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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528080/toxicological-aspects-of-interesterified-fat-brain-damages-in-rats
#1
Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Karine Roversi, Tatiana Emanuelli, Marilise Escobar Bürger, Fabíola Trevizol
In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus...
May 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503524/treadmill-exercise-improves-motor-and-memory-functions-in-cerebral-palsy-rats-through-activation-of-pi3k-akt-pathway
#2
Sun-Young Jung, Dae-Young Kim
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disorder characterized by physical disability and disruption of brain function. We evaluated the effects of treadmill exercise on motor and memory functions in relation with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway using CP rat model. Rota-rod test, step-down avoidance task, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, and western blot for synapsin I, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), PI3K, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were performed. CP was induced by maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injection with sensorimotor restriction...
April 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468634/kososan-a-kampo-medicine-prevents-a-social-avoidance-behavior-and-attenuates-neuroinflammation-in-socially-defeated-mice
#3
Naoki Ito, Eiji Hirose, Tatsuya Ishida, Atsushi Hori, Takayuki Nagai, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Tetsuro Oikawa, Toshihiko Hanawa, Hiroshi Odaguchi
BACKGROUND: Kososan, a Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, has been used for the therapy of depressive mood in humans. However, evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of kososan and potential mechanisms are lacking. Recently, it has been recognized that stress triggers neuroinflammation and suppresses adult neurogenesis, leading to depression and anxiety. Here, we examined whether kososan extract affected social behavior in mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an animal model of prolonged psychosocial stress, and neuroinflammation induced by CSDS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466508/adverse-child-health-impacts-resulting-from-food-adulterations-in-the-greater-china-region
#4
REVIEW
W C Li, C F Chow
Food adulteration has a long history in human society, and it still occurs in modern times. Because children are relatively vulnerable to food adulterants, studying the health impacts of food adulteration on children is important. This article provides an overview of the child health impacts of food adulterants in two recent food adulteration incidents in the Greater China Region: 1) a plasticizer incident in Taiwan and 2) a 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine)-tainted milk incident in China. The involved food adulterants (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], diisononyl phthalate [DiNP] and melamine) are harmful to the hippocampus, kidneys, reproductive organs, and immune system of children, and they also increase the risk of cancer...
May 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465087/supplementation-with-different-teas-from-camellia-sinensis-prevents-memory-deficits-and-hippocampus-oxidative-stress-in-ischemia-reperfusion
#5
Alexandre Martins, Helen L Schimidt, Alexandre Garcia, Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann, Francielli W Santos, Felipe P Carpes, Weber Cláudio da Silva, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
Memory and cognition impairments resultant of ischemic stroke could be minimized or avoided by antioxidant supplementation. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of Green tea from Camellia sinensis has been investigated. However, there is a lack of information regarding the neuroprotective potential of others teas processed from the Camellia sinensis. Here we investigate the neuroprotective role of green, red, white and black tea on memory deficits and brain oxidative stress in a model of ischemic stroke in rats...
April 29, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461008/one-single-physical-exercise-session-after-object-recognition-learning-promotes-memory-persistence-through-hippocampal-noradrenergic-mechanisms
#6
Liane da Silva de Vargas, Ben-Hur Souto das Neves, Rafael Roehrs, Iván Izquierdo, Pâmela Mello-Carpes
Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects...
April 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439227/requirement-of-nf-kappa-b-activation-in-different-mice-brain-areas-during-long-term-memory-consolidation-in-two-contextual-one-trial-tasks-with-opposing-valences
#7
Angeles Salles, Maria Del C Krawczyk, Mariano Blake, Arturo Romano, Mariano M Boccia, Ramiro Freudenthal
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438613/stress-altered-synaptic-plasticity-and-damp-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-pfc-axis-elucidating-the-significance-of-igf-1-igf-1r-camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-neural-changes-associated-with-a-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#8
Olalekan M Ogundele, Philip J Ebenezer, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involves changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC)...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435932/default-mode-network-subsystems-are-differentially-disrupted-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Danielle R Miller, Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Ginette Lafleche, Mieke Verfaellie
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433653/self-awareness-and-the-medial-temporal-lobe-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Chantal Chavoix, Ricardo Insausti
Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's behaviour to one's actual abilities, to avoid risky behaviour. Impaired self-awareness of deficits is common in neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies show an involvement of midline cortical areas in impaired self-awareness. Among the other brain regions implicated stand the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, and temporopolar, entorhinal, perirhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortices). This review aims at evaluating the role of those structures in self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432986/the-effects-of-thymoquinone-on-hippocampal-cytokine-level-brain-oxidative-stress-status-and-memory-deficits-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-rats
#11
Rahimeh Bargi, Fereshteh Asgharzadeh, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Majid Khazaei
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on brain tissues oxidative stress status, hippocampal cytokine level, and learning and memory deficits induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into the following groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) LPS (1mg/kg i.p.), (3-5) 2, 5 or 10mg/kg TQ extract 30min before LPS injection. The treatment was started since two weeks before the behavioral experiments and continued during the behavioral tests (LPS injected 2h before each behavioral experiment)...
