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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324520/vergence-responses-to-face-stimuli-in-young-children
#1
Flavia L Esposito, Hans Supèr
In line with a possible role of vergence in orienting visual attention, we sought to study this eye movement in young children to provide insights on face perception. For this purpose, we measured the modulation in the angle of eye vergence in a sample of 39 children aged 6-36 months and compared it when presenting static human face images versus their scrambled version. We observed enhanced vergence responses to faces compared with scrambled images. Our data suggest a role of eye vergence in face processing...
January 10, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315718/experimental-investigation-of-accommodation-in-eyes-fit-with-multifocal-contact-lenses-using-a-clinical-auto-refractor
#2
Basal H Altoaimi, Pete Kollbaum, Dawn Meyer, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: Multifocal or multi-zone contact lenses are increasingly being fit to young eyes in an attempt to control myopia progression. However, success in achieving this aim may depend on how much the eye accommodates. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate the ability of an open-field clinical autorefractor to measure on-axis refractive state and accommodation in eyes fit with multifocal contact lenses (CLs). METHODS: Refractive state was measured with a Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor (www...
January 8, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299642/three-dimensional-binocular-eye-hand-coordination-in-normal-vision-and-with-simulated-visual-impairment
#3
Guido Maiello, MiYoung Kwon, Peter J Bex
Sensorimotor coupling in healthy humans is demonstrated by the higher accuracy of visually tracking intrinsically-rather than extrinsically-generated hand movements in the fronto-parallel plane. It is unknown whether this coupling also facilitates vergence eye movements for tracking objects in depth, or can overcome symmetric or asymmetric binocular visual impairments. Human observers were therefore asked to track with their gaze a target moving horizontally or in depth. The movement of the target was either directly controlled by the observer's hand or followed hand movements executed by the observer in a previous trial...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260498/ocular-biometric-changes-with-different-accommodative-stimuli-using-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, José J Esteve-Taboada, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Miguel A Aloy, José E Adsuara, Pablo Cerdá-Durán, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To evaluate ocular biometric changes with different accommodative stimuli using a new swept-source optical biometer. METHODS: Only the right eye was analyzed. Each subject was measured six times with the IOLMaster 700 swept-source optical biometer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) with the subject looking at the stimulus shown by the instrument and with the subject looking at a target placed outside the instrument at 0D of vergence. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), lens thickness (LT), white-to-white (WTW), and keratometry readings (K1 and K2) were evaluated in both cases...
December 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174394/visual-and-binocular-status-in-elementary-school-children-with-a-reading-problem
#5
Lisa W Christian, Krithika Nandakumar, Patricia K Hrynchak, Elizabeth L Irving
PURPOSE: This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. RESULTS: Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6-14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163121/joint-learning-of-binocularly-driven-saccades-and-vergence-by-active-efficient-coding
#6
Qingpeng Zhu, Jochen Triesch, Bertram E Shi
This paper investigates two types of eye movements: vergence and saccades. Vergence eye movements are responsible for bringing the images of the two eyes into correspondence, whereas saccades drive gaze to interesting regions in the scene. Control of both vergence and saccades develops during early infancy. To date, these two types of eye movements have been studied separately. Here, we propose a computational model of an active vision system that integrates these two types of eye movements. We hypothesize that incorporating a saccade strategy driven by bottom-up attention will benefit the development of vergence control...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151823/proteomic-changes-between-populus-allotriploids-and-diploids-revealed-using-an-itraq-based-quantitative-approach
#7
Yi Wang, Yun Li, Yujing Suo, Yu Min, Xiangyang Kang
Background: Polyploid breeding is a powerful approach for Populus genetic improve-ment because polyploid trees have valuable characteristics, including better timber quality and a higher degree of stress resistance compared with their full-sib diploids. However, the genetic mech-anism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Objective: To better understand the proteomic changes between Populus allotriploids and diploids, we examined the proteomic profiles of allotriploid and diploid Populus by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS)...
