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Eric J Warrant
As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jesse Burk-Rafel, Patricia B Mullan, Heather Wagenschutz, Alexandra Pulst-Korenberg, Eric Skye, Matthew M Davis
PURPOSE: Scholarly concentration programs-also known as scholarly projects, pathways, tracks, or pursuits-are increasingly common in U.S. medical schools. However, systematic, data-driven program development methods have not been described. METHOD: The authors examined scholarly concentration programs at U.S. medical schools that U.S. News & World Report ranked as top 25 for research or primary care (n = 43 institutions), coding concentrations and mission statements...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Biljana Stojković, Ahmed Sayadi, Mirko Đorđević, Jelena Jović, Uroš Savković, Göran Arnqvist
Mitochondria play a key role in ageing. The pursuit of genes that regulate variation in lifespan and ageing have shown that several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes are important. However, the role of mitochondrial-encoded genes (mtDNA) is more controversial and our appreciation of the role of mtDNA for the evolution of lifespan is limited. We use replicated lines of seed beetles that have been artificially selected for long or short life for >190 generations, now showing dramatic phenotypic differences, to test for a possible role of mtDNA in the divergent evolution of ageing and lifespan...
October 25, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Howard Y Park, Sara K Yang, William L Sheppard, Vishal Hegde, Stephen D Zoller, Scott D Nelson, Noah Federman, Nicholas M Bernthal
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bone lesions arising predominantly in the pediatric population that can cause local pain, swelling, and pathologic fracture. Primary lesions, which constitute roughly two thirds of all ABCs, are thought to be neoplastic in nature, with one third of ABCs arising secondary to other tumors. Diagnosis is made with various imaging modalities, which exhibit characteristic features such as "fluid-fluid levels," although biopsy is critical, as telangiectatic osteosarcoma cannot be excluded based on imaging alone...
October 24, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Marvin S Swartz, Sayanti Bhattacharya, Allison G Robertson, Jeffrey W Swanson
OBJECTIVE: Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Camila de Araújo Dalitz, Mariana Vieira Porsani, Izabel Cristina Figel, Ida C Pimentel, Patrícia R Dalzoto
Actinobacteria occur in many environments and have the capacity to produce secondary metabolites with antibiotic potential. Identification and taxonomy of actinobacteria that produce antimicrobial substances is essential for the screening of new compounds, and sequencing of the 16S region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which is conserved and present in all bacteria, is an important method of identification. Melanized fungi are free-living organisms, which can also be pathogens of clinical importance. This work aimed to evaluate growth inhibition of melanized fungi by actinobacteria and to identify the latter to the species level...
October 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Baomei Zhang, Yang Wang, Jiyong Liu, Guangxi Zhai
Graphene-based nanomaterials have drawn abundant interest in various fields such as biomedicine in recent years, thanks to their unique physico-chemical properties. Due to the ultra-high surface area of single-layered graphene, higher molecular loading is obtained. In addition, easy modifications are acquired because of its ample oxygen-content functional groups. Based on the above talking advantages, graphene-based nanomaterials have been widely explored as novel nano-vectors for disease theranostics. In this article, we give a comprehensive review about graphene-based nanomaterials, including introduction about different members of graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs), various modifications, toxicity and biomedical applications of graphene-based derivatives...
October 19, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Jennifer L Hoy, Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr, Cristopher M Niell
The ability to genetically identify and manipulate neural circuits in the mouse is rapidly advancing our understanding of visual processing in the mammalian brain [1, 2]. However, studies investigating the circuitry that underlies complex ethologically relevant visual behaviors in the mouse have been primarily restricted to fear responses [3-5]. Here, we show that a laboratory strain of mouse (Mus musculus, C57BL/6J) robustly pursues, captures, and consumes live insect prey and that vision is necessary for mice to perform the accurate orienting and approach behaviors leading to capture...
October 8, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Georgie Powell, Zoe Meredith, Rebecca McMillin, Tom C A Freeman
According to Bayesian models, perception and cognition depend on the optimal combination of noisy incoming evidence with prior knowledge of the world. Individual differences in perception should therefore be jointly determined by a person's sensitivity to incoming evidence and his or her prior expectations. It has been proposed that individuals with autism have flatter prior distributions than do nonautistic individuals, which suggests that prior variance is linked to the degree of autistic traits in the general population...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Science
Britta Kristina Ischebeck, Jurryt de Vries, Jos N Van der Geest, Malou Janssen, Jan Paul Van Wingerden, Gert Jan Kleinrensink, Maarten A Frens
BACKGROUND: Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report problems with vision, some of which may be due to impaired eye movements. Better understanding of such impaired eye movements could improve diagnostics and treatment strategies. This systematic review surveys the current evidence on changes in eye movements of patients with WAD and explains how the oculomotor system is tested. METHODS: Nine electronic data bases were searched for relevant articles from inception until September 2015...
