT and consecutive, delayed, or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in brain metastasis (BM) management. Clinical data and overall survival (OS) of 468 patients with BM from various primaries treated with 10 × 3 Gy WBRT (n = 195), WBRT+ 10 × 2 Gy boost (n = 125), or simultaneously 15 × 2.2 Gy WBRT+0.7 Gy boost (n = 148) during a 6-year period were statistically analysed. Significant difference in OS could be detected with additional boost to WBRT (3...
January 17, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288597/fractionation-enhances-acute-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-radiation-sensitivity-and-leads-to-long-term-depletion
#2
Sage Begolly, John A Olschowka, Tanzy Love, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Ionizing radiation (IR) is commonly used to treat central nervous system (CNS) cancers and metastases. While IR promotes remission, frequent side effects including impaired cognition and white matter loss occur following treatment. Fractionation is used to minimize these CNS late side effects, as it reduces IR effects in differentiated normal tissue, but not rapidly proliferating normal or tumor tissue. However, side effects occur even with the use of fractionated paradigms. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a proliferative population within the CNS affected by radiation...
December 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287892/-neurocognition-impact-of-radiotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Antoni Delphine
The cognitive evaluation is essential to arrest the impact of brain tumours on brain functions. Radiation therapy on the brain has side effects, which can impact on the cognitive functioning. The cognitive disorders constitute a predictive factor of the quality of life of the patients impacting on their autonomy, as well as on their social and professional life. This problem thus takes a more and more important place in the reflection on the cancer care. A better detection of these cognitive disorders requires a better cognitive evaluation from the diagnosis...
December 26, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212735/decision-making-capacity-for-chemotherapy-and-associated-factors-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-lung-cancer
#4
Asao Ogawa, Kyoko Kondo, Hiroyuki Takei, Daisuke Fujisawa, Yuichiro Ohe, Tatsuo Akechi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy)...
December 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206287/high-dose-per-pulse-electron-beam-dosimetry-commissioning-of-the-oriatron-ert6-prototype-linear-accelerator-for-preclinical-use
#5
Maud Jaccard, Maria Teresa Durán, Kristoffer Petersson, Jean-François Germond, Philippe Liger, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, Jean Bourhis, François Bochud, Claude Bailat
PURPOSE: The Oriatron eRT6 is an experimental high dose-per-pulse linear accelerator (linac) which was designed to deliver an electron beam with variable dose-rates, ranging from a few Gy/min up to hundreds of Gy/s. It was built to study the radiobiological effects of high dose-per-pulse/dose-rate electron beam irradiation, in the context of preclinical and cognitive studies. In this work, we report on the commissioning and beam monitoring of the Oriatron eRT6 prototype linac. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The beam was characterized in different steps...
December 5, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183875/navigating-chronic-pain-how-taking-a-few-wrong-turns-can-miss-sinister-pathology
#6
Jennifer Turnbull, Richard Dodds, Andy Wainwright, Athimalaipet Vaidyanathan Ramanan, Kate Wheeler
Bone sarcomas are rare in childhood, and their presentation can often mimic more benign complaints or chronic musculoskeletal pain. Ewing sarcomas in particular are often diagnosed after a significant delay from the onset of symptoms. At a population level, a long diagnostic delay is not necessarily associated with worse survival , as tumours that display slow growth also tend to be less aggressive. For any specific individual however, a delayed diagnosis can result in a larger tumour that is more difficult to treat...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183040/oncological-rehabilitation
#7
Oliver Rick, Timm Dauelsberg, Eva-Maria Kalusche-Bontemps
An increasing number of patients are living with or surviving cancer due to improvements in detection and treatment. However, patients who survive cancer may experience functional disabilities that impact on health, quality of life and ability to work. For example, physical disorders may include fatigue, reduced muscle strength, cognitive dysfunction, paresthesia or nutrition problems, while mental symptoms may include anxiety, depression, fear of relapse or insomnia. Multidimensional oncological rehabilitation programs have been developed to address these disabilities and to help cancer patients and long-term survivors to reduce morbidity and to improve quality of life...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170788/-incontinence-after-radical-prostatectomy-male-sling-or-best-option-first
#8
REVIEW
J F Gerhard, M S Aragona, R Olianas
Postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is a rare complication of radical prostatectomy, and it may lead to severe limitations for the patient and loss of quality of life. Several different surgical options for the therapy of PPI are available and may be chosen depending on severity of incontinence, residual urethral sphincter function, and previous history of radiotherapy. Alternatives to artificial urinary sphincters which over the last few decades have represented the gold standard for treatment of PPI are fixed slings and adjustable devices...
