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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777872/inventory-of-proteoforms-as-a-current-challenge-of-proteomics-some-technical-aspects
#1
Stanislav Naryzhny
The main intricacy in the human proteome is that it is tremendously complex and composed from diverse and heterogeneous gene products. These products are called protein species or proteoforms and are the smallest units of the proteome. In pursuit of the comprehensive profiling of the human proteome, significant advances in the technology of so called "Top-Down" mass spectrometry based proteomics, have been made. However, the scale of performance of this approach is still far behind the "Bottom-Up", peptide-centric techniques...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776796/-stalking-from-romantic-pursuit-to-sexual-predation
#2
Virginie Cailleau, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Alexia Delbreil, Nematollah Jaafari
Deriving from the English verb "to stalk", stalking denotes an unwelcome, repetitive, and intrusive harassing and/or threatening behavior directed toward a specific individual, and can result in physical and/or sexual offending - even leading to homicide. French harassment legislation has evolved over the years, and the last law closest to the international anti-stalking laws had been promulgated in 2014. According to a review, up to 16% of women and 7% of men are stalked in their life, and 80% of the stalkers are known to their victims...
May 15, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775423/successfully-striving-for-happiness-socially-engaged-pursuits-predict-increases-in-life-satisfaction
#3
Julia M Rohrer, David Richter, Martin Brümmer, Gert G Wagner, Stefan C Schmukle
Happiness is considered a highly desirable attribute, but whether or not individuals can actively steer their lives toward greater well-being is an open empirical question. In this study, respondents from a representative German sample reported, in text format, ideas for how they could improve their life satisfaction. We investigated which of these ideas predicted changes in life satisfaction 1 year later. Active pursuits per se-as opposed to statements about external circumstances or fortune-were not associated with changes in life satisfaction ( n = 1,178)...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775362/highly-efficient-coherent-optical-memory-based-on-electromagnetically-induced-transparency
#4
Ya-Fen Hsiao, Pin-Ju Tsai, Hung-Shiue Chen, Sheng-Xiang Lin, Chih-Chiao Hung, Chih-Hsi Lee, Yi-Hsin Chen, Yong-Fan Chen, Ite A Yu, Ying-Cheng Chen
Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775042/bioinspired-synergy-sensor-chip-of-photonic-crystals-graphene-oxide-for-multi-amines-recognition
#5
Wanjie Ren, Meng Qin, Xiaotian Hu, Fengyu Li, Yuanfeng Wang, Yu Huang, Meng Su, Wenbo Li, Xin Qian, Kang-Lai Tang, Yanlin Song
Benefiting from the integrated functions of cilia and glomeruli in the olfactory system, animals can discriminate various odours even in hostile environments. Inspired by this synergetic system of response and signal processing units, a sensor chip of gra-phene oxide (GO) and photonic crystals (PCs) is fabricated. The GO aerogel functions like the olfactory cilia, which effectively captures the analytes and generates abundant sensing signals for recognition; and the PCs act as the olfactory glomeruli, whose periodic structure enables selective enhancement of the fluorescent signals to realize further signal processing...
May 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770829/mixing-and-demixing-of-binary-mixtures-of-polar-chiral-active-particles
#6
Bao-Quan Ai, Zhi-Gang Shao, Wei-Rong Zhong
We study a binary mixture of polar chiral (counterclockwise or clockwise) active particles in a two-dimensional box with periodic boundary conditions. Besides the excluded volume interactions between particles, the particles are also subjected to the polar velocity alignment. From the extensive Brownian dynamics simulations, it is found that the particle configuration (mixing or demixing) is determined by the competition between the chirality difference and the polar velocity alignment. When the chirality difference competes with the polar velocity alignment, the clockwise particles aggregate in one cluster and the counterclockwise particles aggregate in the other cluster; thus, the particles are demixed and can be separated...
