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Carmen Canovas, Aixa Alarcon, Robert Rosén, Sanjeev Kasthurirangan, Joseph J K Ma, Douglas D Koch, Patricia Piers
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations of a new algorithm that incorporates the effect of posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA). SETTING: Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Retrospective case report. METHODS: In eyes implanted with toric IOLs, the exact vergence formula of the Tecnis toric calculator was used to predict refractive astigmatism from preoperative biometry, surgeon-estimated surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and implanted IOL power, with and without including the new PCA algorithm...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Xin Shen, Bahram Javidi
We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic integral-imaging (InIm)-system-based optical see-through augmented reality display with enhanced depth range of a 3D augmented image. A focus-tunable lens is adopted in the 3D display unit to relay the elemental images with various positions to the micro lens array. Based on resolution priority integral imaging, multiple lenslet image planes are generated to enhance the depth range of the 3D image. The depth range is further increased by utilizing both the real and virtual 3D imaging fields...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Richard A Armstrong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its associated concussion are major causes of disability and death. All ages can be affected but children, young adults and the elderly are particularly susceptible. A decline in mortality has resulted in many more individuals living with a disability caused by TBI including those affecting vision. This review describes: (1) the major clinical and pathological features of TBI; (2) the visual signs and symptoms associated with the disorder; and (3) discusses the assessment of quality of life and visual rehabilitation of the patient...
February 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Tao Zhan, Yun-Han Lee, Shin-Tson Wu
Conventional head-mounted displays present different images to each eye, and thereby create three-dimensional (3D) sensation for viewers. This method can only control the stimulus to vergence but not accommodation, which is located at the apparent location of the physical displays. The disrupted coupling between vergence and accommodation could cause considerable visual discomfort. To address this problem, in this paper a novel multi-focal plane 3D display system is proposed. A stack of switchable liquid crystal Pancharatnam-Berry phase lenses is implemented to create real depths for each eye, which is able to provide approximate focus cue and relieve the discomfort from vergence-accommodation conflict...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Nathalie Goulème, Cynthia Lions, Christophe-Loïc Gérard, Hugo Peyre, Hung Thai-Van, Maria Pia Bucci
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore vertical binocular coordination in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children during saccades and post-saccadic fixation period while reading a text. METHODS: Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (Mobile T2® , SuriCog) in thirty-six dyslexic children from 7.3 to 13.6 years of age (mean age: 10.4 ± 0.3 years) who were asked to silently read a four-line text during binocular viewing. Data were compared to those of thirty-six age-matched non-dyslexic children...
February 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Giedre Matuseviciene, Jan Johansson, Marika Möller, Alison K Godbolt, Tony Pansell, Catharina Nygren Deboussard
OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) whether visual disturbances can be demonstrated with objective measures more often in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) than in orthopaedic controls and non-injured controls, (2) whether such objectively demonstrated disturbances change over time and (3) whether self-reported visual symptoms after mTBI correlate with objectively measurable changes in visuomotor performance. DESIGN: A prospective, controlled, observational study, with assessments planned 7-10 and 75-100 days after injury...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Olga I Rozanova, Andrey G Shchuko, Tatyana S Mischenko
Background: The accommodation has considerable interactions with the pupil response, vergence response and binocularity. The transformation of visual reception processing and the changes of the binocular cooperation during the presbyopia development are still poorly studied. So, the regularities of visual system violation in the presbyopia formation need to be characterized. This study aims to reveal the transformation of visual reception processing and to determine the role of disturbances in binocular interactions in presbyopia formation...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Shuxin Liu, Yan Li, Pengcheng Zhou, Quanming Chen, Yikai Su
In this paper we propose an optical see-through multi-plane display with reverse-mode polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC). Our design solves the problem of accommodation-vergence conflict with correct focus cues. In the reverse mode PSLC system, power consumption could be reduced to ~1/(N-1) of that in a normal mode system if N planes are displayed. The PSLC films fabricated in our experiment exhibit a low saturation voltage ~20 Vrms, a high transparent-state transmittance (92%), and a fast switching time within 2 ms and polarization insensitivity...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
László T Tamás, Yunxia W Lundberg, Béla Büki
BACKGROUND: When viewing a far target, the gain of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is around 1.0, but when viewing a near target there is an increased response. It has been shown that while this convergence-mediated modulation is unaffected by canal plugging and clinically practical transmastoid galvanic stimulation, it is eliminated by a partial peripheral gentamicin lesion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if convergence increases the gain during peripheral hyposensitivity elicited by cold thermal irrigation...
2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Miguel Faria-Ribeiro, Ana Amorim-de-Sousa, José M González-Méijome
PURPOSE: To investigate the separated and combined influences of inner zone (IZ) diameter and effective add power of dual-focus contact lenses (CL) in the image quality at distance and near viewing, in a functional accommodating model eye. METHODS: Computational wave-optics methods were used to define zonal bifocal pupil functions, representing the optic zones of nine dual-focus centre-distance CLs. The dual-focus pupil functions were defined having IZ diameters of 2...
