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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778320/simultaneously-avoiding-the-hippocampus-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-a-planning-study
#1
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772442/cognitive-and-hippocampus-biochemical-changes-following-sleep-deprivation-in-the-adult-male-rat
#2
Ebrahim Nabaee, Mahnaz Kesmati, Ali Shahriari, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mozhgan Torabi
Sleep deprivation (SD) influences physiological processes such as cognitive function. The balance of oxidant and antioxidant markers, neurotrophic factors and magnesium are affected by sleep deprivation but there is no difference between pre and post training sleep deprivation. This study was designed to investigate memory retrieval and biochemical factors such as oxidant and antioxidant enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and magnesium levels in the hippocampus following pre and post-training sleep deprivation...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750979/ketamine-facilitates-extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-and-enhances-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-rat-model-of-anxiety-vulnerability-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders
#3
Ashley M Fortress, Ian M Smith, Kevin C H Pang
Anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) share a common feature of pathological avoidance behavior. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat has been used as a model of anxiety vulnerability, expressing a behaviorally inhibited temperament, acquiring avoidance behavior more rapidly and displaying extinction-resistant avoidance compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Subanesthetic levels of ketamine have gained attention as a rapid antidepressant in treatment-resistant depression. While traditional antidepressants are commonly used to treat anxiety disorders and PTSD, the therapeutic utility of ketamine for these disorders is much less understood...
May 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746958/hippocampal-microrna-mrna-regulatory-network-is-affected-by-physical-exercise
#4
Jansen Fernandes, Andre Schwambach Vieira, Juliana Carlota Kramer-Soares, Eduardo Alves Da Silva, Kil Sun Lee, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Ricardo Mario Arida
BACKGROUND: It is widely known that physical activity positively affects the overall health and brain function. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential regulators of numerous biological processes within the brain. These molecules modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by inducing mRNA degradation and inhibiting the translation of target mRNAs. METHODS: To verify whether the procognitive effects of physical exercise are accompanied by changes in the activity of miRNA-mRNA network in the brain, differential expression analysis was performed in the hippocampus of control (CTL) and exercised (Ex) rats subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740317/-moringa-oleifera-seed-extract-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-mice
#5
Juan Zhou, Wu-Shuang Yang, Da-Qin Suo, Ying Li, Lu Peng, Lan-Xi Xu, Kai-Yue Zeng, Tong Ren, Ying Wang, Yu Zhou, Yun Zhao, Li-Chao Yang, Xin Jin
The extract of Moringa oleifera seeds has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. In the present study, we assessed the neuropharmacological effects of 70% ethanolic M. oleifera seed extract (MSE) on cognitive impairment caused by scopolamine injection in mice using the passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. MSE (250 or 500 mg/kg) was administered to mice by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days, and cognitive impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (4 mg/kg) for 1 or 6 days...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738768/differential-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-and-toy-rotation-on-the-mrna-expression-of-neurotrophic-factors-and-fkbp5-in-a-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rat-model-with-the-shuttle-box-task
#6
Masaaki Tanichi, Hiroyuki Toda, Kunio Shimizu, Minori Koga, Taku Saito, Shingo Enomoto, Shuken Boku, Fumiho Asai, Yumi Mitsui, Masanori Nagamine, Masanori Fujita, Aihide Yoshino
Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723575/retrieval-of-inhibitory-avoidance-memory-induces-differential-transcription-of-arc-in-striatum-hippocampus-and-amygdala
#7
Sofía González-Salinas, Andrea C Medina, Eduardo Alvarado-Ortiz, Anaid Antaramian, Gina L Quirarte, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá
Similar to the hippocampus and amygdala, the dorsal striatum is involved in memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance, a task commonly used to study memory processes. It has been reported that memory retrieval of fear conditioning regulates gene expression of arc and zif268 in the amygdala and the hippocampus, and it is surprising that only limited effort has been made to study the molecular events caused by retrieval in the striatum. To further explore the involvement of immediate early genes in retrieval, we used real-time PCR to analyze arc and zif268 transcription in dorsal striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala at different time intervals after retrieval of step-through inhibitory avoidance memory...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695143/transient-forebrain-ischemia-induces-impairment-in-cognitive-performance-prior-to-extensive-neuronal-cell-death-in-the-mongolian-gerbil-meriones-unguiculatus
#8
Tomohiro Kondo, Suguru Yoshida, Hiroaki Nagai, Ai Takeshita, Masaki Mino, Hiroshi Morioka, Takayuki Nakajima, Ken Takeshi Kusakabe, Toshiya Okada
In Mongolian gerbils, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for several minutes induces ischemia and delayed neuronal cell death in the Cornet d'Ammon 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus by their incomplete circle of Willis. Neuronal cell death in the hippocapus and changes in behavior were examined after BCCAO was performed for 5 minutes in the gerbils. One day after BCCAO, the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus showed degenerative changes (clumped chromatin of the nuclei). Five days and 10 days after BCCAO, extensive neuronal cell death was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692518/transient-global-amnesia-diffusion-mri-findings
#9
Tarun P Jain, Ronak Patel, Yash Gawarikar
Introduction: Aim of this study is to identify and describe the MRI findings in patients with Transient Global Amnesia (TGA), specifically on Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) sequence. Methods: MRI findings in 12 patients with clinical diagnosis of TGA were retrospectively analysed. MRI brain was performed with a 3T scanner on 11 patients and 1.5T scanner on 1 patient. DWI were acquired at B value of 1000 s/mm2 in 4 patients, 2000 s/mm2 in 2 patients and both 1000 and 2000 s/mm2 in 6 patients...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684446/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-losartan-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-and-behavioral-consequences-of-lipopolysaccharide-injection
#10
Hossein Salmani, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Yousef Baghcheghi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Majid Khazaei
AIMS: Neuroinflammation has a critical role in brain diseases. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important player in inflammation via stimulating of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In this study, the effects of losartan, an Ang II receptor blocker, on the brain inflammation, oxidative stress and behavioral consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection were investigated. MAIN METHODS: Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 1 or 3 mg/kg losartan or saline for 24 continuous days...
