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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237294/automatic-planning-on-hippocampal-avoidance-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#1
Shuo Wang, Dandan Zheng, Chi Zhang, Rongtao Ma, Nathan R Bennion, Yu Lei, Xiaofeng Zhu, Charles A Enke, Sumin Zhou
Mounting evidence suggests that radiation-induced damage to the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive decline for patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been proposed to reduce the putative neurocognitive deficits by limiting the dose to the hippocampus. However, urgency of palliation for patients as well as the complexities of the treatment planning may be barriers to protocol enrollment to accumulate further clinical evidence. This warrants expedited quality planning of HA-WBRT...
April 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235588/left-right-functional-asymmetry-of-ventral-hippocampus-depends-on-aversiveness-of-situations
#2
Yukitoshi Sakaguchi, Yoshio Sakurai
: Many studies suggest that animals exhibit lateralized behaviors during aversive situations, and almost all animals exhibit right hemisphere-dominant behaviors associated with fear or anxiety. However, which brain structure in each hemisphere underlies such lateralized function is unclear. In this study, we focused on the hippocampus and investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) on anxiety-like behavior using the successive alleys test...
February 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#3
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#4
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214522/prelimbic-cortex-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-activation-is-required-for-memory-retrieval-of-long-term-inhibitory-avoidance
#5
Fei Luo, Jian Zheng, Xuan Sun, Wei-Ke Deng, Fang Liu, Bao-Ming Li
Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-hour inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30 min prior to test...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202057/improvement-of-memory-and-learning-by-intracerebroventricular-microinjection-of-t3-in-rat-model-of-ischemic-brain-stroke-mediated-by-upregulation-of-bdnf-and-gdnf-in-ca1-hippocampal-region
#6
Tahmineh Mokhtari, Mohammad Akbari, Fatemeh Malek, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Tayebeh Rastegar, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Fatemeh Attari, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a common leading cause of death and disability with lack of effective therapies. In this study, T3 was intra-ventricularly injected to evaluate gene expression and protein concentration of and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in hippocampal CA1 region in rat model of brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: In this study, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) was used as model of ischemic brain stroke...
February 15, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199036/edaravone-attenuates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#7
K H Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y K Gupta
Alzheimer's disease is a major cause of dementia worldwide. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, is reported to be neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic edaravone administration on intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced cognitive impairment in male Wistar rats. Cognitive impairment was developed by single ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) injection bilaterally on day 1. Edaravone (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was administered for 28 days. Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess cognitive functions at baseline and on days 14 and 28...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198441/pdi-regulates-seizure-activity-via-nmda-receptor-redox-in-rats
#8
Ji Yang Kim, Ah-Rhem Ko, Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Ji-Eun Kim
Redox modulation of cysteine residues is one of the post-translational modifications of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, plays a crucial role in catalyzing disulfide bond formation, reduction, and isomerization. In the present study, we found that PDI bound to NMDAR in the normal hippocampus, and that this binding was increased in chronic epileptic rats. In vitro thiol reductase assay revealed that PDI increased the amount of thiols on full-length recombinant NR1 protein...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192686/the-down-syndrome-brain-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-fibrillar-%C3%AE-amyloidosis
#9
Tiina Annus, Liam R Wilson, Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Jonathan P Coles, David K Menon, Shahid H Zaman, Anthony J Holland, Peter J Nestor
People with Down syndrome (DS) have a neurodevelopmentally distinct brain and invariably developed amyloid neuropathology by age 50. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a detailed account of DS brain morphology and the changes occuring with amyloid neuropathology. Forty-six adults with DS underwent structural and amyloid imaging-the latter using Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) to stratify the cohort into PIB-positive (n = 19) and PIB-negative (n = 27). Age-matched controls (n = 30) underwent structural imaging...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190466/the-total-triterpenoid-saponins-of-xanthoceras-sorbifolia-improve-learning-and-memory-impairments-through-against-oxidative-stress-and-synaptic-damage
#10
Xue-Fei Ji, Tian-Yan Chi, Peng Liu, Lu-Yi Li, Ji-Kai Xu, Qian Xu, Li-Bo Zou, Da-Li Meng
BACKGROUND: X. sorbifolia is a widely cultivated ecologicalcrop in the north of China which is used to produce biodiesel fuel. It also possesses special medicinal value and has attracted keen interests of researchers to explore its bioactivity. PURPOSE: To extract the total triterpenoid saponins from the husk of X. sorbifolia (TSX) and investigate its effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). STUDY DESIGN: TSX was prepared via modern extraction techniques...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168839/histamine-h3-receptor-antagonist-prevents-memory-deficits-and-synaptic-plasticity-disruption-following-isoflurane-exposure
#11
Tao Luo, Ying Wang, Jian Qin, Zhi-Gang Liu, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pharmacological concentration of inhaled anesthetics such as isoflurane can cause short- or long-term cognitive impairments in preclinical studies. The selective antagonists of the histamine H3 receptors are considered as a promising group of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive disorders. In this study, we investigated whether ciproxifan, a nonimidazole antagonist of H3 histamine receptors, could overcome the functional and electrophysiological sequela associated with isoflurane anesthesia...