January 31, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Paloma Varela Casal, Flavia Lorena Esposito, Imanol Morata Martínez, Alba Capdevila, Maria Solé Puig, Núria de la Osa, Lourdes Ezpeleta, Alexandre Perera I Lluna, Stephen V Faraone, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Hans Supèr, Jose Cañete
OBJECTIVE: ADHD youth show poor oculomotor control. Recent research shows that attention-related eye vergence is weak in ADHD children. METHOD: To validate vergence as a marker to classify ADHD, we assessed the modulation in the angle of vergence of children ( n = 43) previously diagnosed with ADHD while performing an attention task and compared the results with age-matched clinical controls ( n = 19) and healthy peers ( n = 30). RESULTS: We observed strong vergence responses in healthy participants and weak vergence in the clinical controls...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Flavia L Esposito, Hans Supèr
In line with a possible role of vergence in orienting visual attention, we sought to study this eye movement in young children to provide insights on face perception. For this purpose, we measured the modulation in the angle of eye vergence in a sample of 39 children aged 6-36 months and compared it when presenting static human face images versus their scrambled version. We observed enhanced vergence responses to faces compared with scrambled images. Our data suggest a role of eye vergence in face processing...
January 10, 2018: Neuroreport
Basal H Altoaimi, Pete Kollbaum, Dawn Meyer, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: Multifocal or multi-zone contact lenses are increasingly being fit to young eyes in an attempt to control myopia progression. However, success in achieving this aim may depend on how much the eye accommodates. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate the ability of an open-field clinical autorefractor to measure on-axis refractive state and accommodation in eyes fit with multifocal contact lenses (CLs). METHODS: Refractive state was measured with a Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor (www...
January 8, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Guido Maiello, MiYoung Kwon, Peter J Bex
Sensorimotor coupling in healthy humans is demonstrated by the higher accuracy of visually tracking intrinsically-rather than extrinsically-generated hand movements in the fronto-parallel plane. It is unknown whether this coupling also facilitates vergence eye movements for tracking objects in depth, or can overcome symmetric or asymmetric binocular visual impairments. Human observers were therefore asked to track with their gaze a target moving horizontally or in depth. The movement of the target was either directly controlled by the observer's hand or followed hand movements executed by the observer in a previous trial...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, José J Esteve-Taboada, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Miguel A Aloy, José E Adsuara, Pablo Cerdá-Durán, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To evaluate ocular biometric changes with different accommodative stimuli using a new swept-source optical biometer. METHODS: Only the right eye was analyzed. Each subject was measured six times with the IOLMaster 700 swept-source optical biometer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) with the subject looking at the stimulus shown by the instrument and with the subject looking at a target placed outside the instrument at 0D of vergence. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), lens thickness (LT), white-to-white (WTW), and keratometry readings (K1 and K2) were evaluated in both cases...
December 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Lisa W Christian, Krithika Nandakumar, Patricia K Hrynchak, Elizabeth L Irving
PURPOSE: This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. RESULTS: Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6-14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Optometry
Qingpeng Zhu, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
This paper investigates two types of eye movements: vergence and saccades. Vergence eye movements are responsible for bringing the images of the two eyes into correspondence, whereas saccades drive gaze to interesting regions in the scene. Control of both vergence and saccades develops during early infancy. To date, these two types of eye movements have been studied separately. Here, we propose a computational model of an active vision system that integrates these two types of eye movements. We hypothesize that incorporating a saccade strategy driven by bottom-up attention will benefit the development of vergence control...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Yi Wang, Yun Li, Yujing Suo, Yu Min, Xiangyang Kang
Background: Polyploid breeding is a powerful approach for Populus genetic improve-ment because polyploid trees have valuable characteristics, including better timber quality and a higher degree of stress resistance compared with their full-sib diploids. However, the genetic mech-anism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Objective: To better understand the proteomic changes between Populus allotriploids and diploids, we examined the proteomic profiles of allotriploid and diploid Populus by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS)...
September 2017: Current Proteomics
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
André Lins de Medeiros, André Gustavo de Araújo Rolim, Antonio Francisco Pimenta Motta, Bruna Vieira Ventura, César Vilar, Mário Augusto Pereira Dias Chaves, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Wilson Takashi Hida
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the visual outcomes and subjective visual quality between bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens, Alcon Acrysof IQ® PanOptix® TNFT00 (group A), and blended implantation of an extended depth of focus lens, J&J Tecnis Symfony® ZXR00 with a diffractive bifocal intraocular lens, J&J Vision Tecnis® ZMB00 (group B). Methods: This prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive, comparative study included the assessment of 40 eyes in 20 patients implanted with multifocal intraocular lens...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
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