April 20, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680698/effectiveness-of-memantine-on-depression-like-behavior-memory-deficits-and-brain-mrna-levels-of-bdnf-and-trkb-in-rats-subjected-to-repeated-unpredictable-stress
#11
Meysam Amidfar, Yong-Ku Kim, Ove Wiborg
BACKGROUND: Previous clinical and preclinical studies have indicated that the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, memantine, has neuroprotective properties as well as antidepressant effects. The present study was designed to examine behavioral and molecular effects of memantine administration in rats subjected to the repeated unpredictable stress (RUS) paradigm. METHODS: Rats were split into four groups at random including control + saline, control + memantine, stressed + saline and stressed + memantine...
December 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679289/cross-state-dependency-of-learning-between-tramadol-and-mk-801-in-the-mouse-dorsal-hippocampus-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-no-signaling-pathway
#12
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Shiva Amiri, Ramin Ataee
RATIONALE: Tramadol, an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, as a psychoactive drug, is frequently abused by human beings. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of drug-associated learning and memory formation may help prevent drug addiction and relapse. Previous study revealed that dorsal hippocampus (CA1) plays a crucial role in the retrieval of tramadol-associated memory and that its role depends on the expression of CA1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Jafari-Sabet et al...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677125/detrimental-effects-of-helium-ion-irradiation-on-cognitive-performance-and-cortical-levels-of-map-2-in-b6d2f1-mice
#14
Jacob Raber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tunde Akinyeke, Joanne Lee, Sydney J Weber Boutros, Mitchell S Turker, Amy Kronenberg
The space radiation environment includes helium (⁴He) ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to ⁴He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation with ⁴He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET) = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy). Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675575/bezafibrate-prevents-glycine-induced-increase-of-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-rat-striatum
#15
Belisa Parmeggiani, Mateus Grings, Nevton Teixeira da Rosa-Junior, Renata Britto, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a severe neurological disorder caused by defects in glycine (GLY) catabolism and characterized by a high cerebrospinal fluid/plasma GLY ratio. Treatment is often ineffective and limited to the control of symptoms and detoxification of GLY. In the present work, we investigated the in vivo effects of GLY intracerebroventricular administration on oxidative stress parameters in rat striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. In vitro effects of GLY were also evaluated in striatum...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674331/ono-8590580-a-novel-gaba-a-%C3%AE-5-negative-allosteric-modulator-enhances-long-term-potentiation-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-preclinical-models
#16
Soichi Kawaharada, Miki Nakanishi, Nobuto Nakanishi, Keisuke Hazama, Masato Higashino, Arwel Lewis, Gary S Clark, Mark S Chambers, Scott A Maidment, Tetsuya Yasuhiro, Seishi Katsumata, Shuji Kaneko
GABAA receptors containing α5 subunits (GABAA α5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus and negatively involved in memory processing, as shown by the fact that GABAA α5 deficient mice show higher hippocampus-dependent performance than wild type mice. Accordingly, small molecule GABAA α5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are known to enhance spatial learning and memory in rodents. Here we introduce a new, orally-available GABAA α5 NAM that improves hippocampal functions. ONO-8590580 binds to the benzodiazepine binding sites on recombinant human α5-containing GABAA receptors with a Ki of 7...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670520/two-behavioral-tests-allow-a-better-correlation-between-cognitive-function-and-expression-of-synaptic-proteins
#17
Marta Balietti, Giorgia Fattorini, Arianna Pugliese, Daniele Marcotulli, Luca Bragina, Fiorenzo Conti
The molecular substrate of age-associated cognitive decline (AACD) is still elusive. Evidence indicates that AACD is related to synaptic impairment in hippocampus, but different hippocampal regions play different roles, with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) associated to spatial learning, and the ventral hippocampus (VH) crucial for emotionality. If changes in hippocampal function contributes to AACD, this contribution may be reflected in alterations of synaptic protein levels. A commonly used approach to investigate this issue is western blotting...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#18
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667108/5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor-6-antagonist-sb258585-exerts-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Siamak Shahidi, Sara Soleimani-Asl, Alireza Komaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline. It has been suggested that 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 (5-HT6R) might be involved in AD pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT6R antagonist on cognition, learning, memory, and hippocampal apoptosis in an experimental rat model of AD. AD was induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg, 10 μL, twice). Adult, male rats were divided into the following groups: control, sham, AD (saline treatment, 1 μL icv for 30 days), and AD + SB258585 (5-HT6R antagonist, 1 μg/μL icv for 30 days)...
April 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662433/palmitoylethanolamide-ameliorates-hippocampal-damage-and-behavioral-dysfunction-after-perinatal-asphyxia-in-the-immature-rat-brain
#20
María I Herrera, Lucas D Udovin, Nicolás Toro-Urrego, Carlos F Kusnier, Juan P Luaces, Francisco Capani
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication associated with an impaired gas exchange. This health problem continues to be a determinant of neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental disorders. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has exerted neuroprotection in several models of brain injury and neurodegeneration. We aimed at evaluating the potential neuroprotective role of PEA in an experimental model, which induces PA in the immature rat brain. PA was induced by placing Sprague Dawley newborn rats in a water bath at 37°C for 19 min...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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