May 17, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770523/cross-disciplinary-partnerships-between-police-and-health-services-for-mental-health-care
#7
EDITORIAL
Inga Heyman, Emma McGeough
Police officers have increasingly become involved in mental health care responses not traditionally acknowledged as a police function. This has been described as "Florence Nightingale in pursuit of Willie Sutton" (a notorious bank robber) by American sociologist Egon Bittner (1974). In this editorial we present emerging international approaches addressing this shift. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769673/thickness-independent-capacitance-of-vertically-aligned-liquid-crystalline-mxenes
#8
Yu Xia, Tyler S Mathis, Meng-Qiang Zhao, Babak Anasori, Alei Dang, Zehang Zhou, Hyesung Cho, Yury Gogotsi, Shu Yang
The scalable and sustainable manufacture of thick electrode films with high energy and power densities is critical for the large-scale storage of electrochemical energy for application in transportation and stationary electric grids. Two-dimensional nanomaterials have become the predominant choice of electrode material in the pursuit of high energy and power densities owing to their large surface-area-to-volume ratios and lack of solid-state diffusion1,2 . However, traditional electrode fabrication methods often lead to restacking of two-dimensional nanomaterials, which limits ion transport in thick films and results in systems in which the electrochemical performance is highly dependent on the thickness of the film1-4 ...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766766/recent-advances-in-objectifying-pain-using-neuroimaging-techniques
#9
Jessica Archibald, Freda M Warner, Oscar Ortiz, Madeson Todd, Catherine R Jutzeler
The pursuit of a physiological indicator of noxious stimulation is desirable as it has the potential to provide mechanistic information regarding acute pain, and may ultimately improve pain management strategies. Currently, there are no specific neurophysiological markers of pain to evaluate treatments. Recent attempts to identify neural correlates of pain have focused on different neuroimaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to discuss common neuroimaging techniques and findings thus far.
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#10
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766393/linear-feature-projection-based-real-time-decoding-of-limb-state-from-dorsal-root-ganglion-recordings
#11
Sungmin Han, Jun-Uk Chu, Jong Woong Park, Inchan Youn
Proprioceptive afferent activities recorded by a multichannel microelectrode have been used to decode limb movements to provide sensory feedback signals for closed-loop control in a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. However, analyzing the high dimensionality of neural activity is one of the major challenges in real-time applications. This paper proposes a linear feature projection method for the real-time decoding of ankle and knee joint angles. Single-unit activity was extracted as a feature vector from proprioceptive afferent signals that were recorded from the L7 dorsal root ganglion during passive movements of ankle and knee joints...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766158/study-of-oxygen-evolution-reaction-on-amorphous-au-13-ni-120-p-50-nanocluster
#12
Yanzhou Wang, Panpan Gao, Xiaoxu Wang, Jinrong Huo, Lu Li, Yajing Zhang, Alex A Volinsky, Ping Qian, Yanjing Su
The pursuit of catalysts to promote effective water oxidization to produce oxygen has become a research subject of high priority for water splitting. Here, first-principles calculations are employed to study the water-splitting oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on ∼1.5 nm diameter Au13@Ni120P50 core-shell nanoclusters. Water splitting to produce oxygen proceeds in four intermediate reaction steps (OH*, O*, OOH* and O2). Adsorption configurations and adsorption energies for the species involved in OER on both Au13@Ni120P50 cluster and Ni12P5(001) supported by Au are presented...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765049/emergent-superconductivity-in-an-iron-based-honeycomb-lattice-initiated-by-pressure-driven-spin-crossover
#13
Yonggang Wang, Jianjun Ying, Zhengyang Zhou, Junliang Sun, Ting Wen, Yannan Zhou, Nana Li, Qian Zhang, Fei Han, Yuming Xiao, Paul Chow, Wenge Yang, Viktor V Struzhkin, Yusheng Zhao, Ho-Kwang Mao
The discovery of iron-based superconductors (FeSCs), with the highest transition temperature (Tc ) up to 55 K, has attracted worldwide research efforts over the past ten years. So far, all these FeSCs structurally adopt FeSe-type layers with a square iron lattice and superconductivity can be generated by either chemical doping or external pressure. Herein, we report the observation of superconductivity in an iron-based honeycomb lattice via pressure-driven spin-crossover. Under compression, the layered FePX3 (X = S, Se) simultaneously undergo large in-plane lattice collapses, abrupt spin-crossovers, and insulator-metal transitions...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762545/marine-microalgae-with-anti-cancer-properties
#14
REVIEW
Kevin A Martínez Andrade, Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Cancer is the leading cause of death globally and finding new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment remains a major challenge in the pursuit for a cure. This paper presents an overview on microalgae with anti-cancer activities. Microalgae are eukaryotic unicellular plants that contribute up to 40% of global primary productivity. They are excellent sources of pigments, lipids, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and other fine chemicals, and there is an increasing demand for their use as nutraceuticals and food supplements...
