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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909286/three-cases-of-levodopa-resistant-parkinsonism-after-radiation-therapy
#1
Raja Mehanna, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilia Itin
BACKGROUND Unequivocal brain radiation-induced parkinsonism has so far been reported in only in two pediatric patients. However, with the rising incidence rates for brain tumors in industrialized countries and the consequential increased exposure to cranial radiotherapy, clinicians might become more exposed to this entity. CASE REPORT Three patients were treated for intraparenchymal brain tumor with resection, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation. One patient developed leukoencephalopathy and parkinsonism within one year of treatment, one developed it seven years after treatment completion, and one developed dementia, parkinsonism and cerebral infracts 40 years after whole brain radiation...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893434/neuroinflammatory-and-cognitive-consequences-of-combined-radiation-and-immunotherapy-in-a-novel-preclinical-model
#2
Gwendolyn J McGinnis, David Friedman, Kristina H Young, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Charles R Thomas, Michael J Gough, Jacob Raber
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients often report behavioral and cognitive changes following cancer treatment. These effects can be seen in patients who have not yet received treatment or have received only peripheral (non-brain) irradiation. Novel treatments combining radiotherapy (RT) and immunotherapy (IT) demonstrate remarkable efficacy with respect to tumor outcomes by enhancing the proinflammatory environment in the tumor. However, a proinflammatory environment in the brain mediates cognitive impairments in other neurological disorders and may affect brain function in cancer patients receiving these novel treatments...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879267/pifithrin-%C3%A2%C2%B5-prevents-cisplatin-induced-chemobrain-by-preserving-neuronal-mitochondrial-function
#3
Gabriel S Chiu, Magdalena A Maj, Sahar Rizvi, Robert Dantzer, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Annemieke Kavelaars, Cobi J Heijnen
Cognitive impairment termed chemobrain is a common neurotoxicity associated with chemotherapy treatment, affecting an estimated 78% of patients. Prompted by the hypothesis that neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction underlies chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), we explored the efficacy of administering the small molecule pifithrin (PFT)-µ, an inhibitor of mitochondrial p53 accumulation, in preventing CICI. Male C57BL/6J mice injected with cisplatin +/- PFT-µ for two 5-day cycles were assessed for cognitive function using novel object/place recognition and alternation in a Y-maze...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865670/radiation-damage-to-neuronal-cells-simulating-the-energy-deposition-and-water-radiolysis-in-a-small-neural-network
#4
Oleg V Belov, Munkhbaatar Batmunkh, Sébastien Incerti, Oidov Lkhagva
Radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) has been an on-going challenge for the last decades primarily due to the issues of brain radiotherapy and radiation protection for astronauts during space travel. Although recent findings revealed a number of molecular mechanisms associated with radiation-induced impairments in behaviour and cognition, some uncertainties exist in the initial neuronal cell injury leading to the further development of CNS malfunction. The present study is focused on the investigation of early biological damage induced by ionizing radiations in a sample neural network by means of modelling physico-chemical processes occurring in the medium after exposure...
November 16, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858090/dramatic-increase-in-the-utilization-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detection-and-management-of-prostate-cancer
#5
Daniel T Oberlin, David D Casalino, Frank H Miller, Joshua J Meeks
PURPOSE: Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate is an evolving technology that provides functional information of the prostate that helps distinguish benign from malignant lesions. We hypothesized that mpMRI is rapidly adopted in the US to fill the unmet need for a non-invasive, accurate screening tool. The aim of this study is to assess the increasing utilization of mpMRI for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of an institutional clinical data repository of four million patients...
November 17, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834803/advance-care-planning-in-glioblastoma-patients
#6
REVIEW
Lara Fritz, Linda Dirven, Jaap C Reijneveld, Johan A F Koekkoek, Anne M Stiggelbout, H Roeline W Pasman, Martin J B Taphoorn
Despite multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, glioblastoma is an incurable disease with a poor prognosis. During the disease course, glioblastoma patients may experience progressive neurological deficits, symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as drowsiness and headache, incontinence, seizures and progressive cognitive dysfunction. These patients not only have cancer, but also a progressive brain disease. This may seriously interfere with their ability to make their own decisions regarding treatment...
November 8, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793446/stereotactic-radiotherapy-of-the-tumor-bed-compared-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-after-surgery-of-single-brain-metastasis-results-from-a-randomized-trial
#7
Lucyna Kępka, Dobromira Tyc-Szczepaniak, Krzysztof Bujko, Marta Olszyna-Serementa, Wojciech Michalski, Arkadiusz Sprawka, Berenika Trąbska-Kluch, Katarzyna Komosińska, Ewa Wasilewska-Teśluk, Beata Czeremszyńska
PURPOSE: To evaluate if neurological/cognitive function outcomes in patients with resected single brain metastasis (BM) after stereotactic radiotherapy of the tumor bed (SRT-TB) are not inferior compared to those achieved with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). METHODS: Patients with total/subtotal resection of single BM were randomly assigned either to SRT-TB (n=29) or WBRT (n=30). SRT-TB arm consisted of 15Gy/1 fraction, or 5×5Gy. WBRT consisted of 30Gy/10 fractions...
