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Exosomes and lung

Guilherme B Dos Santos, Karina M Monteiro, Edileuza Danieli da Silva, Maria Eduarda Battistella, Henrique B Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Takeshi Harada, Hideki Yamamoto, Shosei Kishida, Michiko Kishida, Chihiro Awada, Toshifumi Takao, Akira Kikuchi
Wnt5b, a member of the same family of proteins as Wnt5a of which overexpression is associated with cancer aggressiveness, is suggested to be involved in cancer progression, however details remain unclarified. We analyzed biochemical properties of purified Wnt5b and the mode of secretion of Wnt5b by cancer cells. Wnt5b was glycosylated at three asparagine residues and lipidated at one serine residue, and these post-translational modifications of Wnt5b are essential for secretion. Purified Wnt5b showed Dvl2 phosphorylation and Rac activation abilities to a similar extent as Wnt5a...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Science
Sayantan Maji, Pankaj Chaudhary, Irina Akopova, Phung M Nguyen, Richard J Hare, Ignacy Gryczynski, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
: Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis and tissue-specific metastasis. Proteomic profiling has identified Annexin A2 as one of the most highly expressed proteins in exosomes; however, studies focused on the biological role of exosomal-AnnexinA2 (exo-AnxA2) are still lacking. In this study, mechanistic insight was sought regarding exo-AnxA2 and its function in angiogenesis and breast cancer metastasis. Multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques were used to study the role of exo-AnxA2 in angiogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Shu Wen Wen, Jaclyn Sceneay, Luize G Lima, Christina Sf Wong, Melanie Becker, Sophie Krumeich, Richard J Lobb, Vanessa Castillo, Ke Ni Wong, Sarah Ellis, Belinda S Parker, Andreas Moller
Small membranous secretions from tumor cells, termed exosomes, contribute significantly to intercellular communication and subsequent reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment. Here we use optical imaging to determine that exogenously administered fluorescently-labeled exosomes derived from highly metastatic murine breast cancer cells, distributed predominantly to the lung of syngeneic mice, a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis. At the sites of accumulation, exosomes were taken up by CD45+ bone marrow-derived cells...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Research
Jin Lin, Yan Wang, Ye-Qing Zou, Xin Chen, Bo Huang, Jing Liu, Yan-Mei Xu, Jing Li, Jing Zhang, Wei-Ming Yang, Qing-Hua Min, Fan Sun, Shu-Qi Li, Qiu-Fang Gao, Xiao-Zhong Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play important regulatory roles in various physiological and pathological processes. MiRNAs also exhibit high stability and are present at high concentrations in human bodily fluids. Consequently, miRNAs may represent attractive and novel diagnostic biomarkers for certain clinical conditions. Recently, the capacity for extracellular vesicles, including microvesicles and exosomes, to carry miRNAs that participate in cell-to-cell communication has been described. In the present study, the miRNA expression patterns for three kinds of pleural effusions that were obtained from patients with pneumonia (group A), pulmonary tuberculosis (group B), and lung cancer (group C) were detected with high-throughput sequencing...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Johan Garssen, Masoud Movassaghi, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Exosomes are nanosized vesicles released from every cell in the body including those in the respiratory tract and lungs. They are found in most body fluids and contain a number of different biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and both mRNA and noncoding RNAs. Since they can release their contents, particularly miRNAs, to both neighboring and distal cells, they are considered important in cell-cell communication. Recent evidence has shown their possible importance in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Ziwen Zhu, Charles S Dela Cruz, Yang Jin
Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kyung-Taek Rim, Soo-Jin Kim
In vivo studies regarding biochemical, molecular biological, and histopathological changes in cancer tissues have been widely performed by the administration of carcinogens in rodents. In these established methods, dissection of the animal following sacrifice must be carried out. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in all body fluids and these vesicles have specific roles within cells. Thus, much attention is given to the clinical application of exosomes that can possibly be used for prediction and therapy and as biomarkers related to cancer...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Jasleen Minhas, Yang Jin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a group of heterogeneous, nano-sized structures surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes that are released by cells. Depending on their size and mechanisms of formation, EVs are often referred to as exosomes, microvesicles (MVs) and apoptotic bodies (AB). EVs are evolutionally conserved vesicles that mediate intercellular communications and cross-talk, via transferring proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Accumulating evidence suggests that EVs exert essential physiological and pathological functions on both their mother and recipient cells...
