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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161772/microarray-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-the-cyclooxygenase-cox-knockout-mice-a-connection-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Ravneet Rai-Bhogal, Eizaaz Ahmad, Hongyan Li, Dorota A Crawford
The cellular and molecular events that take place during brain development play an important role in governing function of the mature brain. Lipid signalling molecules such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play an important role in healthy brain development. Abnormalities along the COX/PGE2 signalling pathway due to genetic or environmental causes have been linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This study aims to evaluate the effect of altered COX/PGE2 signalling on development and function of the prenatal brain using male mice lacking cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) ) as potential model systems of ASD...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161765/mir-335-inhibited-cell-proliferation-of-lung-cancer-cells-by-target-tra2%C3%AE
#2
Jian Liu, Tingting Bian, Jia Feng, Li Qian, Jianguo Zhang, Daishan Jiang, Qing Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Yifei Liu, Jiahai Shi
Accumulating evidence has suggested that the dysregulation of miRNAs is an important factor in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Here, we demonstrate that miR-335 expression is reduced in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors relative to non-cancerous adjacent tissues, whilst the expression of Tra2β is increased. In addition, clinical data revealed that the increased Tra2β and decreased miR-335 expression observed in NSCLC cells was associated with poor patient survival rates. In-vitro experimentation showed that the overexpression of miR-335 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration capabilities of A459 lung cancer cells, by targeting Tra2β...
November 21, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161754/the-sorghum-bicolor-reference-genome-improved-assembly-gene-annotations-a-transcriptome-atlas-and-signatures-of-genome-organization
#3
Ryan F McCormick, Sandra K Truong, Avinash Sreedasyam, Jerry Jenkins, Shengqiang Shu, David Sims, Megan Kennedy, Mojgan Amirebrahimi, Brock D Weers, Brian McKinley, Ashley Mattison, Daryl T Morishige, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, John E Mullet
Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant C4 grass used for production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for C4 grasses due to its relatively small genome (~800 Mbp), diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other C4 grass genomes. In this study, deep sequencing, genetic linkage analysis, and transcriptome data were used to produce and annotate a high-quality reference genome sequence. Reference genome sequence order was improved, 29.6 Mbp of additional sequence was incorporated, the number of genes annotated increased 24% to 34,211, average gene length and N50 increased, and error frequency was reduced 10-fold to 1 per 100 kbp...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161703/expression-profile-of-notch3-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#4
Ryu Okada, Megumi Fujimagari, Eri Koya, Yoshikazu Hirose, Tomomi Sato, Yukio Nishina
Stable and sustainable spermatogenesis is supported by the strict regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), which are a rare population of undifferentiated spermatogonia. It has been revealed that some signaling factors regulate the self-renewal of SSC; however, the molecular mechanism of SSC maintenance is still not completely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved juxtacrine signaling that plays important roles in the cell fate determination of various tissue stem cells...
January 22, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161701/yin-yang-1-dynamically-regulates-antiviral-innate-immune-responses-during-viral-infection
#5
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Ai-Ping Gu, Kai-Lun Zhong, Min-Yi Lu, Xiao-Xin Bai, Jin-Yang Zhang, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type I interferon (IFN-1) production and IFN-1 signaling play critical roles in the host antiviral innate immune responses. Although transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has been reported to have a dual activator/repressor role during the regulation of interferon beta (IFN-β) promoter activity, the roles of YY1 in the regulation of upstream signaling pathways leading to IFN-1 induction and IFN-1 signaling during viral infection remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The roles of YY1 in IFN-1 production and IFN-1 signaling were investigated using immunoblotting, real-time PCR, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated YY1 knockdown, YY1 overexpression by transient transfection, and co-immunoprecipitation, using mouse cells...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161696/the-protein-expression-level-of-a-heterogeneous-gene-inserted-in-lipi-1-of-the-listeria-ivanovii-genome-relies-on-its-insertion-orientation
#6
Sijing Liu, Mingjuan Jiang, Lin Su, Tian Tang, Xiang Zhang, Yongyu Li, Qikang Pu, Chenyan Ren, Chuan Wang
Due to its capability to multiply in either phagocytic or nonphagocytic cells, and to subsequently elicit a robust cellular immune response, Listeria ivanovii (LI) is thought to be feasible for developing bacteria-based live attenuated vaccines. We previously generated several recombinant LI strains expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Since the expression level of heterogeneous protein was sometimes very low, we attempted to elucidate the principle of heterogeneous protein expression in such recombinant LI strains...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161657/effects-of-local-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-uterus-and-oviduct-of-rabbit-does
#7
Laura Menchetti, Olimpia Barbato, Iulia Elena Filipescu, Giovanna Traina, Leonardo Leonardi, Angela Polisca, Alessandro Troisi, Gabriella Guelfi, Federica Piro, Gabriele Brecchia
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor - 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n = 6) or LPS (500 μg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n = 6)...