October 25, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757722/mechanisms-of-post-radiation-injury-cerebral-microinfarction-not-a-significant-factor
#8
J A Molad, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, M Findler, I Finkel, N M Bornstein, S Yust-Katz, E Auriel
Post-radiation leukoencephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and white matter alternations on imaging. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is one of several suggested etiologies. Cerebral microinfarction (CMI) is a recently described marker of SVD. We sought to examine the rate of CMI as a biomarker of ongoing ischemia among patients who underwent brain radiotherapy (RT). 110 patients treated with RT for primary or metastatic brain tumors were enrolled. A total of 685 brain MRI tests performed 1-108 months post-radiation were examined...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686943/health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-high-risk-low-grade-glioma-eortc-22033-26033-a-randomised-open-label-phase-3-intergroup-study
#9
Jaap C Reijneveld, Martin J B Taphoorn, Corneel Coens, Jacoline E C Bromberg, Warren P Mason, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Gail Ryan, Mohamed Ben Hassel, Roelien H Enting, Alba A Brandes, Antje Wick, Olivier Chinot, Michele Reni, Guy Kantor, Brian Thiessen, Martin Klein, Eugenie Verger, Christian Borchers, Peter Hau, Michael Back, Anja Smits, Vassilis Golfinopoulos, Thierry Gorlia, Andrew Bottomley, Roger Stupp, Brigitta G Baumert
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with a high-risk low-grade glioma has been shown to have no significant effect on progression-free survival. If these treatments have a different effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it might affect the choice of therapy. We postulated that temozolomide compromises HRQOL and global cognitive functioning to a lesser extent than does radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a prospective, phase 3, randomised controlled trial at 78 medical centres and large hospitals in 19 countries...
September 26, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678103/long-term-outcomes-of-children-treated-for-cushing-s-disease-a-single-center-experience
#10
Galina Yordanova, Lee Martin, Farhad Afshar, Ian Sabin, Ghassan Alusi, Nicholas P Plowman, Fiona Riddoch, Jane Evanson, Matthew Matson, Ashley B Grossman, Scott A Akker, John P Monson, William M Drake, Martin O Savage, Helen L Storr
PURPOSE: Pediatric Cushing's disease (CD) is rare and there are limited data on the long-term outcomes. We assessed CD recurrence, body composition, pituitary function and psychiatric comorbidity in a cohort of pediatric CD patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of 21 CD patients, mean age at diagnosis 12.1 years (5.7-17.8), managed in our center between 1986 and 2010. Mean follow-up from definitive treatment was 10.6 years (2.9-27.2). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were in remission following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) and 5 were in remission following TSS + external pituitary radiotherapy (RT)...
December 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650122/exercise-for-women-receiving-adjuvant-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#11
Anna C Furmaniak, Matthias Menig, Martina H Markes
BACKGROUND: A huge clinical research database on adjuvant cancer treatment has verified improvements in breast cancer outcomes such as recurrence and mortality rates. On the other hand, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy impacts on quality of life due to substantial short- and long-term side effects. A number of studies have evaluated the effect of exercise interventions on those side effects. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2006...
September 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614519/-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer-dose-constraint-for-normal-tissue-cochlea-vestibular-apparatus-and-brainstem
#12
V Guimas, J Thariat, P Graff-Cailleau, P Boisselier, Y Pointreau, P Pommier, X Montbarbon, C Laude, S Racadot
Modern techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have been proven to significantly decrease the dose delivered to the cochleovestibular apparatus, limiting consecutive toxicity especially for sensorineural hearing loss. However, recent data still report a 42% rate of radio-induced hypoacusia underscoring the need to protect the cochleovestibular apparatus. Due to the small size of the cochlea, a precise dose-volume analysis could not be performed, and recommendations only refer to the mean dose...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606695/treatment-of-brain-metastasis-current-status-and-future-directions
#13
Roberta Rudà, Federica Franchino, Riccardo Soffietti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent advances in the management of brain metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: Role of local therapies (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery), new approaches to minimize cognitive sequelae following whole-brain radiotherapy and advances in targeted therapies have been reviewed. SUMMARY: The implications for clinical trials and daily practice of the increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery in multiple brain metastases and upfront targeted agents in asymptomatic brain metastases are discussed...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535235/transient-effects-of-tumor-location-on-the-functional-architecture-at-rest-in-glioblastoma-patients-three-longitudinal-case-studies
#14
Noora Tuovinen, Francesco de Pasquale, Massimo Caulo, Chiara Falletta Caravasso, Emilia Giudice, Roberto Miceli, Gianluca Ingrosso, Anne Laprie, Riccardo Santoni, Umberto Sabatini
BACKGROUND: The cognitive function of brain tumor patients is affected during the treatment. There is evidence that gliomas and surgery alter the functional brain connectivity but studies on the longitudinal effects are lacking. METHODS: We acquired longitudinal (pre- and post-radiotherapy) resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on three selected glioblastoma patients. These cases were selected to study three models: a lesion involving a functional hub within a central system, a lesion involving a peripheral node within a central system and a lesion involving a peripheral node of a non-central system...