November 23, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168082/a-pilot-study-of-neuropsychological-functions-apoe-and-amyloid-imaging-in-patients-with-gliomas
#9
D D Correa, M Kryza-Lacombe, X Zhou, R E Baser, B J Beattie, Z Beiene, J Humm, L M DeAngelis, I Orlow, W Weber, J Osborne
Brain tumor patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) often develop cognitive dysfunction, and recent studies suggest that the APOE ε-4 allele may influence cognitive outcome. The ε-4 allele is known to promote beta (β) amyloid deposition in the cortex, and preliminary evidence suggests that RT may be associated with this process. However, it is unknown whether β-amyloid accumulation contributes to treatment neurotoxicity. In this pilot study, we assessed neuropsychological functions and β-amyloid retention using (18)F-florbetaben (FBB) PET in a subset of brain tumor patients who participated in our study of APOE polymorphisms and cognitive functions...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167901/association-of-neurocognitive-deficits-with-radiotherapy-or-chemoradiotherapy-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
Alona Zer, Gregory R Pond, Albiruni R Abdul Razak, Kattleya Tirona, Hui K Gan, Eric X Chen, Brian O'Sullivan, John Waldron, David P Goldstein, Ilan Weinreb, Andrew J Hope, John J Kim, Kelvin K W Chan, Andrew K Chan, Lillian L Siu, Lori J Bernstein
Importance: Neurocognitive deficits (NCD) have been observed in noncentral nervous system cancers, yet short- and long-term neurocognitive data on patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC) are lacking. Objective: To assess objective neurocognitive function before and after definitive radiation therapy for HNC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, longitudinal study, neurocognitive function and self-reported symptoms were assessed in 80 patients with histologically proven HNC requiring definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy and in 40 healthy controls 4 times (baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months after baseline) prior to commencing treatment at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#12
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112734/memantine-prevents-acute-radiation-induced-toxicities-at-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses
#13
Joseph G Duman, Jeffrey Dinh, Wei Zhou, Henry Cham, Vasilis C Mavratsas, Matea Paveškovic, Shalaka Mulherkar, Susan L McGovern, Kimberley F Tolias, David R Grosshans
Background: Memantine has shown clinical utility in preventing radiation-induced cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms underlying its protective effects remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal glutamate signaling causes radiation-induced abnormalities in neuronal structure and that memantine prevents synaptic toxicity. Methods: Hippocampal cultures expressing eGFP were irradiated or sham-treated and their dendritic spine morphology assessed at acute (minutes) and later (days) times using high-resolution confocal microscopy...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090030/cancer-related-fatigue-in-breast-cancer-survivors-in-correlation-to-demographic-factors
#14
Fatemeh Moghaddam Tabrizi, Saeedeh Alizadeh
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in cancer patients. However, its exact causes are still unknown, and this circumstance makes it complicated to encounter the problem. OBJECTIVE: The current research was carried out to investigate factors associated with fatigue in cancer patients without other diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research was conducted in 2013. A group of 150 randomly selected breast cancer patients who had successful surgical treatment and attending in oncology ward to receive chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
June 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089622/prognosis-of-hippocampal-function-after-sub-lethal-irradiation-brain-injury-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#15
Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Yoshifumi Abe, Pen-Tzu Fang, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Yung-I Yang, Tzu-Ying Lu, Shoji Oda, Hiroshi Mitani, Shi-Long Lian, Yu-Chang Tyan, Chih-Jen Huang, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
This work emphasizes the value of assessing hippocampal function by making a timely MRI-based prognosis following a minor dose of hippocampal irradiation after nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) radiotherapy. A quasi-experiment with case-control design and functional assessments (e.g., neuroimaging analysis with fMRI) was conducted to assess hippocampal function after radiotherapy. We delivered 70 Gy of irradiation to nasopharyngeal carcinomas by 6MV helical radiotherapy and collected data from twenty NPC patients and 24 healthy age-matched subjects...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076421/seizures-and-anticonvulsants-in-brain-tumours-frequency-mechanisms-and-anti-epileptic-management
#16
Charles Vecht, Louis Royer-Perron, Caroline Houillier, Gilles Huberfeld
In cancer, epilepsy can be the manifestation of a primary brain tumour, metastatic disease, vascular or surgical complications, opportunistic infection or secondary to anti-tumour therapy. Seizures are frequently the first symptom of a brain tumour. The epilepsy is related to elevated extracellular glutamate stimulating NMDA- and AMPA-receptors and to the formation of D-2HG which resembles glutamate in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Epilepsy as presenting sign is associated with a longer survival in low- and high- grade gliomas, particularly with the IDH1 mutation...