September 2017: Current Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142092/response-of-supra-oculomotor-area-neurons-during-combined-saccade-vergence-movements
#8
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138533/comparison-of-visual-outcomes-after-bilateral-implantation-of-a-diffractive-trifocal-intraocular-lens-and-blended-implantation-of-an-extended-depth-of-focus-intraocular-lens-with-a-diffractive-bifocal-intraocular-lens
#9
André Lins de Medeiros, André Gustavo de Araújo Rolim, Antonio Francisco Pimenta Motta, Bruna Vieira Ventura, César Vilar, Mário Augusto Pereira Dias Chaves, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Wilson Takashi Hida
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the visual outcomes and subjective visual quality between bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens, Alcon Acrysof IQ® PanOptix® TNFT00 (group A), and blended implantation of an extended depth of focus lens, J&J Tecnis Symfony® ZXR00 with a diffractive bifocal intraocular lens, J&J Vision Tecnis® ZMB00 (group B). Methods: This prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive, comparative study included the assessment of 40 eyes in 20 patients implanted with multifocal intraocular lens...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114840/fixational-saccades-and-their-relation-to-fixation-instability-in-strabismic-monkeys
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Suraj Upadhyaya, Mythri Pullela, Santoshi Ramachandran, Samuel Adade, Anand C Joshi, Vallabh E Das
Purpose: To evaluate the contribution of fixational saccades toward fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Methods: Binocular eye movements were measured as six experimental monkeys (five strabismic monkeys and one monkey with downbeat nystagmus) and one normal monkey fixated targets of two shapes (Optotype, Disk) and two sizes (0.5°, 2°) during monocular and binocular viewing. Fixational saccades were detected using an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Results: When compared with the normal monkey, amplitude and frequency of fixational saccades in both the viewing and nonviewing eye were greater in 3 of 5 strabismic monkeys (1-way ANOVA on ranks P < 0...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114201/the-influence-of-auditory-information-on-visual-size-adaptation
#11
Alessia Tonelli, Luigi F Cuturi, Monica Gori
Size perception can be influenced by several visual cues, such as spatial (e.g., depth or vergence) and temporal contextual cues (e.g., adaptation to steady visual stimulation). Nevertheless, perception is generally multisensory and other sensory modalities, such as auditory, can contribute to the functional estimation of the size of objects. In this study, we investigate whether auditory stimuli at different sound pitches can influence visual size perception after visual adaptation. To this aim, we used an adaptation paradigm (Pooresmaeili et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096178/association-between-fine-motor-skills-and-binocular-visual-function-in-children-with-reading-difficulties
#12
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, Fatimah Alramis, Lisa W Christian
Performance of fine motor skills (FMS) assessed by a clinical test battery has been associated with reading achievement in school-age children. However, the nature of this association remains to be established. The aim of this study was to assess FMS in children with reading difficulties using two experimental tasks, and to determine if performance is associated with reduced binocular function. We hypothesized that in comparison to an age- and sex-matched control group, children identified with reading difficulties will perform worse only on a motor task that has been shown to rely on binocular input...
October 27, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082097/there-is-more-to-accommodation-of-the-eye-than-simply-minimizing-retinal-blur
#13
I Marín-Franch, A J Del Águila-Carrasco, P Bernal-Molina, J J Esteve-Taboada, N López-Gil, R Montés-Micó, P B Kruger
Eyes of children and young adults change their optical power to focus nearby objects at the retina. But does accommodation function by trial and error to minimize blur and maximize contrast as is generally accepted? Three experiments in monocular and monochromatic vision were performed under two conditions while aberrations were being corrected. In the first condition, feedback was available to the eye from both optical vergence and optical blur. In the second, feedback was only available from target blur. Accommodation was less precise for the second condition, suggesting that it is more than a trial-and-error function...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075940/semiautomatic-procedure-to-assess-changes-in-the-eye-accommodative-system
#14
Aikaterini I Moulakaki, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent, José J Esteve-Taboada, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a new semiautomatic procedure to assess in vivo changes in the crystalline lens and ciliary muscle during accommodation. METHODS: A total of 14 subjects were divided into two groups, young (aged between 20 and 25 years) and adult (aged between 35 and 40 years), and measured with an anterior segment optical coherence tomography. A semiautomatic procedure was implemented to measure the central lens thickness (CLT), anterior lens radius (ALR) and the ciliary muscle area (CMA) for the unaccommodated eye and for a vergence of - 3...