2016: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533635/physician-driven-variation-in-nonrecommended-services-among-older-adults-diagnosed-with-cancer
#15
Allison Lipitz-Snyderman, Camelia S Sima, Coral L Atoria, Elena B Elkin, Christopher Anderson, Victoria Blinder, Chiaojung Jillian Tsai, Katherine S Panageas, Peter B Bach
Importance: Interventions to address overuse of health care services may help reduce costs and improve care. Understanding physician-level variation and behavior patterns can inform such interventions. Objective: To assess patterns of physician ordering of services that tend to be overused in the treatment of patients with cancer. We hypothesized that physicians exhibit consistent behavior. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective study of patients 66 years and older diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2011, using population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to assess physician-level variation in 5 nonrecommended services...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523410/-radiotherapy-for-brain-metastases
#16
I Latorzeff, D Antoni, S Gaudaire-Josset, L Feuvret, A Tallet-Richard, G Truc, G Noël
Radiotherapy for brain metastases has become more multifaceted. Indeed, with the improvement of the patient's life expectancy, side effects must be undeniably avoided and the retreatments or multiple treatments are common. The cognitive side effects should be warned and the most modern techniques of radiation therapy are used regularly to reach this goal. The new classifications of patients with brain metastases help guiding treatment more appropriately. Stereotactic radiotherapy has supplanted whole brain radiation therapy both for patients with metastases in place and for those who underwent surgery...
September 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509935/quality-of-life-of-patients-with-advanced-cervical-cancer-before-and-after-chemoradiotherapy
#17
Neha Dahiya, Anita S Acharya, Damodar Bachani, Dn Sharma, Subhash Gupta, Kp Haresh, Gk Rath
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in India. Understanding quality of life (QOL) in women undergoing chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer will help in introducing interventions for better care and outcomes in these women. This study assessed QOL before and after chemo radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This followup study covered sixtyseven newly diagnosed women with advanced cervical cancer (stages 2b to 4b)...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498291/impaired-brain-metabolism-and-neurocognitive-function-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors-despite-complete-hormone-supplementation-in-adulthood
#18
Cecilia Follin, Eva Marie Erfurth, Aki Johansson, Jimmy Lätt, Pia C Sundgren, Kai Österberg, Gabriella Spulber, Peter Mannfolk, Isabella M Björkman-Burtscher
Cranial radiotherapy is a known risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Understanding the nature of cognitive dysfunction during adulthood in ALL survivors is important as it has an impact on major life situations. Thirty-eight (21 women) ALL survivors were investigated 34 years after diagnosis. Median-age was 38 (27-46) years. All were treated with a CRT dose of 24Gy and 11 years (3-13) of complete hormone supplementation. Comparisons were made to 29 matched controls...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473044/decline-in-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-with-early-stage-breast-cancer-after-adjuvant-treatment
#19
Marie Lange, Natacha Heutte, Olivier Rigal, Sabine Noal, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Christelle Lévy, Djelila Allouache, Chantal Rieux, Johan Lefel, Bénédicte Clarisse, Corinne Veyret, Philippe Barthélémy, Nadine Longato, Hélène Castel, Francis Eustache, Bénédicte Giffard, Florence Joly
BACKGROUND: The impact of chemotherapy on cognition among elderly patients has received little attention, although such patients are more prone to presenting with age-related cognitive deficits and/or cognitive decline during chemotherapy. The present study assessed the cognitive function in older adults treated for early-stage breast cancer (EBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The participants were newly diagnosed EBC patients aged ≥65 years without previous systemic treatment or neurological or psychiatric disease and matched healthy controls...
July 29, 2016: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470606/paraneoplastic-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-presenting-as-delirium
#20
Gloria Roldan Urgoiti, Aynharan Sinnarajah, Seema Hussain, Desiree Hao
Delirium in patients with cancer is associated with poor outcomes, but reversible causes need to be ruled out. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was presented with behavioural and cognitive changes over 2 weeks. She was non-verbal and combative, requiring involuntary admission and declaration of incompetence to make healthcare treatment decisions. Infectious and metabolic investigations and initial brain imaging were unremarkable. She was diagnosed with limited-stage small cell lung cancer and a paraneoplastic neuropsychiatric syndrome...
July 28, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
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