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Avoid hippocampus

Minzhen Deng, Liping Huang, Baile Ning, Nanbu Wang, Qinxin Zhang, Caixia Zhu, Yongqi Fang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly, and studies have suggested that β-asarone has pharmacological effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected in the rat hippocampus. However, the effect of β-asarone on autophagy in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse is unreported. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=10/group): an untreated group, an Aricept-treated group, a 3-MA-treated group, a rapamycin-treated group, an LY294002-treated group, a β-asarone-treated group...
October 10, 2016: Brain Research
Saida Haider, Saiqa Tabassum, Tahira Perveen
Cognitive decline is found to be a common feature of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to recapitulate AD associated cognitive deficits and to plan therapeutic strategies researchers have developed various preclinical dementia models to recapitulate different aspects of cognitive domains affected in AD brain. So, the present study was aimed to compare alterations in previously reported dementia models i.e. pharmacological (Scopolamine-induced and corticosterone-induced), Environmental (Aluminium-induced and noise-stress) and physiological (natural aging) models in rats in a single experimental study across three cognitive domains spatial, recognition, and associative memory and associated alterations in their oxidative status and neurochemical profile to select appropriate dementia model...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ting Ting Zhao, Keon Sung Shin, Hyun Jin Park, Kyung Sook Kim, Kung Eun Lee, Yoon Jeong Cho, Myung Koo Lee
This study investigated the effects of (-)-sesamin on memory deficits induced by chronic electric footshock (EF)-induced stress in mice. Mice were treated with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o., daily for 21day) prior to chronic EF stress (0.6mA, 1s every 5s for 3min, daily for 21day). Transfer retention latencies in the elevated plus maze test and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (type 1) phosphorylation in the hippocampus increased with chronic EF stress, and they were reduced by treatment with (-)-sesamin at both doses...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Priyanka Pahwa, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Asparagus adscendens Roxb. commonly known as safed musli and belonging to the Liliaceae family is cultivated mainly in Asian countries. In traditional medicine, safed musli is recommended as nerve tonic and remedy for memory impairment. The present study was aimed to evaluate nootropic and antiamnesic activities of Asparagus adscendens extract (AAE) using in silico and in vivo approach. Phytoconstituents of A. adscendens root reported in literature were subjected to in silico prediction using PASS and Pharmaexpert...
October 4, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Luis R Jacinto, João J Cerqueira, Nuno Sousa
Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Z Rajaei, M Hosseini, H Alaei
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of crocin on brain oxidative damage and memory deficits in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease. Male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral injection of 6-OHDA (16 µg) into the medial forebrain bundle and treated with crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg) for six weeks. The rats were tested for memory performance at six weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, and then were killed for the estimation of biochemical parameters. The increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitrite levels in the hippocampus were observed in the 6-OHDA lesioned rats, which was accompanied by memory deficits in a passive avoidance test at the end of week 6...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Edith Lesburguères, Fraser T Sparks, Kally C O'Reilly, André A Fenton
Training in the active place avoidance task changes hippocampus synaptic function, the dynamics of hippocampus local field potentials, place cell discharge, and active place avoidance memory is maintained by persistent PKMζ activity. The extent to which these changes reflect memory processes and/or stress responses is unknown. We designed a study to assess stress within the active place avoidance task by measuring serum corticosterone (CORT) at different stages of training. CORT levels did not differ between trained mice that learned to avoid the location of the mild foot shock, and untrained no-shock controls exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
R K W Schwarting, S Busse
When parts of the brain suffer from damage, certain functional deficits or impairments are the expected and typical outcome. A myriad of examples show such negative consequences, which afford the daily tasks of neurologists, neuropsychologists, and also behavioral neuroscientists working with experimental brain lesions. Compared to lesion-induced deficits, examples for functional enhancements or facilitation after brain lesions are rather rare and usually not well studied. Here, the mammalian hippocampus seems to provide an exception, since substantial evidence shows that its damage can have facilitatory behavioral effects under certain conditions...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Christopher McClinton, Xinglei Shen, Christopher Lominska, Habeeb Saleh, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Melissa Mitchell, Fen Wang
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set...