April 19, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#12
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#13
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415673/camp-pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-hippocampus-mediates-cyclooxygenase-2-induced-learning-memory-deficits-of-rats-subjected-to-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#14
Ying Luo, Shengnan Kuang, Huan Li, Dongzhi Ran, Junqing Yang
To investigate the mechanism of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in learning and memory impairments in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), meloxicam was used intragastrically to inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase 2. Moreover, cyclooxygenase 2 over-expressing or RNA interfere lentivirus was injected intraventricularly to increase or decrease the enzyme's expression, respectively. The body weights and sucrose consumption were used to analyze depressive behaviors, while the Morris water maze and step-down-type passive avoidance tests were carried out to evaluate the learning-memory functions...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413642/ginsenoside-rd-as-a-potential-neuroprotective-agent-prevents-trimethyltin-injury
#15
Jingang Hou, Jianjie Xue, Mira Lee, Changkeun Sung
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant that affects various regions within the central nervous system, including the neocortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. In the present study, ginsenoside Rd was investigated as a candidate neuroprotective agent in a primary hippocampal neuron culture and mouse models. TMT induced neurotoxicity in a seven-day primary hippocampal neuron culture in a dose-dependent manner (2.5-10 µM). However, pre-treatment with 20 µg/ml ginsenoside Rd for 24 h reversed the toxic action...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400978/thymoquinone-attenuates-brain-injury-via-an-anti-oxidative-pathway-in-a-status-epilepticus-rat-model
#16
Yi-Ye Shao, Bing Li, Yong-Mei Huang, Qiong Luo, Yang-Mei Xie, Ying-Hui Chen
AIM: Status epilepticus (SE) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway...
January 2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387940/the-bial-10-2474-phase-1-study-a-drug-development-perspective-and-recommendations-for-future-first-in-human-trials
#17
REVIEW
Philip Chaikin
BIA 10-2474 (a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor) was evaluated in a first-in-human phase 1 study in normal volunteers to assess safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and food effect. The dose-escalation process consisted of a single-ascending-dose phase (SAD) and multiple-ascending-dose phase (MAD). Prospective determination of the starting dose and maximal escalated dose was consistent with the usual clinical pharmacology principles for extrapolation of preclinical toxicology data to human equivalent doses...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364943/amygdala-lesions-reduce-anxiety-like-behavior-in-a-human-benzodiazepine-sensitive-approach-avoidance-conflict-test
#18
Christoph W Korn, Johanna Vunder, Júlia Miró, Lluís Fuentemilla, Rene Hurlemann, Dominik R Bach
BACKGROUND: Rodent approach-avoidance conflict tests are common preclinical models of human anxiety disorder. Their translational validity mainly rests on the observation that anxiolytic drugs reduce rodent anxiety-like behavior. Here, we capitalized on a recently developed approach-avoidance conflict computer game to investigate the impact of benzodiazepines and of amygdala lesions on putative human anxiety-like behavior. In successive epochs of this game, participants collect monetary tokens on a spatial grid while under threat of virtual predation...
February 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359853/adult-neurogenesis-reduction-by-a-cytostatic-treatment-improves-spatial-reversal-learning-in-rats
#19
Hana Brozka, Adela Pistikova, Dominika Radostova, Karel Vales, Jan Svoboda, Anna N Grzyb, Ales Stuchlik
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus adds a substantial number of new functional neurons to the hippocampus network in rodents. To date, however, the function of these new granule cells remains unclear. We conducted an experiment to assess the contribution of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus to acquisition and reversal learning in a task that predominantly requires generalization of a rule. Young adult male Long-Evans rats were repeatedly administered either a cytostatic temozolomide or saline for a period of four weeks (3 injections per week)...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351681/regional-mechanical-properties-of-human-brain-tissue-for-computational-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
John D Finan, Sowmya N Sundaresh, Benjamin S Elkin, Guy M McKhann, Barclay Morrison
To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors...
March 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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