October 26, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062784/evaluation-of-the-iridocorneal-angle-with-accommodation-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Antonio Del Águila-Carrasco, Teresa Ferrer-Blasco, José J Esteve-Taboada, Robert Montés-Micó
The changes in the iridocorneal angle structure during accommodation are assessed by means of anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Thirteen right eyes were included in the study. The device used for the measurement was the Visante(®)omni system. The stimuli were set up at different vergences (0.0 D, -1.5 D, and -3.0 D). The angle opening distance 500 and 750, the trabecular iris space area 500 and 750, and the scleral spur angle parameters were assessed at the nasal and temporal regions. The results in the iridotrabecular angle comparing the three accommodative states of the eye did not yield any statistically significant difference at nasal or temporal angle sections...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051327/asymmetrical-accommodation-in-hyperopic-anisometropic-amblyopia
#16
Sonia Toor, Anna M Horwood, Patricia Riddell
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the presence of asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS: Accommodation in each eye and binocular vergence were measured simultaneously using a PlusoptiX SO4 photorefractor in 26 children aged 4-8 years with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 13 controls (group age-matched) while they viewed a detailed target moving in depth. RESULTS: Without spectacles, only 5 (19%) anisometropes demonstrated symmetrical accommodation (within the 95% CI of the mean gain of the sound eye of the anisometropic group), whereas 21 (81%) demonstrated asymmetrical accommodation...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051012/vergence-driven-accommodation-with-simulated-disparity-in-myopia-and-emmetropia
#17
Guido Maiello, Kristen L Kerber, Frank Thorn, Peter J Bex, Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz
The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041051/systematic-characterization-and-optimization-of-3d-light-field-displays
#18
Hekun Huang, Hong Hua
One of the key issues in conventional stereoscopic displays is the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict problem due to the lack of the ability to render correct focus cues for 3D scenes. Recently several light field display methods have been explored to reconstruct a true 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. These methods are potentially capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and addressing the vergence-accommodation conflict problem...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971118/data-on-eye-behavior-during-idea-generation-and-letter-by-letter-reading
#19
Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner, Mathias Benedek
This article includes the description of data information from an idea generation task (alternate uses task, (Guilford, 1967) [1]) and a letter-by-letter reading task under two background brightness conditions with healthy adults as well as a baseline measurement and questionnaire data (SIPI (Huba et al., 1981) [2]; DDFS (Singer and Antrobus, 1972) [3], 1963; RIBS (Runco et al., 2001) [4]). Data are hosted at the Open Science Framework (OSF): https://osf.io/fh66g/ (Walcher et al., 2017) [5]. There you will find eye tracking data, task performance data, questionnaires data, analyses scripts (in R, R Core Team, 2017 [6]), eye tracking paradigms (in the Experiment Builder (SR Research Ltd...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957270/optical-mapping-near-eye-three-dimensional-display-with-correct-focus-cues
#20
Wei Cui, Liang Gao
We present an optical mapping near-eye (OMNI) three-dimensional display method for wearable devices. By dividing a display screen into different subpanels and optically mapping them to various depths, we create a multiplane volumetric image with correct focus cues for depth perception. The resultant system can drive the eye's accommodation to the distance that is consistent with binocular stereopsis, thereby alleviating the vergence-accommodation conflict, the primary cause for eye fatigue and discomfort. Compared with the previous methods, the OMNI display offers prominent advantages in adaptability, image dynamic range, and refresh rate...
July 1, 2017: Optics Letters
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