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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165689/oculomotor-disturbances-in-patients-with-chronic-nonspecific-spinal-pain
#1
Ruth Ruscheweyh, Antonia Fritz, Thomas Eggert, Shahnaz-Christina Azad, Andreas Straube
Objective: There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in pain processing. The present study investigates whether chronic pain patients, who are likely to have altered pain processing, exhibit signs of subtle cerebellar dysfunction. We used oculomotor tasks to assess dysfunction of the associated neuronal networks, including the cerebellum. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic nonspecific spinal pain and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled...
November 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165654/infusions-of-nerve-growth-factor-into-the-developing-frontal-cortex-leads-to-deficits-in-behavioral-flexibility-and-increased-perseverance
#2
Sagar J Desai, Brian L Allman, Nagalingam Rajakumar
In the pursuit of further establishing a neurodevelopmental animal model to investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired executive function, a core and severely debilitating symptom of schizophrenia, we sought to characterize the deficits in behavioral flexibility in adult rats following neonatal infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the medial part of the developing frontal cortex. Our previous studies using this neonatal frontal cortical lesion model have shown that it leads to adult-onset positive and negative symptom-like features, and several neuropathological abnormalities of schizophrenia...
November 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165367/urban-green-space-and-the-pursuit-of-health-equity-in-parts-of-the-united-states
#3
Viniece Jennings, April Karen Baptiste, Na'Taki Osborne Jelks, Renée Skeete
Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159134/model-selection-and-prediction-of-outcomes-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia-patients-who-undergo-cognitive-training
#4
Ian S Ramsay, Sisi Ma, Melissa Fisher, Rachel L Loewy, J Daniel Ragland, Tara Niendam, Cameron S Carter, Sophia Vinogradov
Predicting treatment outcomes in psychiatric populations remains a challenge, but is increasingly important in the pursuit of personalized medicine. Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in cognition, and targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing and working memory has been shown to improve some of these impairments; but little is known about the baseline patient characteristics predictive of cognitive improvement. Here we use a model selection and regression approach called least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to examine predictors of cognitive improvement in response to TCT for patients with recent onset schizophrenia...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158943/depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-contribution-from-animal-studies
#5
REVIEW
Jéssica Lopes Fontoura, Camila Baptista, Flávia de Brito Pedroso, José Augusto Pochapski, Edmar Miyoshi, Marcelo Machado Ferro
Besides being better known for causing motor impairments, Parkinson's disease (PD) can also cause many nonmotor symptoms, like depression and anxiety, which can cause significant loss of life quality and may not respond to regular drugs treatment. In this review, we discuss the depression in PD, based on data from studies in humans and rodents. Depression frequency seems higher in PD patients than in general population, despite high variation in data due to diagnosis disparities. Development of depression in PD seems more likely to be caused by the nigrostriatal pathway degeneration than as a consequence of the awareness of disease prognostic, and it seems to be related to dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotoninergic synapses deficits...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157414/synchronizing-the-tracking-eye-movements-with-the-motion-of-a-visual-target-basic-neural-processes
#6
Laurent Goffart, Clara Bourrelly, Julie Quinet
In primates, the appearance of an object moving in the peripheral visual field elicits an interceptive saccade that brings the target image onto the foveae. This foveation is then maintained more or less efficiently by slow pursuit eye movements and subsequent catch-up saccades. Sometimes, the tracking is such that the gaze direction looks spatiotemporally locked onto the moving object. Such a spatial synchronism is quite spectacular when one considers that the target-related signals are transmitted to the motor neurons through multiple parallel channels connecting separate neural populations with different conduction speeds and delays...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157411/choosing-the-speed-of-dynamic-mental-simulations
#7
Alexis D J Makin
The brain continuously maintains a current representation of its immediate surroundings. Perceptual representations are often updated when the world changes, e.g., when we notice an object move. However, we can also update representations internally, without incoming signals from the senses. In other words, we can run internal simulations of dynamic events. This ability is evident during mental object rotation. These uncontroversial observations lead to an obvious question that nevertheless remains to be answered: How does the brain control the speed of dynamic mental simulations? Is there a central rate controller or pacemaker module in the brain that can be temporarily coupled to sensory maps? We can refer to this as the common rate control theory...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154576/unique-effects-and-moderators-of-effects-of-sources-on-self-efficacy-a-model-based-meta-analysis
#8
Angela Byars-Winston, Jacob Diestelmann, Julia N Savoy, William T Hoyt
Self-efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of academic pursuits, performance, and persistence, and in theory are developed and maintained by 4 classes of experiences Bandura (1986) referred to as sources: performance accomplishments (PA), vicarious learning (VL), social persuasion (SP), and affective arousal (AA). The effects of sources on self-efficacy vary by performance domain and individual difference factors. In this meta-analysis (k = 61 studies of academic self-efficacy; N = 8,965), we employed B. J...