September 27, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Manon Wicking, Frauke Steiger, Frauke Nees, Slawomira J Diener, Oliver Grimm, Michaela Ruttorf, Lothar R Schad, Tobias Winkelmann, Gustav Wirtz, Herta Flor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be maintained by deficient extinction memory. We used a cued fear conditioning design with extinction and a post-extinction phase to provoke the return of fear and examined the role of the interplay of amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal regions. METHODS: We compared 18 PTSD patients with two healthy control groups: 18 trauma-exposed subjects without PTSD (nonPTSD) and 18 healthy controls (HC) without trauma experience...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Cristina Ordóñez, Eva Del Valle, Ana Navarro, Jorge Tolivia
BACKGROUND: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Karen Sousa, Natalia Decker, Thienne Rocha Pires, Débora Kuck Mausolff Papke, Vanessa Rodrigues Coelho, Pricila Pflüger, Patrícia Pereira, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada
RATIONALE: Vigabatrin (VGB) is a drug indicated mostly for the treatment of spasms in childhood and West's syndrome patients. This drug inhibits irreversibly the enzyme GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), increasing GABA concentrations and enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain, which is known to induce behavioral changes. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of VGB in the short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), motivation, locomotion, and exploratory behavior tests and to detect deleterious or protective effects on DNA in target tissues of the drug...
September 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Zhuo Chen, Chao Huang, Wenbin Ding
Memory impairment is a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, and its suppression could be beneficial to improve the quality of life of those patients. Z-guggulsterone, a compound extracted from the resin of plant Commiphora whighitii, exhibits numerous pharmacological effects in clinical practice, such as treatment of inflammation, arthritis, obesity and lipid metabolism disorders. However, the role and possible mechanism of Z-guggulsterone on brain-associated memory impairments are largely unknown...
September 28, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Hana Hatalova, Dominika Radostova, Adela Pistikova, Karel Vales, Ales Stuchlik
Quinpirole (QNP) sensitization is one of the commonly used animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We have previously shown that QNP-sensitized animals display a robust cognitive flexibility deficit in an active place avoidance task with reversal in Carousel maze. This is in line with numerous human studies showing deficits in cognitive flexibility in OCD patients. Here we explored the effect of clomipramine, an effective OCD drug that attenuates compulsive checking in QNP, on sensitized rats in acquisition and reversal performances in an active place avoidance task...
September 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Sven Haller, Pavel Falkovskiy, Reto Meuli, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Gunnar Krueger, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Tobias Kober, Alexis Roche, Bénédicte Marechal
INTRODUCTION: Automated brain MRI morphometry, including hippocampal volumetry for Alzheimer disease, is increasingly recognized as a biomarker. Consequently, a rapidly increasing number of software tools have become available. We tested whether modifications of simple MR protocol parameters typically used in clinical routine systematically bias automated brain MRI segmentation results. METHODS: The study was approved by the local ethical committee and included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, mean age 75...
September 13, 2016: Neuroradiology
Eva Janousova, Giovanni Montana, Tomas Kasparek, Daniel Schwarz
We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fan Jianhua, Wei Wei, Liao Xiaomei, Wang Shao-Hui
It is well known that social defeat stress can induce depressive behaviours and cognitive impairment. However, the molecular mechanism by which only a minority of stress-exposed individuals are affected is not clear. In this study, thirty 3-week-old male c57BL/6 mice were exposed to 30 days of social defeat stress, following which susceptible (socially avoidant) and unsusceptible (socially interactive) mice were identified using social investigation. Twenty-four hours after the last episode of defeat, separate groups of mice were tested in the sucrose preference, open field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze behavioural assays...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Jing Lv, Su-Yang Zhan, Guang-Xie Li, Dan Wang, Ying-Shun Li, Qing-Hua Jin
The hippocampus is the key structure for learning and memory in mammals and long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important cellular mechanism responsible for learning and memory. The influences of norepinephrine (NE) on the modulation of learning and memory, as well as LTP, through β-adrenoceptors are well documented, whereas the role of α1-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP is not yet clear. In the present study, we measured extracellular concentrations of NE in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region using an in-vivo brain microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior in freely moving conscious rats...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
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