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Sex and the Elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943478/sexual-dimorphism-of-metabolic-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-aged-mice-and-those-lacking-the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-3
#1
Amanda T Cao, Martina Mackova, Daniel Kerage, David N Brindley, Denise G Hemmings
Elderly people often suffer adverse health because of inflammation associated with poor metabolism and cardiovascular dysfunction, but these conditions present differently in men and women. We performed experiments in aged male and female mice to understand this sexual dimorphism. We focused on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, which has both protective and detrimental effects on vascular and metabolic function. We examined vascular function of mesenteric (resistance) arteries from aged male and female wild-type (WT) mice compared to littermate S1P receptor 3 (S1PR3) knockouts (KO)...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943198/incidence-of-dementia-in-elderly-latin-americans-results-of-the-maracaibo-aging-study
#2
Gladys E Maestre, Luis J Mena, Jesus D Melgarejo, Daniel C Aguirre-Acevedo, Gloria Pino-Ramírez, Milady Urribarrí, Inara J Chacon, Carlos A Chávez, Luis Falque-Madrid, Ciro A Gaona, Joseph D Terwilliger, Joseph H Lee, Nikolaos Scarmeas
INTRODUCTION: There are few longitudinal studies of dementia in developing countries. We used longitudinal data from the Maracaibo Aging Study to accurately determine the age- and sex-specific incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans. METHODS: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) was used to diagnose dementia, which was classified as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or other. Age- and sex-specific incidence was estimated as the number of new cases of dementia divided by person-years (p-y) of follow-up...
September 21, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943182/the-relationship-between-the-dietary-inflammatory-index-and-incident-frailty-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#3
Nitin Shivappa, Brendon Stubbs, James R Hébert, Matteo Cesari, Patricia Schofield, Pinar Soysal, Stefania Maggi, Nicola Veronese
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is key risk factor for several conditions in the elderly. However, the relationship between inflammation and frailty is still unclear. We investigated whether higher dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores were associated with higher incidence of frailty in a cohort of North Americans. DESIGN: Longitudinal, with a follow-up of 8 years. SETTING: Osteoarthritis Initiative. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4421 participants with, or at high risk of, knee osteoarthritis...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942203/potentially-inappropriate-medication-association-between-the-use-of-antidepressant-drugs-and-the-subsequent-risk-for-dementia
#4
Kathrin Heser, Tobias Luck, Susanne Röhr, Birgitt Wiese, Hanna Kaduszkiewicz, Anke Oey, Horst Bickel, Edelgard Mösch, Siegfried Weyerer, Jochen Werle, Christian Brettschneider, Hans-Helmut König, Angela Fuchs, Michael Pentzek, Hendrik van den Bussche, Martin Scherer, Wolfgang Maier, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Michael Wagner
BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is associated with an increased risk for detrimental health outcomes in elderly patients. Some antidepressant drugs are considered as PIM, but previous research on the association between antidepressants and subsequent dementia has been inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated whether the intake of antidepressants, particularly of those considered as PIM according to the Priscus list, would predict incident dementia. METHODS: We used data of a prospective cohort study of non-demented primary care patients (n = 3239, mean age = 79...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941561/the-global-burden-of-scabies-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#5
Chante Karimkhani, Danny V Colombara, Aaron M Drucker, Scott A Norton, Roderick Hay, Daniel Engelman, Andrew Steer, Margot Whitfeld, Mohsen Naghavi, Robert P Dellavalle
BACKGROUND: Numerous population-based studies have documented high prevalence of scabies in overcrowded settings, particularly among children and in tropical regions. We provide an estimate of the global burden of scabies using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015. METHODS: We identified scabies epidemiological data sources from an extensive literature search and hospital insurance data and analysed data sources with a Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2·1, to yield prevalence estimates...
