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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911185/self-regulation-and-social-pressure-reduce-prejudiced-responding-and-increase-motivation-to-be-non-prejudiced
#1
Steven G Buzinski, Michael B Kitchens
Self-regulation constrains the expression of prejudice, but when self-regulation falters, the immediate environment can act as an external source of prejudice regulation. This hypothesis derives from work demonstrating that external controls and internal self-regulation can prompt goal pursuit in the absence of self-imposed controls. Across four studies we found support for this complementary model of prejudice regulation. In Study 1, self-regulatory fatigue resulted in less motivation to be non-prejudiced, compared to a non-fatigued control...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909252/nurses-as-antibiotic-brokers-institutionalized-praxis-in-the-hospital
#2
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Graham Scambler
We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909017/early-environmental-field-research-career-exploration-an-analysis-of-impacts-on-precollege-apprentices
#3
Susan K Flowers, Katherine M Beyer, Maria Pérez, Donna B Jeffe
Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station-based research teams...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902708/goal-fluency-pessimism-and-disengagement-in-depression
#4
Joanne M Dickson, Nicholas J Moberly, Christian O'Dea, Matt Field
Despite the development of prominent theoretical models of goal motivation and its importance in daily life, research has rarely examined goal dysregulation processes in clinical depression. Here we aimed to investigate problematic aspects of goal regulation in clinically depressed adults, relative to controls. Depressed participants (n = 42) were recruited from two Improving Access to Psychological Therapy clinics in north-west England. Control participants (n = 51) were recruited from the same region. Participants generated personal approach goals (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900404/erasing-borders-a-brief-chronicle-of-early-synthetic-biology
#5
REVIEW
Juli Peretó
Synthetic Biology is currently presented as an emergent field involving the application of engineering principles to living matter. However, the scientific pursuit of making life in a laboratory is not new and has been the ultimate, if somewhat distant, aim of the origin-of-life research program for many years. Actually, over a century ago, the idea that the synthesis of life was indispensable to fully understand its nature already appealed to material scientists and evolutionists alike. Jacques Loeb proposed a research program from an engineering standpoint, following a synthetic method (experimental abiogenesis) and based on his mechanist vision of living beings, which he considered true chemical machines...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900180/pursuit-of-performance-excellence-a-population-study-of-norwegian-adolescent-female-cross-country-skiers-and-biathletes-with-disordered-eating
#6
Ingvild Pettersen, Erik Hernæs, Finn Skårderud
AIM: To examine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) among the total population of Norwegian female cross-country skiers and biathletes at the junior level, and to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics predict DE among athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study of Norwegian female junior cross-country skiers and biathletes (n=262), with a response rate of 86%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses explored the prevalence of DE and its relation to sports, competitive age groups, competitive status and education...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899696/selective-antagonism-of-trpa1-produces-limited-efficacy-in-models-of-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#7
Sonya G Lehto, Andy D Weyer, Beth D Youngblood, Maosheng Zhang, Ruoyuan Yin, Weiya Wang, Yohannes Teffera, Melanie Cooke, Cheryl L Stucky, Laurie Schenkel, Stephanie Geuns-Meyer, Bryan D Moyer, Kenneth D Wild, Narender R Gavva
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel has been implicated in pathophysiological processes that include asthma, cough, and inflammatory pain. Agonists of TRPA1 such as mustard oil and its key component allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) cause pain and neurogenic inflammation in humans and rodents, and TRPA1 antagonists have been reported to be effective in rodent models of pain. In our pursuit of TRPA1 antagonists as potential therapeutics, we generated AMG0902, a potent (IC90 of 300 nM against rat TRPA1), selective, brain penetrant (brain to plasma ratio of 0...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899636/the-monarch-initiative-an-integrative-data-and-analytic-platform-connecting-phenotypes-to-genotypes-across-species
#8
Christopher J Mungall, Julie A McMurry, Sebastian Köhler, James P Balhoff, Charles Borromeo, Matthew Brush, Seth Carbon, Tom Conlin, Nathan Dunn, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, J P Gourdine, Julius O B Jacobsen, Dan Keith, Bryan Laraway, Suzanna E Lewis, Jeremy NguyenXuan, Kent Shefchek, Nicole Vasilevsky, Zhou Yuan, Nicole Washington, Harry Hochheiser, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Peter N Robinson, Melissa A Haendel
The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896994/human-kinases-display-mutational-hotspots-at-cognate-positions-within-cancer
#9
Jonathan Gallion, Angela D Wilkins, Olivier Lichtarge
The discovery of driver genes is a major pursuit of cancer genomics, usually based on observing the same mutation in different patients. But the heterogeneity of cancer pathways plus the high background mutational frequency of tumor cells often cloud the distinction between less frequent drivers and innocent passenger mutations. Here, to overcome these disadvantages, we grouped together mutations from close kinase paralogs under the hypothesis that cognate mutations may functionally favor cancer cells in similar ways...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896933/feasibility-and-clinical-integration-of-molecular-profiling-for-target-identification-in-pediatric-solid-tumors
#10
Thomas Pincez, Nathalie Clément, Eve Lapouble, Gaëlle Pierron, Maud Kamal, Ivan Bieche, Virginie Bernard, Paul Fréneaux, Jean Michon, Daniel Orbach, Isabelle Aerts, Hélène Pacquement, Franck Bourdeaut, Irene Jiménez, Estelle Thébaud, Caroline Oudot, Cécile Vérité, Sophie Taque, Cormac Owens, François Doz, Christophe Le Tourneau, Olivier Delattre, Gudrun Schleiermacher
BACKGROUND: The role of tumor molecular profiling in directing targeted therapy utilization remains to be defined for pediatric tumors. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a sequencing and molecular biology tumor board (MBB) program, and its clinical impact on children with solid tumors. PROCEDURE: We report on a single-center MBB experience of 60 pediatric patients with a poor prognosis or relapsed/refractory solid tumors screened between October 2014 and November 2015...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896539/why-health-and-social-care-support-for-people-with-long-term-conditions-should-be-oriented-towards-enabling-them-to-live-well
#11
Vikki A Entwistle, Alan Cribb, John Owens
There are various reasons why efforts to promote "support for self-management" have rarely delivered the kinds of sustainable improvements in healthcare experiences, health and wellbeing that policy leaders internationally have hoped for. This paper explains how the basis of failure is in some respects built into the ideas that underpin many of these efforts. When (the promotion of) support for self-management is narrowly oriented towards educating and motivating patients to adopt the behaviours recommended for disease control, it implicitly reflects and perpetuates limited and somewhat instrumental views of patients...
