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Avoid hippocampus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333482/flexibility-in-the-face-of-fear-hippocampal-prefrontal-regulation-of-fear-and-avoidance
#1
Justin M Moscarello, Stephen Maren
Generating appropriate defensive behaviors in the face of threat is essential to survival. Although many of these behaviors are 'hard-wired', they are also flexible. For example, Pavlovian fear conditioning generates learned defensive responses, such as conditioned freezing, that can be suppressed through extinction. The expression of extinguished responses is highly context-dependent, allowing animals to engage behavioral responses appropriate to the contexts in which threats are encountered. Likewise, animals and humans will avoid noxious outcomes if given the opportunity...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332467/is-hippocampal-avoidance-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-risky-for-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-hippocampal-metastasis-rate-and-associated-risk-factors
#2
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ozgur Oztekin
OBJECTIVES: Hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy is performed to prevent neural stem cell injury causing neurocognitive dysfunction. Nevertheless, the estimated risk of metastases in hippocampal avoidance area in small-cell lung cancer is unknown. The current study aimed to characterize the metastatic distribution within the brain relative to the hippocampus, estimate the incidence of hippocampal metastasis in patients with small-cell lung cancer, and identify clinical and radiographic variables that may be associated with the risk of hippocampal avoidance area metastasis...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329033/onjisaponin-b-prevents-cognitive-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-d-galactose-induced-aging
#3
Gaowen Li, Jimian Yu, Ling Zhang, Yong Wang, Chuang Wang, Qun Chen
In this study, we investigated the potential effect of onjisaponin B (OB) on aging rats induced by D-gal (D-galactose). Sub-acute aging model was established in rats by the subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg) for 42 days, accompanied with OB (10, 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or normal saline intervention for 28 days since the 14th day after the beginning of D-gal stimulation. Morris water maze test and step-down passive avoidance test were conducted to evaluate the cognitive function of the rats. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) contents in hippocampus were measured by according kits, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296213/suppression-of-microrna-9-5p-rescues-learning-and-memory-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-model
#4
Na Wei, Kai Zheng, Rui Xue, Sheng-Li Ma, Hua-Yan Ren, Hui-Fen Huang, Wei-Wei Wang, Jing-Jing Xu, Kui-Sheng Chen
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been associated with cognitive impairment in dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular disease (VaD), the two most common neurodegenerative diseases in aged people. However, the effective therapeutic approaches for both AD and VaD are still missing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the epigenetic regulation in many neurological disorders; the critical roles of miRNAderegulation had been implicated in both AD and VaD. In the current study, we reported that miR-9-5p is elevated in the serum and cerebrospinalfluid of patientswith VaD...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274882/neurodevelopment-and-behavior-in-neonatal-oxys-rats-with-genetically-determined-accelerated-senescence
#5
Tatyana N Igonina, Diana S Ragaeva, Maria A Tikhonova, Olga M Petrova, Yuri E Herbeck, Irina N Rozhkova, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Sergey Ya Amstislavsky
Study of the developmental characteristics and mechanisms of senescence is an important field in brain aging research. The OXYS strain was selected from Wistar rats in Novosibirsk, and it serves as a rat model of accelerated aging. Previously, neurodegenerative processes and aberrant behavior were reported in experiments with adult OXYS rats. In our study, neurodevelopmental reflexes, neuronal density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and global DNA methylation in the hippocampus are compared between OXYS and WAG (Wistar Albino Glaxo) neonatal pups...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274503/human-aging-reduces-the-neurobehavioral-influence-of-motivation-on-episodic-memory
#6
Maiya R Geddes, Aaron T Mattfeld, Carlo de Los Angeles, Anisha Keshavan, John D E Gabrieli
The neural circuitry mediating the influence of motivation on long-term declarative or episodic memory formation is delineated in young adults, but its status is unknown in healthy aging. We examined the effect of reward and punishment anticipation on intentional declarative memory formation for words using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) monetary incentive encoding task in twenty-one younger and nineteen older adults. At 24-hour memory retrieval testing, younger adults were significantly more likely to remember words associated with motivational cues than neutral cues...