November 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161592/tumor-suppressor-inactivation-of-gdf11-occurs-by-precursor-sequestration-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
Sameer S Bajikar, Chun-Chao Wang, Michael A Borten, Elizabeth J Pereira, Kristen A Atkins, Kevin A Janes
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161501/phenanthrene-induced-apoptosis-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#9
Xiangsheng Hong, Jianhui Qin, Rui Chen, Lilai Yuan, Jinmiao Zha, Chao Huang, Na Li, Xiaoya Ji, Zijian Wang
Phenanthrene (Phe) is one of the most abundant low-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Widespread human and aquatic organism exposure to Phe has been reported, but the toxic effects of Phe and potential mechanisms are unclear. We focused on the chronic hepatotoxicity of Phe in adult Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) and the underlying mechanisms. The chronic effects of exposing Chinese rare minnows to 8.9, 82.3, or 510.0 μg/L Phe for 30 days were examined by histopathological observation, TUNEL assays, caspase activity assays, and gene expression profiles...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161470/resequencing-of-a-mutant-bearing-an-iron-starvation-recovery-phenotype-defines-slr1658-as-a-new-player-in-the-regulatory-network-of-a-model-cyanobacterium
#10
Hagit Zer, Ketty Margulis, Jens Georg, Yoram Shotland, Gergana Kostova, Laure Sultan, Wolfgang R Hess, Nir Keren
Photosynthetic microorganisms encounter an erratic nutrient environment characterized by periods of iron limitation and sufficiency. Surviving in such an environment requires mechanisms for handling these transitions. Our study identified a regulatory system involved in the process of recovery from iron limitation in cyanobacteria. We set out to study the role of bacterioferritin co-migratory proteins during transitions in iron bioavailability in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using knockout strains coupled with physiological and biochemical measurements...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161457/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-cyg12-is-required-for-the-acclimation-to-hypoxia-and-trophic-regimes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#11
Melis Düner, Jan Lambertz, Carolin Mügge, Anja Hemschemeier
Oxygenic phototrophs frequently encounter environmental conditions that result in intracellular energy crises. Growth of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in hypoxia in the light depends on acclimatory responses of which the induction of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow is essential. The microalga cannot grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2 ) in the dark, although it possesses an elaborate fermentation metabolism. Not much is known about how the microalga senses and signals the lack of O2 or about its survival strategies during energy crises...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161446/microglia-activation-and-gene-expression-alteration-of-neurotrophins-in-the-hippocampus-following-early-life-exposure-to-e-cigarette-aerosols-in-a-murine-model
#12
Judith T Zelikoff, Nancy Parmalee, Kevin Corbett, Terry Gordon, Catherine B Klein, Michael Aschner
Recent epidemiological data indicate that the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and consequently nicotine use, is rising in both adolescent and adult populations. As nicotine is a known developmental neurotoxin, these products present a potential threat for those exposed during early life stages. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of e-cigarettes on the developing central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study was to assess neurotoxicity resulting from early life exposure to electronic cigarette aerosols in an in vivo model...
