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High alert medication

Matthew Grissinger
Risk-reduction strategies for high-alert medication lists.
October 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Kendra Thomsen, Kim Zuber, Jane Davis, Greg Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Kidneys in a Box (KIB) was developed to identify the effect of a performance improvement CME (PI-CME) project on the management of patients with diabetes who are at risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The program provided nonnephrology practitioners with research-based interventions known to slow CKD progression. METHODS: PAs were given the KIB tool kit, which described the scope of CKD identified high-risk diagnoses such as diabetes, and listed six modifiable risk factors that have been shown to slow progression of diabetic kidney disease when implemented...
October 5, 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Rebecca Johnson
Some people with well-managed insulin-dependent diabetes can dive safely. Those cleared to participate should control tightly the variables that impact blood glucose levels, including activity, timing, food and insulin. Honest self-assessment is critical. A diabetic diver should cancel a dive if seasick, unusually anxious, or following significant high or low blood glucose levels in the preceding 24 hours. The diver should enter the water with a blood glucose level above 8.3 mmol·L⁻¹ and below 14 mmol·L⁻¹ with a stable or rising trend in blood glucose established with glucose tests at 90, 60, and 30 minutes prior to a dive...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
I Cuesta López, M Sánchez Cuervo, Á Candela Toha, J Benedí González, T Bermejo Vicedo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The correct management of high-alert medications is a priority issue in expert recommendations for improving the clinical safety of patients. Objectives were to assess the impact of the implementation of vasoactive drug (VAD) protocols on safety and efficacy in the treatment of critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective before-and-after study on the implementation of different VAD protocols, comparing medication errors (MEs) rates, mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay, mean blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Zihao Yan, Ivan K Ip, Ali S Raja, Anurag Gupta, Joshua M Kosowsky, Ramin Khorasani
Purpose To determine the frequency of, and yield after, provider overrides of evidence-based clinical decision support (CDS) for ordering computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography in the emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study was performed at a tertiary care, academic medical center ED with approximately 60 000 annual visits and included all patients who were suspected of having pulmonary embolism (PE) and who underwent CT pulmonary angiography between January 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
Edward V Nunes, Joshua D Lee, Dominic Sisti, Andrea Segal, Arthur Caplan, Marc Fishman, Genie Bailey, Gregory Brigham, Patricia Novo, Sarah Farkas, John Rotrosen
We examine ethical challenges encountered in the design of an effectiveness trial (CTN-0051; X:BOT), comparing sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX), an established treatment for opioid dependence, to the newer extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX). Ethical issues surrounded: 1) known poor effectiveness of one possible, commonly used treatment as usual control condition-detoxification followed by counseling without medication; 2) the role of patients' preferences for treatments, given that treatments were clinically approved and available to the population; 3) differences between the optimal "usual treatment" clinical settings for different treatments making it challenging to design a fair comparison; 4) vested interest groups favoring different treatments exerting potential influence on the design process; 5) potentially vulnerable populations of substance users and prisoners; 6) potential therapeutic misconception in the implementation of safety procedures; and 7) high cost of a large trial limiting questions that could be addressed...
September 28, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Alexander Seitinger, Andrea Rappelsberger, Harald Leitich, Michael Binder, Klaus-Peter Adlassnig
INTRODUCTION: Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are being developed to assist physicians in processing extensive data and new knowledge based on recent scientific advances. Structured medical knowledge in the form of clinical alerts or reminder rules, decision trees or tables, clinical protocols or practice guidelines, score algorithms, and others, constitute the core of CDSSs. Several medical knowledge representation and guideline languages have been developed for the formal computerized definition of such knowledge...
August 12, 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Dieuwke C Broekstra, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Rosanne Lanting, Tom Harder, Inge Smits, Paul M N Werker
BACKGROUND/AIM: Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative hand condition. The role of exposure to vibration as a risk factor has been studied with contradictory results. Since field hockey is expected to be a strong source of hand-arm vibration, we hypothesised that long-term exposure to field hockey is associated with Dupuytren disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study, the hands of 169 male field hockey players (IQR: 65-71 years) and 156 male controls (IQR: 59-71 years) were examined for signs of Dupuytren disease...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Paola Rosati, Franz Porzsolt, Gabriella Ricciotti, Giuseppina Testa, Rita Inglese, Ferruccio Giustini, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Marco Zazza, Cecilia Carlino, Valerio Balassone, Roberto Fiorito, Roberto D'Amico
BACKGROUND: Whether information from clinical trial registries (CTRs) and published randomised controlled trial (RCTs) differs remains unknown. Knowing more about discrepancies should alert those who rely on RCTs for medical decision-making to possible dissemination or reporting bias. To provide help in critically appraising research relevant for clinical practice we sought possible discrepancies between what CTRs record and paediatric RCTs actually publish. For this purpose, after identifying six reporting domains including funding, design, and outcomes, we collected data from 20 consecutive RCTs published in a widely read peer-reviewed paediatric journal and cross-checked reported features with those in the corresponding CTRs...
2016: Trials
Laurel A Despins
Severe sepsis and septic shock are global issues with high mortality rates. Early recognition and intervention are essential to optimize patient outcomes. Automated detection using electronic medical record (EMR) data can assist this process. This review describes automated sepsis detection using EMR data. PubMed retrieved publications between January 1, 2005 and January 31, 2015. Thirteen studies met study criteria: described an automated detection approach with the potential to detect sepsis or sepsis-related deterioration in real or near-real time; focused on emergency department and hospitalized neonatal, pediatric, or adult patients; and provided performance measures or results indicating the impact of automated sepsis detection...
