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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815462/a-new-erice-report-considering-the-safety-of-medicines-in-the-21st-century
#1
Ivor Ralph Edwards
Pharmacovogilance policy, methods and practice require transformation at all levels to create an integrated, comprehensive, continuously improving system, fulfilling the broader remit of overall healthcare vigilance. In pursuit of this vision, energetic measures, including active engagement with patients, are needed to reduce our ignorance about many aspects of patients' experience of medical therapies and their outcomes, including the benefits, but especially the extensive harm known to be caused by medical interventions...
August 17, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813775/so-you-want-to-be-a-reviewer
#2
H Bruce Vogt, Victor C Huber, Keith A Hansen
Peer review is a process for evaluating the quality of "work" of a scientist or professional as judged by others in the same or related field. In the context of the biomedical and health sciences, it primarily pertains to review of manuscripts submitted to journals for consideration of publication, abstracts for proposed presentations at professional meetings, and competitive research grant applications. Serving as a reviewer is a scholarly pursuit and a worthwhile endeavor, assuming it is approached in a conscientious, responsible manner...
March 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812848/the-elephants-in-the-room-sex-hiv-and-lgbt-populations-in-mena-intersectionality-in-lebanon-comment-on-improving-the-quality-and-quantity-of-hiv-data-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-key-challenges-and-ways-forward
#3
Rachel L Kaplan, Cynthia El Khoury
In response to this insightful editorial, we wish to provide commentary that seeks to highlight recent successes and illuminate the often unspoken hurdles at the intersections of culture, politics, and taboo. We focus on sexual transmission and draw examples from Lebanon, where the pursuit of data in quality and quantity is teaching us lessons about the way forward and where we are experiencing many of the challenges referenced in the editorial such as discrepancies between national statistics and rates derived via research as well as the impact of protracted political conflict and displacement...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812847/evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-for-universal-health-coverage-broadening-the-scope-comment-on-priority-setting-for-universal-health-coverage-we-need-evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-not-just-more-evidence-on-cost-effectiveness
#4
Unni Gopinathan, Trygve Ottersen
Universal health coverage (UHC) is high on the global health agenda, and priority setting is fundamental to the fair and efficient pursuit of this goal. In a recent editorial, Rob Baltussen and colleagues point to the need to go beyond evidence on cost-effectiveness and call for evidence-informed deliberative processes when setting priorities for UHC. Such processes are crucial at every step on the path to UHC, and hopefully we will see intensified efforts to develop and implement processes of this kind in the coming years...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812696/skeletal-trauma-reflects-hunting-behaviour-in-extinct-sabre-tooth-cats-and-dire-wolves
#5
Caitlin Brown, Mairin Balisi, Christopher A Shaw, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
Skeletal-injury frequency and distribution are likely to reflect hunting behaviour in predatory vertebrates and might therefore differ between species with distinct hunting modes. Two Pleistocene predators from the Rancho La Brea asphalt seeps, the sabre-tooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, and dire wolf, Canis dirus, represent ambush and pursuit predators, respectively. On the basis of a collection of over 1,900 pathological elements, the frequency of traumatic injury across skeletal elements in these two species was calculated...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812552/competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
The increasing availability of genotype-phenotype maps for different combinations of mutations has empowered evolutionary biologists with the tools to interrogate the predictability of adaptive evolution, especially in the context of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Large microbial populations are known to generate competing beneficial mutations, but determining how these mutations contribute to the adaptive trajectories that are most likely to be followed remains a challenge. Despite a recognition that there may also be competition between successive alleles on the same trajectory, prior studies have not fully considered how this impacts adaptation rates along, or likelihood of following, individual trajectories...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810184/design-and-evaluation-of-a-parametric-model-for-cardiac-sounds
#7
Roilhi F Ibarra-Hernández, Miguel A Alonso-Arévalo, Alejandro Cruz-Gutiérrez, Ana L Licona-Chávez, Salvador Villarreal-Reyes
Heart sound analysis plays an important role in the auscultative diagnosis process to detect the presence of cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we propose a novel parametric heart sound model that accurately represents normal and pathological cardiac audio signals, also known as phonocardiograms (PCG). The proposed model considers that the PCG signal is formed by the sum of two parts: one of them is deterministic and the other one is stochastic. The first part contains most of the acoustic energy. This part is modeled by the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm, which performs an analysis-synthesis procedure to represent the PCG signal as a linear combination of elementary waveforms...
August 9, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807012/protein-deubiquitinase-usp7-is-required-for-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#8
Yiman Tang, Longwei Lv, Wenyue Li, Xiao Zhang, Yong Jiang, Wenshu Ge, Yongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with self-renewal capabilities and multilineage differentiation potential, including osteogenesis. Although protein deubiquitinases have been linked to stem cell fate determination, whether protein deubiquitination contributes to lineage commitment during osteogenic differentiation of hASCs remains to be investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ubiquitin specific protease 7 (USP7) on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805425/cheating-under-pressure-a-self-protection-model-of-workplace-cheating-behavior
#10
Marie S Mitchell, Michael D Baer, Maureen L Ambrose, Robert Folger, Noel F Palmer
Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emphasis on high levels of performance, they may also enhance employees' self-interested motives and need for self-protection. We suggest that demands for high performance may elicit performance pressure-the subjective experience that employees must raise their performance efforts or face significant consequences...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802466/in-pursuit-of-the-fourth-aim-in-health-care-the-joy-of-practice
#11
REVIEW
Katherine A Gergen Barnett
In today's health care system where there are increased demands for health care provider productivity, increased pay for performance metrics, decreased reimbursements, and ever-increasing demands of electronic medical records, providers are at risk for high rates of burnout. Indeed, recent studies have indicated that more than 50% of US physicians are now experiencing burnout and that burnout is rising dramatically faster among physicians than in any other US professional field. These high rates of burnout have many downstream consequences, for both the providers and for the patients they serve...
