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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719177/classics-in-neuroimaging-imaging-the-dopaminergic-pathway-with-pet
#1
Meghna Kanthan, Paul Cumming, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev
The success of positron emission tomography (PET) for observing molecular processes underlying brain function and disease is underpinned by radiotracer chemistry. From the earliest applications of PET to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and the abundance of neuroreceptors and transporters, to the more recent topic of dynamic neurochemical imaging, interrogation of brain dopamine in conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addictions has been a driving force that challenges the ingenuity of radiopharmaceutical scientists...
July 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718453/analysis-of-tcspc-data-a-comparative-evaluation-of-deterministic-and-probabilistic-approaches
#2
Darren Andrew Smith, Grant McKenzie, Anita C Jones, Trevor Smith
We review various methods for analysing time-resolved fluorescence data acquired using the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method in an attempt to evaluate their benefits and limitations. We have applied these methods to both experimental and simulated data. The relative merits of using deterministic approaches, such as the commonly used iterative reconvolution method, and probabilistic approaches, such as the smoothed exponential series method (SESM), the maximum entropy method (MEM) and recently proposed basis pursuit denoising (BPDN, compressed sensing) method are outlined...
July 18, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717775/impact-of-early-coronary-angiography-on-the-survival-to-discharge-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#3
Jikyoung Shin, Eunsil Ko, Won Chul Cha, Tae Rim Lee, Hee Yoon, Sung Yeon Hwang, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Keun Jeong Song, Joong Eui Rhee, Yeon Kwon Jeong, Jin-Ho Choi
OBJECTIVE: Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Coronary angiography (CAG) enables diagnostic confirmation of coronary artery disease and subsequent revascularization, which might improve the prognosis of OHCA survivors. Non-randomized data has shown a favorable impact of CAG on prognosis for this population. However, the optimal timing of CAG has been debated. METHODS: The clinical outcomes of 607 OHCA patients registered in CAPTURES (Cardiac Arrest Pursuit Trial with Unique Registration and Epidemiologic Surveillance), a nationwide multicenter registry performed in 27 hospitals, were analyzed...
June 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716581/diversifying-food-systems-in-the-pursuit-of-sustainable-food-production-and-healthy-diets
#4
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Edith T Lammerts van Bueren, Salvatore Ceccarelli, Stefania Grando, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rodomiro Ortiz
Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar diversity and nutritional quality are crucial...
July 14, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714303/melittin-containing-hybrid-peptide-hydrogels-for-enhanced-photothermal-therapy-of-glioblastoma
#5
Honglin Jin, Guifang Zhao, Jianli Hu, Quanguang Ren, Kui Yang, Chao Wan, Ai Huang, Pindong Li, Jue-Ping Feng, Jing Chen, Zhenwei Zou
The design of biocompatible and efficacious anticancer biomaterials to achieve relatively low tumor recurrence rates is the main pursuit of cancer photothermal therapy (PTT). RADA 16-I is a synthetic amphiphilic peptide with the sequence RADARADARADARADA that can self-assemble into a peptide nanofiber hydrogel. In this study, we synthesized a novel Melittin-RADA32-Indocyanine green (ICG) hydrogel ("MRI hydrogel"), which contains melittin in the peptide hydrogel backbone and ICG in the hydrogel matrix, for enhanced PTT of glioblastomas...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#6
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713589/super-resolution-imaging-in-a-multiple-layer-epid
#7
Haijian Chen, Joerg Rottmann, Stephen Sf Yip, Daniel Morf, Rony Füglistaller, Josh Star-Lack, George Zentai, Ross Berbeco
A new portal imager consisting of four vertically stacked conventional electronic portal imaging device (EPID) layers has been constructed in pursuit of improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We hypothesize that super-resolution (SR) imaging can also be achieved in such a system by shifting each layer laterally by half a pixel relative to the layer above. Super-resolution imaging will improve resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in megavoltage (MV) planar and cone beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) applications...
April 2017: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708899/the-cost-effectiveness-of-a-quality-improvement-program-to-reduce-maternal-and-fetal-mortality-in-a-regional-referral-hospital-in-accra-ghana
#8
David M Goodman, Rohit Ramaswamy, Marc Jeuland, Emmanuel K Srofenyoh, Cyril M Engmann, Adeyemi J Olufolabi, Medge D Owen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention aimed at reducing maternal and fetal mortality in Accra, Ghana. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, time-sequence intervention, retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: Data were collected on the cost and outcomes of a 5-year Kybele-Ghana Health Service Quality Improvement (QI) intervention conducted at Ridge Regional Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Accra, Ghana, focused on systems, personnel, and communication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708418/vaccines-pesticides-and-narratives-of-exposure-and-evidence
#9
Elena Conis
This essay considers the cultural work performed by two public health narratives - the DDT narrative and the vaccine narrative - as they appeared in popular and professional discourse concerning two recent media events: controversy over an antivaccination film, and the emergence of a Zika global public health emergency. Like all narratives in the history of medicine, the stories historians and others tell about DDT and about vaccines organize a shared past to explain the present. They also point to a hoped-for future...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#10
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704073/transformative-possibilities-politics-and-cosmetic-surgery-in-the-bolivarian-revolution
#11
Lauren E Gulbas
I examine the intersection of politics and aesthetics in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela in the first years of the twenty-first century. Given Venezuela's longstanding embrace of physical enhancement and the contradictions of the medical values of cosmetic surgery with those of Bolivarian socialism, the changing surgical practices at a well-established public site offer a significant case for considering how different actors negotiate the dialectics of care. In the face of increasing resource shortages, negotiations of aesthetic care contributed to tensions in the clinical encounter as patients creatively pushed Bolivarian policies to support their pursuits of aesthetic self-improvement...