September 13, 2016: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Jordan D Haag, Amanda Z Davis, Robert W Hoel, Jeffrey J Armon, Laura J Odell, Ross A Dierkhising, Paul Y Takahashi
BACKGROUND: The optimization of medication use during care transitions represents an opportunity to improve overall health-related outcomes. The utilization of clinical pharmacists during care transitions has demonstrated benefit, although the optimal method of integration during the care transition process remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided telephonic medication therapy management (MTM) on care quality in a care transitions program (CTP) for high-risk older adults...
July 2016: American Health & Drug Benefits
Régis Vaillancourt, Annie Pouliot, Kim Streitenberger, Sylvia Hyland, Pierre Thabet
BACKGROUND: Inherent risks are associated with the preparation and administration of medications. As such, a key aspect of medication safety is to ensure safe medication management practices. OBJECTIVE: To identify key medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes that might benefit from implementation of pictograms, for use by health care providers, to enhance medication administration safety. This study was the first step in the development of such pictograms...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Jaymon Patel, Preeti Patel, Zohair Ahmed
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening medical emergency which may be difficult to recognize given the wide spectrum in which it presents. A delay in treatment may be catastrophic as untreated cases of TTP have a mortality rate exceeding 90%. Given the high fatality rate of untreated TTP and its range of presenting symptoms, we present our unusual case of TTP in a post-splenectomy patient with early treatment and positive outcome. This case describes a 54-year-old female who presented with hematuria and gingival bleeding, followed by the development of a bilateral lower extremity petechial rash...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Yuka Yamazaki, Valerie Yontz, Cullen Hayashida
AIM: Hawaii is a fast-aging, multi-ethnic state. At present, ethnic Japanese represent the largest segment of the elderly population (aged ≥65 years). Studies in Western countries have identified an association between ethnicity and the use of homecare services. The present study sought to substantiate this association in relation to the use of a personal emergency response system service by older ethnic Japanese adults in Hawaii. METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 585 elderly subscribers of a company providing personal emergency response system services in Hawaii in 2014...
August 26, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Lawrence Tim Goodnough, Steven Andrew Baker, Neil Shah
Despite 20 years of published medical society guidelines for blood transfusion and a pivotal clinical trial in 1999 providing Level 1 evidence that restrictive transfusion practices can be utilized safely, blood transfusions did not begin to decline in the United States until 2010. Widespread adoption of electronic medical records allowed implementation of computerized systems such as clinical decision support (CDS) with best practice alerts to improve blood utilization. We describe our own experience using well-designed and highly targeted CDS to promote restrictive transfusion practices and improve red blood cell utilization, with a 42% reduction in blood transfusions from 2009 through 2015, accompanied by improved clinical outcomes...
October 2016: Transfusion
Katharina Hirsch, Stefanie Bohley, Wilfried Mau, Andrea Schmidt-Pokrzywniak
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Europe. In Germany, a declining mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been observed in the last decades. Nevertheless, there are large differences between the federal states when looking at the mortality and morbidity of AMI. Saxony-Anhalt is one of the federal states with the highest mortality rates for AMI in Germany. In 2012, the regional myocardial infarction registry of Saxony-Anhalt (RHESA) was established to investigate the individual, infrastructural, and health care factors with respect to an urban (city of Halle) and rural (region of Altmark) population...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Vanita Sahni, Allison N Scott, Marie Beliveau, Marie Varughese, Douglas C Dover, James Talbot
OBJECTIVE: In June of 2013, southern Alberta underwent flooding that affected approximately 100,000 people. We describe the process put in place for public health surveillance and assessment of the impacts on health. METHODS: Public health surveillance was implemented for the six-week period after the flood to detect anticipated health events, including injuries, mental health problems and infectious diseases. Data sources were emergency departments (EDs) for presenting complaints, public health data on the post-exposure administration of tetanus vaccine/immunoglobulin, administrative data on prescription drugs, and reportable diseases...
2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
W Santucci, R O Day, M T Baysari
We conducted an observational study with interviews in a 12-bed general/neurological intensive care unit (ICU) at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, to determine whether hospital-wide computerised decision support (CDS) embedded in an electronic prescribing system is used and perceived as useful by doctors in an ICU setting. Twenty doctors were shadowed by the observer while on ward rounds (33.6 hours) and non-ward rounds (28 hours) in the ICU. These doctors were also interviewed to explore views of CDS...
July 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Liangliang Zhang, Long Zhang, Na Nian, Xuen Yu, Yongguang Shi, Yan Yan, Dandan Sun, Nan Cheng, Xun Wang, Renmin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze a case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) with mental retardation as the initial neurological symptom. METHODS: Medical imaging, histopathological assay and genetic testing were carried out to analyze the patient. RESULTS: Neurological manifestations of the 27-year-old male patient were initiated by mental retardation and subsequently memory lapses, ataxia, spastic paraplegia and fuzzy language. Other symptoms included cataract, xanthomatosis in Achilles tendon, kidney stones and high arches...
August 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Imani McElroy, Sohail Sareh, Allen Zhu, Gabrielle Miranda, Hoover Wu, Michelle Nguyen, Richard Shemin, Peyman Benharash
BACKGROUND: Unintended rehospitalizations after surgical procedures represent a large percentage of readmissions and have been associated with increased morbidity and cost of care. Beginning in 2017, Medicare will expand diagnostic categories subject to financial penalties for excess postoperative readmissions to include coronary revascularization procedures. Arrhythmias and pulmonary complications comprise the largest categories for readmission after cardiac surgery. Technologic advances in remote monitoring have led to the use of web-based digital health kits (DHK) aimed at reducing readmissions and improving postoperative outcomes...
July 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
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