November 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154476/valuing-our-communities-ethical-considerations-for-economic-evaluation-of-community-based-prevention
#9
Max Crowley, Damon Jones
Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154052/unmasking-decoupling-redefining-the-resource-intensity-of-the-economy
#10
Kostas Bithas, Panos Kalimeris
Interest in investigating the complex link between resources and developments has revived recently following studies which support striking "dematerialized" growth over the last hundred years or so. This so-called decoupling effect is defined as the declining quantity of resources required for producing one unit of GDP. Decoupling studies adopt aggregate GDP as the measure of the outcome of the economy. However, this outcome is contributed by the total population which differs over time and between countries...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152870/social-support-and-academic-engagement-among-reconnected-youth-adverse-life-experiences-as-a-moderator
#11
Jingtong Pan, Jonathan F Zaff, Alice E Donlan
Using motivational theories of engagement and adopting a multidimensional perspective of academic engagement, the authors investigate the associations among teacher and parent support, students' academic self-efficacy, and academic engagement among a sample of reconnected youth who have returned to academic pursuit after dropping out (N = 938, mean age = 16.50, SD = 1.78). In addition, they examine how youth's adverse life experiences moderate the pathways in this model, an analysis notably missing from much of the academic engagement literature...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149584/the-ill-fated-quest-for-fame-in-psychological-research
#12
Alexandra M Freund
The question "Am I famous yet?" directs our attention to the outcome of the journey of being a psychological scientist. There is nothing inherently wrong with wanting to achieve the highest possible outcomes when pursuing a goal. However, for a researcher, fame is an outcome that is very vague, abstract, distal, and unlikely to be attained. Focusing on this outcome might undermine motivation and persistence in the difficult endeavor of doing excellent research and contributing to psychological knowledge. To become an excellent psychological scientist might be a better outcome to which to aspire...
