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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913511/accuracy-of-formulae-for-secondary-intraocular-lens-power-calculations-in-pediatric-aphakia
#1
Fouad R Nakhli, Khaled Emarah, Laila Jeddawi
PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of axial length vergence formulas versus refractive vergence formulas for secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in pediatric aphakia. METHODS: This retrospective comparative study, evaluated 31 eyes of 31 patients aged ≤3.5 years, who had undergone secondary IOL implantation. The median absolute error (MedAE) was compared between axial length vergence formulas (Hoffer Q, Holladay I, SRK II, and SRK/T) and refractive vergence formulas (Lanchulev, Holladay R, Mackool, and Khan) as well as between formulas within the same vergence...
September 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904567/intermittent-divergent-squint-in-prematurity-and-its-neurophysiological-aspects
#2
REVIEW
Kalpana Sharma, Praveen Panwar, Kulbhushan Prakash Chaudhary
Intermittent distance exotropia is a deviation characterized by an exophoria at near fixation and manifest exotropia at distance fixation. There is normal binocular fusional vergence and stereoacuity at near fixation, but the eyes tend to diverge in bright sunlight, tiredness, day dreaming and the patient may close one eye in such circumstances. Prematurity is associated with numerous eye pathology, besides retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, refractive errors, it is also associated with a higher risk esotropia and exotropia...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889009/gaze-position-interferes-in-body-sway-in-young-adults
#3
Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Paula Fávaro Polastri, Sérgio Tosi Rodrigues, André Macari Baptista, Tiago Penedo, Vinicius Alota Ignácio Pereira, Lucas Simieli, Fabio Augusto Barbieri
Postural control is influenced by eye movements. Gaze fixation, which comprises a component of ocular vergence, is important in the acquisition of highly specific task information, but its relation to postural control is little investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of gaze fixation position(central and lateral fixations) on postural sway in young adults. Forty young adults with ages ranging from 20 to 35 years were invited to participate in the study. Postural sway was measured in quiet stance in bipedal support in three 60-s trials under the following conditions: gaze fixation on a target positioned in front of participant, gaze fixation on a target positioned on right side of participant, and gaze fixation on a target positioned on left side of participant...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881134/modeling-%C3%AF-bond-activations-by-nickel-0-beyond-common-approximations-how-accurately-can-we-describe-closed-shell-oxidative-addition-reactions-mediated-by-low-valent-late-3d-transition-metal
#4
Lianrui Hu, Kejuan Chen, Hui Chen
Accurate modelings of reactions involving 3d transition metals (TMs) are very challenging to both ab initio and DFT approaches. To gain more knowledge in this field, we herein explored typical σ-bond activations of H-H, C-H, C-Cl, and C-C bonds promoted by nickel(0), a low-valent late 3d TM. For the key parameters of activation energy (ΔE(‡)) and reaction energy (ΔER) for these reactions, various issues related to the computational accuracy were systematically investigated. From the scrutiny of convergence issue with one-electron basis set, augmented (A) basis functions are found important, and the CCSD(T)/CBS level with complete basis set (CBS) limit extrapolation based on augmented double-ζ and triple-ζ basis pair (ADZ and ATZ), which produces deviations below 1 kcal/mol from the reference, is recommended for larger systems...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832612/neck-shoulder-discomfort-due-to-visually-demanding-experimental-near-work-is-influenced-by-previous-neck-pain-task-duration-astigmatism-internal-eye-discomfort-and-accommodation
#5
Camilla Zetterberg, Mikael Forsman, Hans O Richter
Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. To investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed a visual task four times using four different trial lenses (referred to as four different viewing conditions), and they rated eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. Since symptoms of eye discomfort may differ depending on the underlying cause, two categories were used; internal eye discomfort, such as ache and strain, that may be caused by accommodative or vergence stress; and external eye discomfort, such as burning and smarting, that may be caused by dry-eye disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815298/the-interaction-of-pupil-response-with-the-vergence-system
#6
Moritz Feil, Barbara Moser, Mathias Abegg
PURPOSE: A gaze shift from a target at distance to a target at near leads to pupillary constriction. The regulation of this pupillary near response is ill known. We investigated the impact of accommodation, convergence, and proximity on the pupillary diameter. METHODS: We recorded pupil size and vergence eye movements with the use of an infrared eye tracker. We determined the pupillary response in four conditions: (1) after a gaze shift from far to near without accommodation, (2) after a gaze shift from far to near with neither accommodation nor convergence, (3) after accommodation alone, and (4) after accommodation with convergence without a gaze shift to near...