July 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701904/medical-and-behavioral-approaches-to-engage-people-who-inject-drugs-into-care-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Stevan A Gonzalez, Daniel S Fierer, Andrew H Talal
Direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus infection may revolutionize treatment among persons with substance use disorders. Despite persons with substance use disorders having the highest hepatitis C virus prevalence and incidence, the vast majority have not engaged into care for the infection. Previously, interferon-based treatments, with substantial side effects and the propensity to exacerbate mental health conditions, were major disincentives to pursuit of care for the infection. Direct-acting antivirals with viral eradication rates of >90%, significantly improved side effect profiles, and shorter treatment duration are dramatic improvements over prior treatment regimens that should promote widespread hepatitis C virus care among persons with substance use disorders...
June 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701549/altered-visual-strategies-and-attention-are-related-to-increased-force-fluctuations-during-a-pinch-grip-task-in-older-adults
#13
Kevin G Keenan, Wendy E Huddleston, Bradley E Ernest
The purpose of the study was to determine the visual strategies used by older adults during a pinch grip task and to assess the relations between visual strategy, deficits in attention, and increased force fluctuations in older adults. Eye movements of 23 older adults (>65 years) were monitored during a low-force pinch grip task while viewing three common visual feedback displays. Performance on the Grooved Pegboard test and an attention task (which required no concurrent hand movements) was also measured...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700303/the-pursuit-of-inclusive-prosperity-universal-health-care-and-stronger-democracy
#14
David Goldfischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699213/acetamide-derivatives-of-chromen-2-ones-as-potent-cholinesterase-inhibitors
#15
Suchita Prasad, Bipul Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Karam Chand, Shashank S Kamble, Hemant K Gautam, Sunil K Sharma
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is a serious medical issue worldwide with drastic social consequences. Inhibition of cholinesterase is one of the rational and effective approaches to retard the symptoms of AD and, hence, consistent efforts are being made to develop efficient anti-cholinesterase agents. In pursuit of this, a series of 19 acetamide derivatives of chromen-2-ones were synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potential...
July 12, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698888/modulation-of-complex-spike-duration-and-probability-during-cerebellar-motor-learning-in-visually-guided-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-of-monkeys
#16
Yan Yang, Stephen G Lisberger
Activation of an inferior olivary neuron powerfully excites Purkinje cells via its climbing fiber input and triggers a characteristic high-frequency burst, known as the complex spike (CS). The theory of cerebellar learning postulates that the CS induces long-lasting depression of the strength of synapses from active parallel fibers onto Purkinje cells, and that synaptic depression leads to changes in behavior. Prior reports showed that a CS on one learning trial is linked to a properly timed depression of simple spikes on the subsequent trial, as well as a learned change in pursuit eye movement...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697820/high-levels-of-hand-hygiene-compliance-are-a-worthwhile-pursuit
#17
Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, Lauren M DiBiase, David J Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696330/artificial-insect-wings-with-biomimetic-wing-morphology-and-mechanical-properties
#18
Zhiwei Liu, Xiaojun Yan, Mingjing Qi, Yangsheng Zhu, Dawei Huang, X Y Zhang, Liwei Lin
The pursuit of high lift force for insect-scale Flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (FMAV) requires its artificial wings to own biomimetic wing features which are close to its nature counterpart. In this work, we present both fabrication and testing methods for artificial insect wings with biomimetic wing morphology and mechanical properties. The artificial cicada (Hyalessa maculaticollis) wing is fabricated through high precision laser cutting technique and bonding process of multilayer materials. Through controlling the shape of wing venation, the fabrication method can achieve 3-D (three dimensional) wing architecture including cambers or corrugations...
July 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693367/a-comparison-of-the-college-experience-for-students-with-and-without-disabilities
#19
Anthony J Plotner, Cynthia May
Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have joined the ranks of college students in pursuit of personal independence, community integration, and employment. To achieve these aims, there is a need for a strong understanding of the college experience for students with IDD, including identification of the academic, social, and personal challenges they face as well as the supports that are available to address those challenges. This research provides preliminary insights into the college experience for students with IDD by comparing the perceptions, attitudes, and activities of students with IDD to those of students without disabilities and students with mild learning disabilities (MLD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693278/sunitinib-does-not-impair-natural-killer-cell-function-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma
#20
Jennifer Moeckel, Nina Staiger, Andreas Mackensen, Norbert Meidenbauer, Evelyn Ullrich
Although the available treatment options have expanded, the survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains poor. As patients with RCC lack responsiveness to chemotherapy or radiation, therapeutic options predominantly include surgical interventions and immunomodulatory approaches, including the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as sunitinib. Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to be key players in TKI-mediated off-target effects on the immune system. However, only limited information is available regarding the possible impact of sunitinib on the function of NK cells of individual patients...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
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