November 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146983/precise-control-of-alloying-sites-of-bimetallic-nanoclusters-via-surface-motif-exchange-reaction
#13
Qiaofeng Yao, Yan Feng, Victor Fung, Yong Yu, De-En Jiang, Jun Yang, Jianping Xie
Precise control of alloying sites has long been a challenging pursuit, yet little has been achieved for the atomic-level manipulation of metallic nanomaterials. Here we describe utilization of a surface motif exchange (SME) reaction to selectively replace the surface motifs of parent [Ag44(SR)30](4-) (SR = thiolate) nanoparticles (NPs), leading to bimetallic NPs with well-defined molecular formula and atomically-controlled alloying sites in protecting shell. A systematic mass (and tandem mass) spectrometry analysis suggests that the SME reaction is an atomically precise displacement of SR-Ag(I)-SR-protecting modules of Ag NPs by the incoming SR-Au(I)-SR modules, giving rise to a core-shell [Ag32@Au12(SR)30](4-)...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143679/all-things-to-all-people-trade-offs-in-pursuit-of-an-ideal-modeling-tool-for-maternal-and-child-health
#14
Timothy Roberton, Kate Litvin, Andrew Self, Angela R Stegmuller
BACKGROUND: Modeling tools have potential to aid decision making for program planning and evaluation at all levels, but are still largely the domain of technical experts, consultants, and global-level staff. One model that can improve decision making for maternal and child health is the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). We examined respondents' perceptions of LiST's strengths and weaknesses, to identify ways in which LiST - and similar modeling tools - can adapt to be more accessible and helpful to policy makers...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135697/does-working-memory-moderate-the-within-person-associations-between-pain-intensity-and-negative-affect-and-pain-s-interference-with-work-goal-pursuit
#15
Chung Jung Mun, Paul Karoly, Morris A Okun
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain exerts a pervasive negative influence on workers' productivity. However, a paucity of research has addressed the mechanisms underlying the pain → productivity relation. In the present study using intensive daily diary data, we examined whether working memory (WM) moderates the positive within-person associations between (a) morning pain intensity and (b) morning negative affect and later day pain's interference of work-goal pursuit. METHODS: A community sample of 131 adults with chronic pain completed a battery of questionnaires, laboratory-measured WM, and a 21-day daily diary...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135674/the-pursuit-of-scholarship-why-we-should-care-about-resident-research
#16
Joan E Bechtold, Benjamin R Williams, Stuart L Weinstein, David W Polly, Andrew J Pugely, Joseph A Buckwalter, Stephen A Albanese, Kevin J Bozic, Brian D Snyder
Research is a foundational component of an orthopaedic residency. It fosters intellectual curiosity and pursuit of excellence, while teaching discipline and the scientific method. These are the key principles for careers in both community-based practice and academia. Currently, no consensus exists on how to best engage residents and support their research endeavors. In 2014, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Board of Specialty Societies Research and Quality Committee convened a Clinician-Scientist Collaboration Workgroup...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#17
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134051/does-context-practice-or-competition-affect-female-athletes-achievement-goal-dominance-goal-pursuit-burnout-and-motivation
#18
Javier Fernández-Rio, Jose A Cecchini, Antonio Méndez-Giménez
The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7), mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133129/hbsag-mrna-degradation-induced-by-dihydroquinolizinone-molecule-depends-on-hbv-posttranscriptional-regulatory-element
#19
Tianlun Zhou, Timothy Block, Fei Liu, Andrew S Kondratowicz, Liren Sun, Siddhartha Rawat, Jeffrey Branson, Fang Guo, Hongyan Liang, Lauren Bailey, Chris Moore, Xiaohe Wang, Andy Cuconatti, Min Gao, Amy C H Lee, Troy Harasym, Tim Chiu, Dimitar Gotchev, Bruce Dorsey, Rene Rijnbrand, Michael J Sofia
In pursuit of novel therapeutics targeting the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we evaluated a dihydroquinolizinone compound (DHQ-1) that possessed nanomolar activities against the production of virion and surface protein (HBsAg) in tissue culture. This compound also showed broad HBV genotype coverage and was inactive against a panel of DNA and RNA viruses of other species. Oral administration of DHQ-1 in the AAV-HBV mouse model resulted in a strong reduction of serum HBsAg as soon as 4 days following the commencement of treatment...
November 10, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132029/reconstruction-of-atomic-force-microscopy-image-using-compressed-sensing
#20
Guoqiang Han, Bo Lin, Yuling Lin
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is one of the most popular and advanced tools for ultra high-resolution imaging and nanomanipulation of nano-scale matter. But AFM imaging typically takes a long time. High-speed and high-precision AFM measurement has attracted wide attention in recent several years. In traditional AFM, simple reduction in the number of measurement points may lose essential sample topography information. To resolve such problems, an AFM image reconstruction method based on Compressed Sensing (CS) theory is applied to reduce image acquisition time without cutting down the image quality...
November 10, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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