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Avoid hippocampus

Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tongfang Xiao, Yanan Jiang, Wenliang Ji, Lanqun Mao
The unique electronic and chemical structures of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have well enabled their applications in electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry, however, the difficulty in reproducibly confining CNTs onto substrate electrode, particularly onto microelectrodes, still remains to be addressed. In this study, we develop a method to reproducibly confine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for in vivo measurement of ascorbate...
March 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yong-Hyun Ko, Sun Yeou Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Daidzein is one of the major isoflavones found in soy food and plants. Following ingestion, daidzein is readily converted to hydroxylated metabolites in the human body. 6,7,4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (THIF), one of the metabolites of daidzein, has several pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. However, no reports exist on the effects of 6,7,4'-THIF for cognitive function in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 6,7,4'-THIF against scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments using the Y-maze and passive avoidance test...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Song Qi, Demis Hassabis, Jiayin Sun, Fangjian Guo, Nathaniel Daw, Dean Mobbs
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which an organism flees from an approaching threat, is an ecological metric of cost-benefit functions of escape decisions. We adapted the FID paradigm to investigate how fast- or slow-attacking "virtual predators" constrain escape decisions. We show that rapid escape decisions rely on "reactive fear" circuits in the periaqueductal gray and midcingulate cortex (MCC), while protracted escape decisions, defined by larger buffer zones, were associated with "cognitive fear" circuits, which include posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, circuits implicated in more complex information processing, cognitive avoidance strategies, and behavioral flexibility...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gaofeng Sheng, Jinlin Zhang, Shengfeng Gao, Yuanyuan Gu, Bo Jiang, Qiufang Gao
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) always have cognitive impairments. In this study we investigated whether 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SKF83959) has improvements on cognitive dysfunction. The scopolamine model of dementia was used to investigate the anti-amnesic activities of SKF83959, and then, Western blotting and pharmacological inhibitor were used to assay the anti-amnesic mechanisms of SKF83959. It was found that SKF83959 administration significantly improved the scopolamine-induced memory impairments in the passive avoidance task, Y-maze test, and Morris water maze task...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Libor Uttl, Tomas Petrasek, Hilal Sengul, Marketa Svojanovska, Veronika Lobellova, Karel Vales, Dominika Radostova, Grygoriy Tsenov, Hana Kubova, Anna Mikulecka, Jan Svoboda, Ales Stuchlik
The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Laetitia Padovani, Frédérique Chapon, Nicolas André, Mohamed Boucekine, Anne Geoffray, Franck Bourdeau, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Line Claude, Aymeri Huchet, Anne Laprie, Stephane Supiot, Bernard Coche-Dequéant, Christine Kerr, Claire Alapetite, Julie Leseur, Tandat Nguyen, Sophie Chapet, Valerie Bernier, Pierre-Yves Bondiau, Georges Noel, Jean Louis Habrand, Stephanie Bolle, François Doz, Christelle Dufour, Xavier Muracciole, Christian Carrie
PURPOSE: To identify the incidence of patients with perihippocampal metastases to assess the risk of brain relapse when sparing the hippocampal area. Medulloblastoma (MB) represents 20% of pediatric brain tumors. For high-risk MB patients, the 3- to 5-year event-free survival rate has recently improved from 50% to >76%. Many survivors, however, experience neurocognitive side effects. Several retrospective studies of patients receiving whole brain irradiation (WBI) have suggested a relationship between the radiation dose to the hippocampus and neurocognitive decline...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hye-Sang Park, Chang-Ju Kim, Hyo-Bum Kwak, Mi-Hyun No, Jun-Won Heo, Tae-Woon Kim
Although chemotherapy increases the survival rate of patients with various cancers, such treatment can induce acute or long-term cognitive dysfunction a phenomenon known as post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) or "chemobrain." Exercise is known to positively affect brain function. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether symptoms of chemobrain and disruptions in the neuroplasticity and functioning of hippocampal mitochondria can be prevented or relieved by exercise. Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: control, control plus exercise, chemobrain, and chemobrain plus exercise...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Hui Ling Ren, Chao Nan Lv, Ying Xing, Yuan Geng, Feng Zhang, Wei Bu, Ming Wei Wang
BACKGROUND We observed the effects of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) downregulation via intrahippocampal injection of a lentiviral vector on cognition in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) to investigate the role of the (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in age-related changes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Control lentivirus and Nrf2-shRNA-lentivirus were separately injected into the hippocampus of 4-month-old SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice and then successfully downregulated Nrf2 expression in this brain region...
February 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Farideh Baghishani, Abbas Mohammadipour, Hossain Hosseinzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan
Tramadol, a frequently used pain reliever drug, present neurotoxic effects associated to cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, crocin has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to assess crocin's capacity to protect learning, and memory abilities on tramadol-treated rats. A total of 35 rats were divided into five groups: Control, Saline, tramadol (50 mg/kg), tramadol + crocin(30 mg/kg), crocin groups and treated orally for 28 consecutive days. Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests were done, followed by dissection of the rat's brains for toluidine blue and TUNEL staining...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Liming Dong, Ning Jiang, Yan Wang, Qiong Wang, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 μmol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Michio Hashimoto, Shahdat Hossain, Masanori Katakura, Abdullah Al Mamun, Osamu Shido
Abstract : Memory extinction is referred to as a learning process in which a conditioned response (CR) progressively reduces over time as an animal learns to uncouple a response from a stimulus. Extinction occurs when the rat is placed into a context without shock after training. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) is implicated in memory formation in mammalian brains. In a two-way active shuttle-avoidance apparatus, we examined whether DHA affects the extinction memory and the expression of brain cognition-related proteins, including gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (BDNFR) tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrKB), and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR2A and NR2B...