February 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157273/a-novel-animal-model-of-acquired-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-based-on-the-simultaneous-administration-of-kainic-acid-and-lorazepam
#12
Friederike Kienzler-Norwood, Lara Costard, Chinmaya Sadangi, Philipp Müller, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Felix Rosenow, Braxton A Norwood
OBJECTIVE: Kainic acid (KA) is a potent glutamate analog that is used to induce neurodegeneration and model temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents. KA reliably induces severe, prolonged seizures, that is, convulsive status epilepticus (cSE), which is typically fatal without pharmacologic intervention. Although the use of KA to model human epilepsy has proven unquestionably valuable for >30 years, significant variability and mortality continue to confound results. These issues are probably the consequence of cSE, an all-or-nothing response that is inherently capricious and uncontrollable...
February 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137622/the-ameliorating-effect-of-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-and-ltp-activation
#13
Se Jin Jeon, Boseong Kim, Hye Jin Park, Jiabao Zhang, Yubeen Kwon, Dong Hyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu
In the present study, we investigated whether 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol (PLAG), a component of antlers of Cervus nippon Temminck, would have memory-ameliorating properties against cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. In the passive avoidance task to investigate the effects of PLAG on long-term memory, PLAG (10mg/kg, p.o.) administration ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. PLAG also reversed the impairments of working memory in the Y-maze task and spatial memory as shown in the Morris water maze...
January 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123477/dexmedetomidine-alleviates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-short-term-memory-impairment-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-apoptosis-related-molecules-in-the-hippocampus-of-gerbils
#14
In-Young Choi, Lakkyong Hwang, Jun-Jang Jin, Il-Gyu Ko, Sung-Eun Kim, Mal-Soon Shin, Key-Moon Shin, Chang-Ju Kim, Sung-Wook Park, Jin-Hee Han, Jae-Woo Yi
Cerebral ischemia results from cerebrovascular occlusion, which leads to neuronal cell death and eventually causes neurological impairments. Dexmedetomidine is a potent and highly selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist with actions such as sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia and anesthetic-sparing effects. We investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on apoptosis in the hippocampus after transient global ischemia in gerbils. Transient global ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries. Dexmedetomidine was administrated intraperitoneally at three respective doses (0...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119873/treadmill-exercise-ameliorates-symptoms-of-alzheimer-disease-through-suppressing-microglial-activation-induced-apoptosis-in-rats
#15
Seung-Soo Baek, Sang-Hoon Kim
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and eventually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and latency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise shortened these parameters...
December 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109561/lithium-reverses-behavioral-and-axonal-transport-related-changes-associated-with-ank3-bipolar-disorder-gene-disruption
#16
Michael G Gottschalk, Melanie P Leussis, Tillmann Ruland, Klaudio Gjeluci, Tracey L Petryshen, Sabine Bahn
Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) has been implicated as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder (BD), however the resulting pathophysiological and treatment implications remain elusive. In a preclinical systems biological approach, we aimed to characterize the behavioral and proteomic effects of Ank3 haploinsufficiency and chronic mood-stabilizer treatment in mice. Psychiatric-related behavior was evaluated with the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) paradigm, elevated plus maze (EPM) and a passive avoidance task (PAT). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS(E)) was employed for hippocampal proteome profiling...
January 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108255/regular-exercise-promotes-memory-function-and-enhances-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#17
Tae-Woon Kim, Yun-Hee Sung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS), and is characterized by the development of demyelinated lesions and plaques in the brain and spinal cord. Exercise is beneficial against dementia in elderly patients, so we investigated the effects of exercise on memory in relation to hippocampal demyelination and neuroplasticity in a mouse model of MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, EAE, and EAE and exercise (EAE+EX)...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104486/valid-statistical-approaches-for-analyzing-sholl-data-mixed-effects-versus-simple-linear-models
#19
Machelle D Wilson, Sunjay Sethi, Pamela J Lein, Kimberly P Keil
BACKGROUND: The Sholl technique is widely used to quantify dendritic morphology. Data from such studies, which typically sample multiple neurons per animal, are often analyzed using simple linear models. However, simple linear models fail to account for intra-class correlation that occurs with clustered data, which can lead to faulty inferences. NEW METHOD: Mixed effects models account for intra-class correlation that occurs with clustered data; thus, these models more accurately estimate the standard deviation of the parameter estimate, which produces more accurate p-values...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093254/risperidone-ameliorated-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-cognitive-and-hippocampal-synaptic-impairments-in-mice
#20
Lingzhi Wu, Xiaowen Feng, Tingting Li, Baojuan Sun, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment and major neuropathologic hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, can improve concentration and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia patients. In this study, behavior tests including Morris Water Maze test, Step-through passive avoidance test, Open Field test, Step-Down test, Hole-Board test and Novel object recognition test were preformed to examine the effect of Risperidone on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive dysfunction in both long-term and short-term memory...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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