September 20, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941196/pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-vortioxetine-following-single-and-multiple-dose-administration-in-healthy-japanese-adults
#6
Kumi Matsuno, Koki Nakamura, Yutaka Aritomi, Akira Nishimura
Three phase 1 randomized single-center studies assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Japanese adults. Study 1 assessed the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine after administration of single rising doses to men and multiple doses to men and women; study 2 evaluated vortioxetine pharmacokinetics in elderly adults; and study 3 assessed food effects on vortioxetine pharmacokinetics in healthy men. The primary end points included pharmacokinetic parameters of vortioxetine and incidence of adverse events (AEs)...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938337/pulse-pressure-is-associated-with-plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-transport-dysfunction
#7
Yu Jiang, Suhang Shang, Pei Li, Chen Chen, Liangjun Dang, Jin Wang, Kang Huo, Meiying Deng, Jingyi Wang, Qiumin Qu
OBJECTIVE: Increased pulse pressure (PP) has been implicated in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Considering the close relationship between peripheral amyloid-β clearance and brain amyloid-β deposition, we investigated the potential association between PP and plasma amyloid-β transport function. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1118 participants underwent a health assessment and quantification of plasma amyloid-β and amyloid-β transporter expression...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933573/relationship-between-pure-tone-audiogram-findings-and-speech-perception-among-older-japanese-persons
#8
Yukihide Maeda, Soshi Takao, Akiko Sugaya, Yuko Kataoka, Shin Kariya, Satomi Tanaka, Rie Nagayasu, Atsuko Nakagawa, Kazunori Nishizaki
OBJECTIVE: To clarify how the pure-tone threshold (PTT) on the PTA predicts speech perception (SP) in elderly Japanese persons. METHODS: Data on PTT and SP were cross-sectionally analyzed in Japanese persons (656 ears in 353 patients, aged ≥65 years). Correlations of SP and average PTT in all tested frequencies were evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. After adjusting for sex, laterality of ears, and age, the relationship of average and frequency-specific PTT with impaired SP ≤50% was estimated by logistic regression models...
September 21, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929932/one-year-health-and-care-costs-after-hip-fracture-for-home-dwelling-elderly-patients-in-norway-results-from-the-trondheim-hip-fracture-trial
#9
Liv Faksvåg Hektoen, Ingvild Saltvedt, Olav Sletvold, Jorunn L Helbostad, Hilde Lurås, Vidar Halsteinli
AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the one-year health and care costs related to hip fracture for home-dwelling patients aged 70 years and older in Norway, paying specific attention to the status of the patients at the time of fracture and cost differences due to various patient pathways after fracture. METHODS: Data on health and care service provision were extracted from hospital and municipal records and from national registries; data on unit costs were collected from the municipalities, hospital administrations and previously published studies...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927470/validating-a-single-question-depression-measure-among-older-adults
#10
Kyung-Duk Min, Heeran Chun, Il-Ho Kim, Sung-Il Cho
BACKGROUND: A single-item depression measure may not be adequate in capturing the complex entity of mental health, despite wide use of this indicator in community studies. This study evaluated the accuracy of a single-question depression measure in comparison to two composite indices-the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 800 elderly participants ranging from 60 to 89 years of age and residing in Seoul were recruited using a multistage sampling scheme in 2015...
September 20, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926381/total-elbow-arthroplasty-for-distal-humeral-fractures-a-ten-year-minimum-follow-up-study
#11
Raul Barco, Philipp N Streubel, Bernard F Morrey, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo
BACKGROUND: Total elbow arthroplasty is commonly considered for elderly patients with comminuted distal humeral fractures. Satisfactory short-term outcomes have been reported, but long-term outcomes are unknown. Our purpose was to assess the long-term outcomes of total elbow arthroplasty after distal humeral fracture and to determine differences between elbows with or without inflammatory arthritis at the time of fracture. METHODS: Forty-four total elbow arthroplasties were performed after distal humeral fracture; those patients were followed for a minimum of 10 years and were evaluated with regard to pain, motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Scores, complications, and reoperations...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926363/blood-pressure-measurements-over-thin-and-thick-sleeves-in-the-frail-elderly
#12
Sachiko Ozone, Mikiya Sato, Ayumi Takayashiki, Takuya Sato, Aya Matsushita, Hisashi Yoshimoto, Tetsuhiro Maeno
OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure (BP) measurement is recommended on bare arms, but undressing the arms for BP measurements is often difficult for frail elderly individuals. We aimed to assess the accuracy of BP measurements over arms with thin and thick clothing among the frail elderly. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Individuals aged 65 years or older were recruited from three long-term care facilities in Japan between April and May 2016. The main outcome measures were BP measurements (a) on a bare arm, (b) over a thin shirt, (c) over a thin shirt and a cardigan, and (d) over the sleeve of a thin shirt and a cardigan rolled up to the elbow...