February 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Seur Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Masato Nakashima, Haruka Imada, Eri Shiraishi, Yuki Ito, Noriko Suzuki, Maki Miyamoto, Takahiko Taniguchi, Hiroki Iwashita
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. Modulation of the glutamatergic signaling pathway, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can provide a new therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) is highly expressed in the forebrain, and is a dual substrate enzyme that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP, which play pivotal roles as intracellular second messengers downstream of NMDA receptors. Here we characterize the in vivo pharmacological profile of a selective and brain penetrant PDE2A inhibitor, (N-{(1S)-1-[3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-methoxyethyl}-7-methoxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazine-4(1H)-carboxamide) (TAK-915) as a novel treatment for schizophrenia...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Jing Zhang, Chunbo Yu, Xuan Zhang, Huiwen Chen, Jiachen Dong, Weili Lu, Zhongchen Song, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) is one of the major pathogenic factors of chronic periodontitis (CP). Few reports on the correlation between P. gingivalis-LPS and cognitive function exist. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of P. gingivalis-LPS on cognitive function and the associated underlying mechanism in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: The C57BL/6 mice were injected with P. gingivalis-LPS (5 mg kg-1) either with or without Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor (TAK-242, 5 mg kg-1)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Stephen Zieminski, Melin Khandekar, Yi Wang
This study compared the dosimetric performance of (a) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with standard optimization (STD) and (b) multi-criteria optimization (MCO) to (c) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MCO for hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) in RayStation treatment planning system (TPS). Ten HA-WBRT patients previously treated with MCO-IMRT or MCO-VMAT on an Elekta Infinity accelerator with Agility multileaf collimators (5-mm leaves) were re-planned for the other two modalities...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Christopher A McPherson, Guozhu Zhang, Richard Gilliam, Sukhdev S Brar, Ralph Wilson, Amy Brix, Catherine Picut, G Jean Harry
At elevated levels, fluoride (F-) exposure has been associated with adverse human health effects. In rodents, F- exposure has been reported to induce deficits in motor performance and learning and memory. In this study, we examined Long-Evans hooded male rats maintained on a standard diet (20.5 ppm F-) or a low F- diet (3.24 ppm F-) with drinking water exposure to 0, 10, or 20 ppm F- from gestational day 6 through adulthood. At postnatal day 25, brain F- levels were 0.048 or 0.081 μg/g and femur 235 or 379...
February 5, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Jessica C Jimenez, Katy Su, Alexander R Goldberg, Victor M Luna, Jeremy S Biane, Gokhan Ordek, Pengcheng Zhou, Samantha K Ong, Matthew A Wright, Larry Zweifel, Liam Paninski, René Hen, Mazen A Kheirbek
The hippocampus is traditionally thought to transmit contextual information to limbic structures where it acquires valence. Using freely moving calcium imaging and optogenetics, we show that while the dorsal CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is enriched in place cells, ventral CA1 (vCA1) is enriched in anxiety cells that are activated by anxiogenic environments and required for avoidance behavior. Imaging cells defined by their projection target revealed that anxiety cells were enriched in the vCA1 population projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) but not to the basal amygdala (BA)...
January 30, 2018: Neuron
Isidro Ferrer, Meritxell Aguiló García, Irene López González, Daniela Diaz Lucena, Aina Roig Villalonga, Margarita Carmona Tech, Franc Llorens, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Alejandra Martinez-Maldonado, Margalida Frau Mendez, Benjamín Torrejón Escribano, Joan Josep Bech Serra, Eduard Sabido, Carolina de la Torre Gómez, José Antonio Del Rio
Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) is defined by the presence of two types of tau-bearing astrocytes: thorn-shaped astrocytes (TSAs) and granular/fuzzy astrocytes in the brain of old-aged individuals. The present study is focused on TSAs in rare forms of ARTAG with no neuronal tau pathology or restricted to entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices, to avoid bias from associated tauopathies. TSAs show 4Rtau phosphorylation at several specific sites and abnormal tau conformation, but they lack ubiquitin and they are not immunostained with tau-C3 antibodies which recognize truncated tau at Asp421...
February 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
Mengyang Wang, Faliang Duan, Jinglei Wu, Qiang Min, Qiaochun Huang, Ming Luo, Zhuqiang He
Post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by re‑experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance of trauma‑associated stimulation, general changes in mood and cognition, and hyper arousal symptoms. Cyclooxygenase is involved in the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and its inducible form cyclooxygenase‑2(COX‑2), an important mediator of cell injury in inflammation, is primarily expressed in leukocytes and brain cells. The present study investigated the expression of COX‑2 in the hippocampi of rats with PTSD and evaluated the effect of COX‑2 inhibition on PTSD...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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