October 21, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Jan Forber, Michelle DiGiacomo, Bernie Carter, Patricia Davidson, Jane Phillips, Debra Jackson
Clinical learning experiences are an essential part of nurse education programs. Numerous approaches to clinical education and student supervision exist. The aim of this integrative review was to explore how studies have compared or contrasted different models of undergraduate nurse clinical education. A search of eight databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature published between 2006 and 2015. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A diverse range of methodologies and data collection methods were represented, which primarily explored student experiences or perceptions...
September 30, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Kirilka Mladenova, Svetla D Petrova, Tonya D Andreeva, Veselina Moskova-Doumanova, Tanya Topouzova-Hristova, Yuri Kalvachev, Konstantin Balashev, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Christina Chakarova, Zdravko Lalchev, Jordan A Doumanov
Human bestrophin-1 (hBest1) is a transmembrane calcium-activated chloride channel protein - member of the bestrophin family of anion channels, predominantly expressed in the membrane of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Mutations in the protein cause ocular diseases, named Bestrophinopathies. Here, we present the first Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study of the secondary structure elements of hBest1, π/A isotherms and hysteresis, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) visualization of the aggregation state of protein molecules dispersed as Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Anuja Bandyopadhyay, A Ioana Cristea, Stephanie D Davis, Veda L Ackerman, James E Slaven, Hasnaa E Jalou, Deborah C Givan, Ameet Daftary
RATIONALE: There is a lack of evidence regarding factors associated with failure of tracheostomy decannulation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify characteristics of pediatric patients who fail a tracheostomy decannulation challenge Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had a decannulation challenge at a tertiary care center from June 2006 to October 2013. Tracheostomy decannulation failure was defined as reinsertion of the tracheostomy tube within 6 months of the challenge...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Dongliang Chao, Pei Liang, Zhen Chen, Linyi Bai, He Shen, Xiaoxu Liu, Xinhui Xia, Yanli Zhao, Serguei V Savilov, Jianyi Lin, Ze Xiang Shen
The abundant reservation and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances were still limited either by the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursuit high-rate ability with maintained high-capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarrays electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
P Jauhar, P A Mossey, H Popat, J Seehra, P S Fleming
Background Undergraduate orthodontic teaching has been focused on developing an understanding of occlusal development in an effort to equip practitioners to make appropriate referrals for specialist-delivered care. However, there is a growing interest among general dentists in delivering more specialised treatments, including short-term orthodontic alignment. This study aimed to assess the levels of knowledge of occlusal problems among final year undergraduate dental students, as well as their interest in various orthodontics techniques and training...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Rebecca S Nader, Anthony L Murkar, Carlyle T Smith
Recent research has suggested that some of the inter-individual variation in sleep spindle activity is due to innate learning ability. Sleep spindles have also been observed to vary following learning in both young and older adults. We examined the effect of procedural task acquisition on sleep stages and on sleep spindles in an adolescent sample. Participants were 32 adolescents (17 females) between the ages of 12 and 19 years. Spindle activity was examined in three different frequency ranges: 11.00-13.50 Hz (slow), 13...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Susan Heavey, Sinead Cuffe, Stephen Finn, Vincent Young, Ronan Ryan, Siobhan Nicholson, Niamh Leonard, Niall McVeigh, Martin Barr, Kenneth O'Byrne, Kathy Gately
Clinical PI3K inhibition has been somewhat disappointing, due to both inadequate patient stratification and compensatory cell signalling through bypass mechanisms. As such, investigation of PI3K-MEK co-targeted inhibition has been recommended. With high mortality rates and a clear need for new therapeutic intervention strategies, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important setting to investigate the effectiveness of this approach.Here, 174 NSCLC tumours were screened for 150 mutations by Fluidigm technology, with 15 patients being profiled for phosphoprotein expression...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Eric Smart, Adeeta Aulakh, Carolyn McDougall, Patty Rigby, Gillian King
PURPOSE: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
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