November 28, 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895714/early-detection-and-personalized-treatment-in-oral-cancer-the-impact-of-omics-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Ilda Patrícia Ribeiro, Leonor Barroso, Francisco Marques, Joana Barbosa Melo, Isabel Marques Carreira
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is one of the most common malignant lesions of the head and neck. This cancer is an aggressive and lethal disease with no significant improvements in the overall survival in the last decades. Moreover, the incidence of oral HPV-positive tumors is rising, especially in young people. This oral neoplasm develops through numerous molecular imbalances that affect key genes and signaling pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of oral tumors are still to be fully determined...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895608/genetic-consideration-of-schizotypal-traits-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Emma E Walter, Francesca Fernandez, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus
Schizotypal traits are of interest and importance in their own right and also have theoretical and clinical associations with schizophrenia. These traits comprise attenuated psychotic symptoms, social withdrawal, reduced cognitive capacity, and affective dysregulation. The link between schizotypal traits and psychotic disorders has long since been debated. The status of knowledge at this point is such schizotypal traits are a risk for psychotic disorders, but in and of themselves only confer liability, with other risk factors needing to be present before a transition to psychosis occurs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895102/delaying-and-seeking-care-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-the-role-of-gender-family-and-morality
#14
Dana Zarhin
Social scientists have proposed various theories as to when, why, and how people come to seek medical care for multiple conditions. Yet, there is still little empirical research to illustrate the pathways into and out of care, especially for chronic illness. This article contributes to this body of work by exploring individuals' reasons for delaying and seeking care for obstructive sleep apnea, which despite being the most diagnosed sleep disorder, has been largely neglected by social scientists. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 65 Jewish-Israeli obstructive sleep apnea patients, this study shows how intersections of gender, family, and morality shape and are shaped by care-seeking behavior...
November 28, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894703/over-surgery-in-breast-cancer
#15
Fiona MacNeill, Andreas Karakatsanis
Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery...
November 25, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894025/fixating-on-the-size-speed-illusion-of-approaching-railway-trains-what-we-can-learn-from-our-eye-movements
#16
Helen E Clark, John A Perrone, Robert B Isler, Samuel G Charlton
Railway level crossing collisions have recently been linked to a size-speed illusion where larger objects such as trains appear to move slower than smaller objects such as cars. An explanation for this illusion has centred on observer eye movements - particularly in relation to the larger, longer train. A previous study (Clark et al., 2016) found participants tend to make initial fixations to locations around the visual centroid of a moving vehicle; however individual eye movement patterns tended to be either fixation-saccade-fixation type, or smooth pursuit...
November 25, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891509/the-performance-of-short-term-heart-rate-variability-in-the-detection-of-congestive-heart-failure
#17
Fausto Lucena, Allan Kardec Barros, Noboru Ohnishi
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG) or heart rate variability (HRV) from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891474/an-evaluation-of-use-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-in-the-management-of-dynamic-forehead-wrinkles-a-clinical-study
#18
Avvaru Susmita, Naga Neelima Devi Kolli, Sridhar Meka, Srinivas Pandi Chakravarthi, Vivekanand Sabanna Kattimani, Krishna Prasad Lingamaneni, Latheef Saheb Shaik
INTRODUCTION: The pursuit of youth and beauty has undergone a resurgence of interest which is evidenced by increasing cosmetic procedures. Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox) is one among the many procedures invented for facial rejuvenation which denervates certain muscles of facial expression responsible for facial wrinkles. It has been applied in the forehead, glabella, lateral canthal area and neck. In maxillofacial area hyperactive forehead wrinkles show sagging. AIM: This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the efficacy of Botox injection in the elimination of hyperdynamic forehead wrinkles and the objectives were to compare pre-operative and post-operative improvement in the number of wrinkles, photographic grading and patient satisfaction responses after 1(st) week, 4(th) week and 16(th) week...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889858/the-pursuit-of-truth-in-the-company-of-friends-in-memorium-charles-w-daniel
#19
EDITORIAL
Gary B Silberstein, Michael T Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#20
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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