August 16, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792451/a-novel-computer-oculomotor-rehabilitation-cor-program-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#7
Kenneth J Ciuffreda, Naveen K Yadav, Preethi Thiagarajan, Diana P Ludlam
Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) manifest a wide range of visual dysfunctions. One of the most prevalent involves the oculomotor system, which includes version, vergence, and accommodation. However, until recently, there has been no comprehensive, computer-based program for remediation of these oculomotor deficits. We present such an oculomotor rehabilitation program that has been tested in a clinical trial in patients having TBI with a high degree of success based on before-and-after objective system recordings, performance measures, and related visual symptomotology...
August 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759298/fusional-amplitudes-developing-testing-standards
#8
Katherine J Fray
PURPOSE: The stability of binocular vision depends upon good fusional amplitudes, but the clinical assessment of fusional amplitudes varies around the world. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there is variation in the assessment of fusional amplitudes in normal subjects. The author looked at the testing distance, the order of testing, the role of examiner encouragement, and the subject's level of alertness. METHODS: In a prospective study using a modified crossover design, the author assessed fusional amplitudes in 99 subjects with normal eye exams...
July 31, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742610/near-point-of-convergence-and-gait-deficits-in-adolescents-after-sport-related-concussion
#9
David R Howell, Michael J OʼBrien, Aparna Raghuram, Ankoor S Shah, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine gait characteristics of participants acutely after concussion with and without receded near point of convergence (NPC), compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sports-medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients examined after concussion (n = 33; mean ± SD = 7.2 ± 3.1 days) and a group of uninjured athletes (n = 31) completed a Postconcussion Symptom Scale, underwent NPC testing, and single/dual-task gait assessments...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729073/reeducation-of-vergence-dynamics-improves-postural-control
#10
Aurélien Morize, Zoï Kapoula
INTRODUCTION: The purpose was to investigate the effect of vergence reeducation on postural control, in subjects with isolated vergence disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the dynamics of vergence in 19 subjects (20-44 years old) using video-oculography (Eye See Cam). On the basis of orthoptic and symptomatology assessments, ten of the subjects were diagnosed for vergence disorders then vergence eye movements were reeducated with the REMOBI method (US8851669, 5 weekly sessions lasting for 35min)...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713304/eye-behavior-associated-with-internally-versus-externally-directed-cognition
#11
Mathias Benedek, Robert Stoiser, Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner
What do our eyes do when we are focused on internal representations such as during imagination or planning? Evidence from mind wandering research suggests that spontaneous shifts from externally directed cognition (EDC) to internally directed cognition (IDC) involves oculomotor changes indicative of visual disengagement. In the present study, we investigated potential differences in eye behavior between goal-directed forms of IDC and EDC. To this end, we manipulated the focus of attention (internal versus external) in two demanding cognitive tasks (anagram and sentence generation)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712567/perceived-object-trajectory-is-influenced-by-others-tracking-movements
#12
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
In social interactions, it is highly salient to us where other people are looking. The ability to recover this information is critical to typical social development, helping us to coordinate our attention and behavior with others and understand their intentions and mental states [1-3]. The depth and direction in which another individual is fixating are specified jointly by their head position, eye deviation, and binocular vergence [4, 5]. It is hereto unknown, however, whether this dynamic visual information about others' focus of attention affects how we ourselves see the world...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695758/differential-vergence-movements-in-reading-chinese-and-english-greater-fixation-initial-binocular-disparity-is-advantageous-in-reading-the-denser-orthography
#13
Yi-Ting Hsiao, Richard Shillcock, Mateo Obregón, Hamutal Kreiner, Matthew A J Roberts, Scott McDonald
We explore two aspects of exovergence: we test whether smaller binocular fixation disparities accompany the shorter saccades and longer fixations observed in reading Chinese; we test whether potentially advantageous psychophysical effects of exovergence (cf. Arnold & Schindel, 2010; Kersten & Murray, 2010) transfer to text reading. We report differential exovergence in reading Chinese and English: Chinese readers begin fixations with more binocular disparity, but end fixations with a disparity closely similar to that of the English readers...