September 18, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920036/hematoma-block-versus-general-anesthesia-in-distal-radius-fractures-in-patients-over-60-years-in-trauma-emergency
#13
Ali Tabrizi, Fardin Mirza Tolouei, Ebrahim Hassani, Hassan Taleb, Asghar Elmi
BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures are among common fractures in the elderly. Regarding the age, background diseases, and possible risks, analgesia method is of great importance in this group. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare two analgesia methods including hematoma block and general anesthesia in people over 60 years in the orthopedic emergency department. METHODS: 68 elderly patients referring to the emergency department of a medical teaching center were selected based on the inclusion criteria for a non-randomized clinical trial...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913629/atherogenic-index-of-plasma-is-positively-associated-with-the-risk-of-all-cause-death-in-elderly-women-a%C3%A2-10-year-follow-up
#14
Matej Bendzala, Peter Sabaka, Martin Caprnda, Andrea Komornikova, Maria Bisahova, Ruth Baneszova, Daniel Petrovic, Robert Prosecky, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Andrej Dukat
BACKGROUND: The blood concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) do not predict survival in patients older than 60 years. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is a logarithm of the triacylglycerol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and a surrogate for the concentration of small dense LDL. It might be a better reflection of the risk of all-cause death in elderly patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients with arterial hypertension older than 60 years...
September 14, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910923/-a-qualitative-study-on-high-risk-behaviors-and-related-factors-of-reported-hiv-aids-cases-aged-60-years-and-above-in-some-areas-of-henan-province
#15
N Li, H Li, Y M Ma, P Y Fan, W J Yang, Q Zhu
Objective: To understand the major high risk behaviors and related factors among reported HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥60 years in some areas of Henan province. Methods: In Dengzhou, Xunxian county of Hebi and Xiangcheng county of Xuchang, where the reported number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥60 years were high, a face to face interview was conducted among the cases aged ≥60 years during July-August in 2016. The information about the high risk behaviors before HIV infection confirmation were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910891/-clinical-study-of-aged-patients-with-secondary-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#16
Z J Zhu, L P Wei, Z X Xu, H J Xu, Q Liu, N Luo
Objective: To investigate the clinical features and evaluate the efficacy of manual reduction in treatment of age patients with secondary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (s-BPPV). Methods: Thirty-two cases of aged patients ( the s-BPPV group: including 19 cases of female and 13 males, age from 60 to 86 years old)with secondary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo from Jul. 2013 to Sep. 2015 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The results were compared with 121 patients( the primary group: including 82 cases of female and 39males, aged from 60 to 86 years old)with aged primary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(p -BPPV)...
September 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906354/the-influence-of-renal-dialysis-and-hip-fracture-sites-on-the-10-year-mortality-of-elderly-hip-fracture-patients-a-nationwide-population-based-observational-study
#17
Li-Wei Hung, Yi-Ting Hwang, Guey-Shiun Huang, Cheng-Chih Liang, Jinn Lin
Hip fractures in older people requiring dialysis are associated with high mortality. Our study primarily aimed to evaluate the specific burden of dialysis on the mortality rate following hip fracture. The secondary aim was to clarify the effect of the fracture site on mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to analyze nationwide health data regarding dialysis and non-dialysis patients ≥65 years who sustained a first fragility-related hip fracture during the period from 2001 to 2005...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906260/effectiveness-of-a-post-emergency-department-discharge-multidisciplinary-bundle-in-reducing-acute-hospital-admissions-for-the-elderly
#18
Colin Ong, Marxengel Asinas-Tan, Lit-Sin Quek, Michael de Dios, Xue-Ting Cai, Beng-Leong Lim
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of the Subacute Ambulatory care for the Functionally challenged and Elderly (SAFE) programme, a post-emergency department (ED) discharge intervention for elderly and functionally challenged patients, in reducing acute hospital admissions. METHODS: This study was a 32-month retrospective quasi-experimental study comparing patients with at least one of six diagnostic classifications who underwent SAFE intervention with those who were eligible but declined and received usual ED care (control)...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905273/early-to-long-term-alterations-of-cns-barriers-after-traumatic-brain-injury-considerations-for-drug-development
#19
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Aleksandra Ichkova, Sighild Lemarchant, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability, particularly amongst the young and the elderly. The functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) are strongly impaired after TBI, thus affecting brain homeostasis. Following the primary mechanical injury that characterizes TBI, a secondary injury develops over time, including events such as edema formation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and alterations in paracelullar and transcellular transport...
September 13, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893575/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-very-elderly
#20
Yasuteru Inoue, Fumio Miyashita, Kazuo Minematsu, Kazunori Toyoda
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) incidences increase with age. Patients of advanced age may have limitations during acute care and recovery. We investigated baseline characteristics, hematoma features, and outcomes of very elderly ICH patients (≥80 years old) and compared them with those of younger ICH patients (<80 years old). METHODS: We studied 377 patients (122 women; 69 ± 11 years old) admitted within 24 hours of ICH onset. Outcome measures included hematoma volumes, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, and vital and functional prognoses at 30 days...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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