May 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760865/the-uphill-battle-of-performing-education-scholarship-barriers-educators-and-education-researchers-face
#15
Jaime Jordan, Wendy C Coates, Samuel Clarke, Daniel Runde, Emilie Fowlkes, Jaqueline Kurth, Lalena Yarris
Introduction: Educators and education researchers report that their scholarship is limited by lack of time, funding, mentorship, expertise, and reward. This study aims to evaluate these groups' perceptions regarding barriers to scholarship and potential strategies for success. Methods: Core emergency medicine (EM) educators and education researchers completed an online survey consisting of multiple-choice, 10-point Likert scale, and free-response items in 2015. Descriptive statistics were reported...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760861/scholarly-tracks-in-emergency-medicine-residency-programs-are-associated-with-increased-choice-of-academic-career
#16
Jaime Jordan, Michael Hwang, Amy H Kaji, Wendy C Coates
Introduction: Career preparation in residency training is not standardized. Scholarly tracks have emerged in emergency medicine (EM) residencies to allow specialized training in an area of focus. The characteristics of these tracks and their value and impact on resident career choice are unknown. We aim to describe the current state of scholarly tracks in residency training programs and their association with pursuit of an academic career. Methods: Program leaders at EM training programs completed an online survey consisting of multiple-choice items with free-text option...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758426/two-contrasted-future-scenarios-for-the-french-agro-food-system
#17
Gilles Billen, Julia Le Noë, Josette Garnier
Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756936/dynamics-of-topological-excitations-in-a-model-quantum-spin-ice
#18
Chun-Jiong Huang, Youjin Deng, Yuan Wan, Zi Yang Meng
We study the quantum spin dynamics of a frustrated XXZ model on a pyrochlore lattice by using large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic analytic continuation. In the low-temperature quantum spin ice regime, we observe signatures of coherent photon and spinon excitations in the dynamic spin structure factor. As the temperature rises to the classical spin ice regime, the photon disappears from the dynamic spin structure factor, whereas the dynamics of the spinon remain coherent in a broad temperature window...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753723/ms-tools-for-a-systematic-approach-in-survey-for-carotenoids-and-their-common-metabolites
#19
REVIEW
A Pérez-Gálvez, A Sánchez-García, J Garrido-Fernández, J J Ríos
Metabolism of the carotenoids in humans is often reserved to bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids in retinoids and oxidative/degradative products arising from enzymatic eccentric cleavage, yielding apo-carotenoids. Nevertheless, additional metabolic routes should be available, and some of the structures of those metabolites have only been anticipated. The identification of carotenoids and their metabolites is commonly performed by HPLC coupled to MS. The acquisition of MS data in different instrumental modes and hardware configurations allows the detailed structural description of the target compound...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753243/how-experiencing-and-anticipating-temporal-landmarks-influence-motivation
#20
REVIEW
Hengchen Dai, Claire Li
Temporal landmarks, or moments that stand out in time, structure people's perceptions and use of time. We highlight recent research examining how both experiencing and anticipating temporal landmarks impact motivation and goal pursuit. Experiencing a temporal landmark may produce a 'fresh start effect', making people feel more motivated to pursue their goals right after the landmark. Anticipating a future landmark may also increase people's current motivation if they are reminded of an ideal future state. We review one prominent explanation underlying these findings: temporal landmarks can create a psychological separation between past, current, and future selves...
April 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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