October 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067503/clinical-features-radiologic-findings-and-treatment-of-pediatric-germ-cell-tumors-involving-the-basal-ganglia-and-thalamus-a-retrospective-series-of-15-cases-at-a-single-center
#17
Mengmeng Wang, Peizhi Zhou, Shizhen Zhang, Xueyou Liu, Liang Lv, Zeming Wang, Feng Ye, Yan Ju, Shu Jiang
PURPOSE: Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) involving the basal ganglia and thalamus are relatively rare neoplasms which have not been extensively described. We here summarize the clinical and radiological features of a series of such tumors and discuss optimal treatment strategies based upon our experience. METHODS: A total of 15 pediatric patients with basal ganglionic and thalamic GCTs were treated between 2011 and 2016 at West China Hospital. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging findings, and treatment strategies were reviewed retrospectively...
October 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062387/limitations-of-workers-diagnosed-with-cancer-evaluated-with-work-role-functioning-questionnaire-br
#18
Cristiane H Gallasch, Neusa Mc Alexandre, Sergio Cb Esteves, Helena F Gomes, Elaine Cl da Rocha, Patricia Cp Baptista
The main subject of the current study is to look into the limitations found in individuals diagnosed with cancer, considered a public health problem, especially in developing countries where the impact of this disease is expected to account for 80% of 20 million new cases estimated worldwide by 2025. For some patients undergoing treatment, continuing to be professionally active is challenging especially considering that work fosters a purpose in life, a sense of contribution, distraction, and self-esteem, which aids in physical, cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal recovery...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054815/whole-brain-radiotherapy-or-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-as-consolidation-strategies-after-high-dose-methotrexate-based-chemoimmunotherapy-in-patients-with-primary-cns-lymphoma-results-of-the-second-randomisation-of-the-international-extranodal-lymphoma
#19
Andrés J M Ferreri, Kate Cwynarski, Elisa Pulczynski, Christopher P Fox, Elisabeth Schorb, Paul La Rosée, Mascha Binder, Alberto Fabbri, Valter Torri, Eleonora Minacapelli, Monica Falautano, Fiorella Ilariucci, Achille Ambrosetti, Alexander Roth, Claire Hemmaway, Peter Johnson, Kim M Linton, Tobias Pukrop, Jette Sønderskov Gørløv, Monica Balzarotti, Georg Hess, Ulrich Keller, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Jens Panse, Alessandra Tucci, Lorella Orsucci, Francesco Pisani, Alessandro Levis, Stefan W Krause, Hans J Schmoll, Bernd Hertenstein, Mathias Rummel, Jeffery Smith, Michael Pfreundschuh, Giuseppina Cabras, Francesco Angrilli, Maurilio Ponzoni, Martina Deckert, Letterio S Politi, Jürgen Finke, Michele Reni, Franco Cavalli, Emanuele Zucca, Gerald Illerhaus
BACKGROUND: The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group-32 (IELSG32) trial is an international randomised phase 2 study that addresses two key clinical questions in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. Results of the first randomisation have demonstrated that methotrexate, cytarabine, thiotepa, and rituximab (called the MATRix regimen) is the induction combination associated with significantly better outcome compared with the other induction combinations tested...
November 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045710/radiation-induced-cognitive-toxicity-pathophysiology-and-interventions-to-reduce-toxicity-in-adults
#20
Christopher Wilke, David Grosshans, Joseph Duman, Paul Brown, Jing Li
Radiotherapy is ubiquitous in the treatment of patients with both primary brain tumors as well as disease which is metastatic to the brain. This therapy is not without cost, however, as cognitive decline is frequently associated with cranial radiation, particularly with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The precise mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced morbidity remain incompletely understood and continue to be an active area of ongoing research. In this article, we review the hypothetical means by which cranial radiation induces cognitive decline as well as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent, minimize or reverse treatment-induced cognitive deterioration...
October 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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