November 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161442/origin-and-evolution-of-the-bartonella-gene-transfer-agent
#13
Daniel Tamarit, Minna-Maria Neuvonen, Philipp Engel, Lionel Guy, Siv G E Andersson
Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are domesticated bacteriophages that have evolved into molecular machines for the transfer of bacterial DNA. Despite their widespread nature and their biological implications, the mechanisms and selective forces that drive the emergence of GTAs are still poorly understood. Two GTAs have been identified in the Alphaproteobacteria: the RcGTA, which is widely distributed in a broad range of species; and the BaGTA, which has a restricted host range that includes vector-borne intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161429/crosstalk-between-the-microbiome-and-epigenome-messages-from-bugs
#14
Yufeng Qin, Paul A Wade
Mammals exist in a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to have broad impacts on host health and disease. As omics-based technologies have matured, the potential mechanisms by which the microbiome affects host physiology are being addressed. The gut microbiome, which provides environmental cues, can modify host cell responses to stimuli through alterations in the host epigenome and, ultimately, gene expression. Increasing evidence highlights microbial generation of bioactive compounds that impact the transcriptional machinery in host cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161428/arabidopsis-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-delays-flowering-time-through-mediating-transcriptional-activation-of-flowering-locus-c
#15
Sihong Sang, Yao Chen, Qiaofeng Yang, Peng Wang
Timely flowering is critical for successful reproduction and seed yield in plants. A diverse range of regulators have been found to control flowering time in response to environmental and endogenous signals. Among these regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) acts as a central repressor of floral transition by blocking the expression of flowering integrator genes. Here, we report that Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate multikinase (AtIPK2β) functions in flowering time control by mediating transcriptional regulation of FLC at the chromatin level...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161344/nuclear-localization-of-eif4g3-suggests-a-role-for-the-xy-body-in-translational-regulation-during-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#16
Jianjun Hu, Fengyun Sun, Mary Ann Handel
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (EIF4G) is an important scaffold protein in the translation initiation complex. In mice mutation of the Eif4g3 gene causes male infertility, with arrest of meiosis at the end of meiotic prophase. This study documents features of the developmental expression and sub-cellular localization of EIF4G3 that might contribute to its highly specific role in meiosis and spermatogenesis. Quite unexpectedly, EIF4G3 is located in the nucleus of spermatocytes, where it is highly enriched in the XY body, the chromatin domain formed by the transcriptionally inactive sex chromosomes...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161332/osteoglycin-inhibition-by-microrna-mir-155-impairs-myogenesis
#17
Paula Paccielli Freire, Sarah Santiloni Cury, Grasieli de Oliveira, Geysson Javier Fernandez, Leonardo Nazario Moraes, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Juarez Henrique Ferreira, César Seigi Fuziwara, Edna Teruko Kimura, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Robson Francisco Carvalho
Skeletal myogenesis is a regulated process in which mononucleated cells, the myoblasts, undergo proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, the cells align with each other, and subsequently fuse to form terminally differentiated multinucleated myotubes. Previous reports have identified the protein osteoglycin (Ogn) as an important component of the skeletal muscle secretome, which is expressed differentially during muscle development. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of Ogn by microRNAs during myogenesis is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161315/transcriptome-analysis-of-plasmid-induced-genes-sheds-light-on-the-role-of-type-i-ifn-as-adjuvant-in-dna-vaccine-against-infectious-salmon-anemia-virus
#18
Mehrdad Sobhkhez, Aleksej Krasnov, Chia Jung Chang, Børre Robertsen
A previous study showed that a plasmid expressing IFNa (pIFNa) strongly enhanced protection and antibody production of a DNA vaccine against infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) in Atlantic salmon. The vaccine consisted of a plasmid (pHE) expressing the virus hemagglutinin-esterase as an antigen. To increase the understanding of the adjuvant effect of pIFNa, we here compared transcriptome responses in salmon muscle at the injection site at week 1 and 2 after injection of pIFNa, pHE, plasmid control (pcDNA3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161311/expression-and-regulation-of-atl9-an-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-involved-in-plant-defense
#19
Fengyan Deng, Tingwei Guo, Mitchell Lefebvre, Steven Scaglione, Christopher J Antico, Tao Jing, Xin Yang, Weixing Shan, Katrina M Ramonell
Plants are continually exposed to a variety of pathogenic organisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. In response to these assaults, plants have developed various defense pathways to protect themselves from pathogen invasion. An understanding of the expression and regulation of genes involved in defense signaling is essential to controlling plant disease. ATL9, an Arabidopsis RING zinc finger protein, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is induced by chitin and involved in basal resistance to the biotrophic fungal pathogen, Golovinomyces cichoracearum (G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161307/repeat-polymorphisms-in-the-homo-sapiens-heme-oxygenase-1-gene-in-diabetic-and-idiopathic-gastroparesis
#20
Simon J Gibbons, Madhusudan Grover, Kyoung Moo Choi, Akhilesh Wadhwa, Adeel Zubair, Laura A Wilson, Yanhong Wu, Thomas L Abell, William L Hasler, Kenneth L Koch, Richard W McCallum, Linda A B Nguyen, Henry P Parkman, Irene Sarosiek, William J Snape, James Tonascia, Frank A Hamilton, Pankaj J Pasricha, Gianrico Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. AIM: Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders...
2017: PloS One
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