December 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260547/cognitive-improving-effects-by-highbush-blueberry-vaccinium-crymbosum-l-vinegar-on-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-mice-model
#7
Seong Min Hong, Kyong Hee Soe, Taek Hwan Lee, In Sook Kim, Young Min Lee, Beong Ou Lim
The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) vinegar (BV) on cognitive functions in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia model in mice. In this study, Sco (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to induce amnesia. ICR mice were orally administered donepezil (5 mg/kg), blueberry extract (120 mg/kg), and BV (120 mg/kg) for 7 days. After inducing cognitive impairment by Sco, a behavioral assessment using behavior tests (i.e., Y-maze and passive avoidance tests) was performed...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248756/changes-in-the-element-concentration-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-ca1-region-during-memory-consolidation-and-reconsolidation
#8
Paulo Fernandes Costa Jobim, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos Santos, Luka Jeromel, Primoz Pellicon, Livio Amaral, Johnny Ferraz Dias
The concentration and distribution of Mg, P, Cl, K, Cu and Zn in the dorsal hippocampus CA1 region of rat brains were studied during memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes stimulated with inhibitory avoidance (IA) tests. Experimental rats were divided into four groups: i) group not submitted to inhibitory avoidance task (IA-N); ii) group submitted to inhibitory avoidance training session (IA-Y); iii) group submitted to inhibitory avoidance reactivation session but did not step down from the platform (IAR-N); and iv) group submitted to avoidance reactivation session and stepped down from the platform (IAR-Y)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248452/protective-effect-of-terminalia-chebula-against-seizures-seizure-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-models-of-seizures-in-rats
#9
Ritesh Kumar, Renu Arora, Amit Agarwal, Y K Gupta
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Teminalia chebula (TC) has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine primarily for gastrointestinal disorders. Its fruit extract has also been used to treat epilepsy and other CNS disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Terminalia chebula (HETC) on experimental models of seizures, seizure-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antioxidant activity of HETC was evaluated by using ABTS, NO and DPPH radical scavenging assay...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234406/amelioration-of-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-by-%C3%AE-pinene-in-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Gil-Yong Lee, Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α-pinene (APN) against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231348/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-ang%C3%A2-at1r-in-the-hippocampus-in-aging-rats-induced-by-d-galactose
#11
Peipei Feng, Zhe Liu, Xin Wang, Wenjuan Wang, Gaimei Wang, Na Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and AngⅡ/AT1R in the hippocampus in D-galactose-induced aging rats which received hepalobectomy, and to explore the possible mechanism of EA on POCD. METHODS: Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a young control group (10 rats), a D-Galactose-induced aged (Da) group (10 rats), a Da+hepatolobectomy group (30 rats) and an EA group (30 rats)...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225190/scopolamine-induced-passive-avoidance-memory-retrieval-deficit-is-accompanied-with-hippocampal-mmp2-mmp-9-and-mapks-alteration
#12
Maryam Moosavi, Roksana SoukhakLari, Leila Moezi, Fatema Pirsalami
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deficit. The observed amnesia in the early stages of AD is suggested to be a retrieval problem, rather than encoding and consolidation deficit. According to the cholinergic hypothesis of AD, scopolamine is used to induce an animal model of amnesia. Howbeit the effect of scopolamine on memory retrieval is contradictory. This study aimed to assess the effect of scopolamine on passive avoidance memory retrieval...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#13
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222024/continuous-and-not-continuous-2-week-treadmill-training-enhances-the-performance-in-the-passive-avoidance-test-in-ischemic-gerbils
#14
Ana Paula Cassiano Silveira, Takae Tamy Kitabatake, Vivian Mozol Pantaleo, Hélio Zangrossi, Guilherme Bertolino, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, João Eduardo de Araujo
This study aims to investigate the frequency and total duration effects of the 2-week treadmill training after experimental ischemic stroke in the passive avoidance test. We performed bilateral occlusion of common external carotid arteries, for five minutes, in Mongolian gerbils. The training groups were: continuous training for twelve consecutive days or not continuous training for six non-consecutive days. The groups remained in the treadmill for 15min, with the speed set at 10m/min, and the training started 24h after the stroke...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211774/food-restriction-reduces-neurogenesis-in-the-avian-hippocampal-formation
#15
Barbara-Anne Robertson, Lucy Rathbone, Giselda Cirillo, Richard B D'Eath, Melissa Bateson, Timothy Boswell, Peter W Wilson, Ian C Dunn, Tom V Smulders
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206232/behavioral-testing-of-mice-exposed-to-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields-indicates-mild-memory-impairment
#16
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Matti Viluksela, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Mikael Marttinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Jonne Naarala, Heikki Tanila, Jukka Juutilainen
Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203422/pavlovian-conditioned-diminution-of-the-neurobehavioral-response-to-threat
#17
REVIEW
Adam M Goodman, Nathaniel G Harnett, David C Knight
An important function of emotion is that it motivates us to respond more effectively to threats in our environment. Accordingly, healthy emotional function depends on the ability to appropriately avoid, escape, or defend against threats we encounter. Thus, from a functional perspective, it is important to understand the emotional response to threat. However, prior work has largely focused on the emotional response in anticipation of threat, rather than the emotional response to the threat itself. The current review is focused on recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and neural findings from Pavlovian conditioning research that is centered on the expression and regulation of the emotional response to threat...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200666/prevention-of-memory-impairment-and-neurotrophic-factors-increased-by-lithium-in-wistar-rats-submitted-to-pneumococcal-meningitis-model
#18
Lutiana R Simões, Roberta R E S Abreu, Jaqueline S Generoso, Jéssica A Goularte, Allan Collodel, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Anitha Christy Sigamani Arumanayagam, Samira S Valvassori, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in the hippocampus and on memory in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The mood-stabilizer lithium is known as a neuroprotective agent with many effects on the brain. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 109 CFU/mL...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187031/minocycline-plus-n-acetylcysteine-reduce-behavioral-deficits-and-improve-histology-with-a-clinically-useful-time-window
#19
Michael Sangobowale, Natalia M Grin'kina, Kristen Whitney, Elena Nikulina, Karrah St Laurent-Arriot, Johnson S Ho, Narek Bazyan, Peter Bergold
There are presently no drugs to treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). A major problem in developing therapeutics is that drugs to treat TBI lack sufficient potency when dosed within a clinically relevant time window. Previous studies have shown that minocycline (MINO, 45mg/kg) plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 150mg/kg) synergistically improved cognition and memory, modulated inflammation and prevented loss of oligodendrocytes that remyelinated damaged white matter when first dosed 1 hour (h) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185193/physical-exercise-promotes-memory-capability-by-enhancing-hippocampal-mitochondrial-functions-and-inhibiting-apoptosis-in-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-by-high-fat-diet
#20
Hye-Sang Park, Han-Sam Cho, Tae-Woon Kim
A high-fat diet induces obesity in mice, leading to insulin resistance, decreased mitochondrial function, and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus, which eventually result in memory loss. The present study investigated the effect of physical exercise on memory, hippocampal mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in mice with in insulin resistance caused by obesity due to high-fat diet. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), control and exercise (CON + EX), high fat diet (HFD), and high fat diet and exercise (HFD + EX)...
November 29, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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