August 2016: Cell & Developmental Biology
Eri Adachi, Katsuya Sakai, Takumi Nishiuchi, Ryu Imamura, Hiroki Sato, Kunio Matsumoto
A dynamic phenotypic change contributes to the metastatic progression and drug resistance in malignant melanoma. Nevertheless, mechanisms for a phenotypic change have remained to be addressed. Here, we show that Met receptor expression changes in a cell-autonomous manner and can distinguish phenotypical differences in growth, as well as in metastatic and drug-resistant characteristics. In metastatic melanoma, the cells are composed of Met-low and Met-high populations. Met-low populations have stem-like gene expression profiles, are resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, and have shown abundant angiogenesis and rapid tumor growth in subcutaneous inoculation...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Pablo Reclusa, Marco Giallombardo, Marta Castiglia, Laure Sorber, Nele Van Der Steen, Patrick Pauwels, Christian Rolfo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
N Serrano, A Alam, C Rabender, E Weiss, M S Anscher, R B Mikkelsen, V Yakovlev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Silvio Holzner, Daniel Senfter, Serena Stadler, Anna Staribacher, Chi Huu Nguyen, Anna Gaggl, Silvana Geleff, Nicole Huttary, Sigurd Krieger, Walter Jäger, Helmut Dolznig, Robert M Mader, Georg Krupitza
Since cancer cells, when grown as spheroids, display drug sensitivity and radiation resistance patterns such as seen in vivo we recently established a three‑dimensional (3D) in vitro model recapitulating colorectal cancer (CRC)-triggered lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)‑barrier breaching to study mechanisms of intra‑/extravasation. CRC metastasizes not only through lymphatics but also through blood vessels and here we extend the 3D model to the interaction of blood endothelial cells (BECs) with naïve and 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑resistant CRC CCL227 cells...
September 20, 2016: Oncology Reports
Christian Rolfo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Daniel J Schneider, Jennifer M Speth, Marc Peters-Golden
Unconventional secretion and subsequent uptake of molecular cargo via extracellular vesicles (EVs) is an important mechanism by which cells can exert paracrine effects. While this phenomenon has been widely characterized in the context of their ability to promote inflammation, less is known about the ability of EVs to transfer immunosuppressive cargo. Maintenance of normal physiology in the lung requires suppression of potentially damaging inflammatory responses to the myriad of insults to which it is continually exposed...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Helena A Yu, Leslie Perez, Qing Chang, Sizhi P Gao, Mark G Kris, Gregory J Riely, Jacqueline Bromberg
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors develops in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers. New treatments are needed to address resistance not mediated by EGFR T790M; preclinical evidence suggests that the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway is important in acquired resistance to EGFR-directed therapy. METHODS: We evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of erlotinib and ruxolitinib in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to erlotinib...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Esther Groth, Jessica Pruessmeyer, Aaron Babendreyer, Julian Schumacher, Tobias Pasqualon, Daniela Dreymueller, Shigeki Higashiyama, Inken Lorenzen, Joachim Grötzinger, Didier Cataldo, Andreas Ludwig
By mediating proteolytic shedding on the cell surface the disintegrin and metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 function as critical regulators of growth factors, cytokines and adhesion molecules. We here report that stimulation of lung epithelial A549 tumor cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) leads to the downregulation of the surface expressed mature form of ADAM17 without affecting ADAM10 expression. This reduction could not be sufficiently explained by metalloproteinase-mediated degradation, dynamin-mediated internalization or microdomain redistribution of ADAM17...
September 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Isaac Almendros, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Wojciech Trzepizur, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Lei Huang, Mahzad Akbarpour, Jorge Andrade, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality. Exosomes are vesicles secreted by most cells, are released into the bloodstream, and play a role in tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we evaluated whether the chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) that characterizes OSA leads to release of tumor-promoting exosomes in circulation. METHODS: C57/B6 male mice were randomized to 6 weeks of IH or room air (RA). A subgroup of the mice was injected with TC1 lung carcinoma cells in the left flank after 2 weeks of IH...
August 25, 2016: Chest
Maria-Jose Martinez-Bravo, Casper J E Wahlund, Khaleda Rahman Qazi, Robert Moulder, Ana Lukic, Olof Rådmark, Riitta Lahesmaa, Johan Grunewald, Anders Eklund, Susanne Gabrielsson
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory granulomatous disorder characterized by accumulation of TH1-type CD4(+) T cells and immune effector cells within affected organs, most frequently the lungs. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles conveying intercellular communication with possible diagnostic and therapeutic applications. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide an understanding of the proinflammatory role of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomes in patients with sarcoidosis and to find candidates for disease biomarkers...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Karina A Serban, Samin Rezania, Daniela N Petrusca, Christophe Poirier, Danting Cao, Matthew J Justice, Milan Patel, Irina Tsvetkova, Krzysztof Kamocki, Andrew Mikosz, Kelly S Schweitzer, Sean Jacobson, Angelo Cardoso, Nadia Carlesso, Walter C Hubbard, Katerina Kechris, Bogdan Dragnea, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Jeanette McClintock, Irina Petrache
Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are emerging as biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in individuals exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), but their mechanism of release and function remain unknown. We assessed biochemical and functional characteristics of EMPs and circulating microparticles (cMPs) released by CS. CS exposure was sufficient to increase microparticle levels in plasma of humans and mice, and in supernatants of primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. CS-released EMPs contained predominantly exosomes that were significantly enriched in let-7d, miR-191; miR-126; and miR125a, microRNAs that reciprocally decreased intracellular in CS-exposed endothelium...
2016: Scientific Reports
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