September 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800965/the-crispr-cas9-facilitated-multiplex-pathway-optimization-cfpo-technique-and-its-application-to-improve-the-escherichia-coli-xylose-utilization-pathway
#12
Xinna Zhu, Dongdong Zhao, Huanna Qiu, Feiyu Fan, Shuli Man, Changhao Bi, Xueli Zhang
One of the most important research subjects of metabolic engineering is the pursuit of balanced metabolic pathways, which requires the modulation of expression of many genes. However, simultaneously modulating multiple genes on the chromosome remains challenging in prokaryotic organisms, including the industrial workhorse - Escherichia coli. In this work, the CRISPR/Cas9-facilitated multiplex pathway optimization (CFPO) technique was developed to simultaneously modulate the expression of multiple genes on the chromosome...
August 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799807/the-acid-base-profile-of-agrochemicals
#13
D T Manallack
Drug-likeness has long been studied in the pursuit of finding new medicines. Similarly, in the agrochemical field there is value in exploring the properties of the chemicals involved. Patterns that emerge can potentially influence future discovery campaigns to improve the probability of commercial success. In this study we investigate the acid/base properties and physicochemical characteristics of three classes of compounds: fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. In comparison with FDA-approved drugs, it was noted that the pesticides were generally smaller, possessed a neutral charge state and were more lipophilic...
August 11, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799684/bridging-dealumination-and-desilication-for-the-synthesis-of-hierarchical-mfi-zeolites
#14
Shitu Yang, Chenxi Yu, Lili Yu, Shu Miao, Mingming Zou, Changzi Jin, Dazhi Zhang, Longya Xu, Shengjun Huang
Rational design of zeolite-based catalysts calls for flexible tailoring of porosity and acidity beyond micropore dimension. To date, dealumination has been applied extensively as an industrial technology for the tailoring of zeolite in micropore dimension, whereas desilication has separately shown its potentials in the creation of mesoporosities. The free coupling of dealumination with desilication will bridge the tailoring at micro/mesopore dimensions; however, such coupling has been prevailingly confirmed as an impossible mission...
August 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797883/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-coumarin-n-benzyl-pyridinium-hybrids-as-multi-target-agents-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jin-Shuai Lan, Yue Ding, Yun Liu, Ping Kang, Jian-Wei Hou, Xin-Yu Zhang, Sai-Sai Xie, Tong Zhang
Combining N-benzyl pyridinium moiety and coumarin into in a single molecule, novel hybrids with ChE and MAO-B inhibitory activities were designed and synthesized. The biological screening results indicated that most of compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity for ChE and Aβ (1-42) self-aggregation, and clearly selective inhibition to MAO-B over MAO-A. Of these compounds, compound 7f was the most potent inhibitor for hMAO-B, and it was also a good and balanced inhibitor to ChEs and hMAO-B (0.0373 μM for eeAChE; 2...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797825/mechanisms-underlying-longevity-a-genetic-switch-model-of-aging
#16
REVIEW
Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk
While the questions of "What causes aging?" and "Why do we age?" and "How can we stop it?" remain unanswered, recent advances in aging research have continued to increase our understanding of the aging process. Until the last couple of decades, aging was viewed as an inevitable process of damage accumulation and not a subject for scientific pursuit. This view changed when it was demonstrated that the aging process is in fact malleable and genetically determined: mutations in single genes can have dramatic effects on longevity...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797176/living-with-chronic-headache-a-qualitative-study-exploring-goal-management-in-chronic-headache
#17
Yvette Ciere, Annemieke Visser, Bram Jacobs, Marielle Padberg, John Lebbink, Robbert Sanderman, Joke Fleer
OBJECTIVES: Effective goal management may potentially prevent or reduce disability in chronic pain. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the nature of goal management in the context of chronic headache (CH). METHODS: Interviews with 20 patients were conducted, coded, and analyzed using a combined data-driven and theory-driven approach. The dual process model (DPM) was used as a theoretical framework for this study. RESULTS: Participants used a combination of strategies to regain and maintain a balance between personal goals and resources available for goal pursuit...
August 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796454/in-pursuit-of-real-utopias-kerry-preibisch-as-an-organic-public-sociologist
#18
Gerardo Otero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795975/the-allure-of-tenure
#19
Katherine J Gold
The tenure track is a common career path for clinician-scientists who focus on research, but it comes at a life stage in which there are multiple competing personal and academic demands. The stakes for tenure review are high, with pretenure faculty at many institutions facing job loss if they are denied tenure. In academic medicine, the exacting requirements and intense demands of the tenure track frequently merge with a physician population carrying high and even unreasonable personal self-expectations of achievement...
August 8, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795236/a-novel-continuous-inhibitory-control-task-variation-in-individual-performance-by-young-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus
#20
Christina Meier, Sara Raj Pant, Jayden O van Horik, Philippa R Laker, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Frederick Verbruggen, Joah R Madden
Inhibitory control enables subjects to quickly react to unexpectedly changing external demands. We assessed the ability of young (8 weeks old) pheasants Phasianus colchicus to exert inhibitory control in a novel response-inhibition task that required subjects to adjust their movement in space in pursuit of a reward across changing target locations. The difference in latencies between trials in which the target location did and did not change, the distance travelled towards the initially indicated location after a change occurred, and the change-signal reaction time provided a consistent measure that could be indicative of a pheasant's inhibitory control...
August 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
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