July 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689088/looking-for-ideas-eye-behavior-during-goal-directed-internally-focused-cognition
#14
Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner, Mathias Benedek
Humans have a highly developed visual system, yet we spend a high proportion of our time awake ignoring the visual world and attending to our own thoughts. The present study examined eye movement characteristics of goal-directed internally focused cognition. Deliberate internally focused cognition was induced by an idea generation task. A letter-by-letter reading task served as external task. Idea generation (vs. reading) was associated with more and longer blinks and fewer microsaccades indicating an attenuation of visual input...
July 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681436/human-eyes-do-not-need-monochromatic-aberrations-for-dynamic-accommodation
#15
Paula Bernal-Molina, Iván Marín-Franch, Antonio J Del Águila-Carrasco, Jose J Esteve-Taboada, Norberto López-Gil, Philip B Kruger, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To determine if human accommodation uses the eye's own monochromatic aberrations to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. METHODS: Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects monocularly viewed a monochromatic Maltese cross moving sinusoidally around 2D of accommodative demand with 1D amplitude at 0.2 Hz. The amplitude and phase (delay) of the accommodation response were compared to the actual vergence of the stimulus to obtain gain and temporal phase, calculated from wavefront aberrations recorded over time during experimental trials...
July 5, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652693/trifocal-intraocular-lenses-a-comparison-of-the-visual-performance-and-quality-of-vision-provided-by-two-different-lens-designs
#16
Kjell G Gundersen, Rick Potvin
PURPOSE: To compare two different diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) designs, evaluating longer-term refractive outcomes, visual acuity (VA) at various distances, low contrast VA and quality of vision. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with binocularly implanted trifocal IOLs of two different designs (FineVision [FV] and Panoptix [PX]) were evaluated 6 months to 2 years after surgery. Best distance-corrected and uncorrected VA were tested at distance (4 m), intermediate (80 and 60 cm) and near (40 cm)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611463/dressmakers-show-enhanced-stereoscopic-vision
#17
Adrien Chopin, Dennis M Levi, Daphné Bavelier
The ability to estimate the distance of objects from one's self and from each other is fundamental to a variety of behaviours from grasping objects to navigating. The main cue to distance, stereopsis, relies on the slight offsets between the images derived from our left and right eyes, also termed disparities. Here we ask whether the precision of stereopsis varies with professional experience with precise manual tasks. We measured stereo-acuities of dressmakers and non-dressmakers for both absolute and relative disparities...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606456/extended-depth-of-focus-contact-lenses-vs-two-commercial-multifocals-part-1-optical-performance-evaluation-via-computed-through-focus-retinal-image-quality-metrics
#18
Ravi C Bakaraju, Klaus Ehrmann, Arthur Ho
PURPOSE: To compare the computed optical performance of prototype lenses designed using deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend depth-of-focus (EDOF) with two commercial multifocals. METHODS: Emmetropic, presbyopic, schematic eyes were coupled with prototype EDOF and commercial multifocal lenses (Acuvue Oasys for presbyopia, AOP, Johnson & Johnson & Air Optix Aqua multifocal, AOMF, Alcon). For each test configuration, the through-focus retinal image quality (TFRIQ) values were computed over 21 vergences, ranging from -0...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599912/efficacy-of-vision-therapy-in-children-with-learning-disability-and-associated-binocular-vision-anomalies
#19
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Prerana Shah, Krishna Kumar Ramani, Lalitha Ramanujan
PURPOSE: To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). METHODS: The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579056/-computerized-oculomotor-training-in-dyslexia-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-in-pediatric-population
#20
H Peyre, C-L Gérard, I Dupong Vanderhorst, S Larger, C Lemoussu, J Vesta, E Bui Quoc, N Gouleme, R Delorme, M P Bucci
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported abnormal oculomotor capacities leading to reading/writing difficulties among dyslexic children. However, no randomized clinical trial has been conducted to determine whether oculomotor training improves reading/writing skills of these children. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of computer-based oculomotor training among dyslexic children. METHOD: Crossover randomized trial with enrollment from January 12, 2015 to July 24, 2015, and follow-up to February 4, 2016...
June 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
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