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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808134/vps9a-activates-the-rab5-gtpase-ara7-to-confer-distinct-pre-and-post-invasive-plant-innate-immunity
#1
Mads Eggert Nielsen, Gerd Jürgens, Hans Thordal-Christensen
Plant innate immunity can effectively prevent the proliferation of filamentous pathogens. Papilla formation at the site of attack is essential for pre-invasive immunity; in post-invasive immunity the encasement of pathogen structures inside host cells can hamper disease. Whereas papillae are highly dependent on transcytosis of premade material, little is known about encasement formation. Here we show that endosome-associated VPS9a, the conserved guanine-nucleotide exchange factor activating Rab5 GTPases, is required for both pre- and post-invasive immunity against a non-adapted powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801409/what-is-the-prevalence-of-and-associations-with-forced-labour-experiences-among-male-migrants-from-dolakha-nepal-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-of-returnee-migrants
#2
Joelle Mak, Tanya Abramsky, Bandita Sijapati, Ligia Kiss, Cathy Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: Growing numbers of people are migrating outside their country for work, and many experience precarious conditions, which have been linked to poor physical and mental health. While international dialogue on human trafficking, forced labour and slavery increases, prevalence data of such experiences remain limited. METHODS: Men from Dolakha, Nepal, who had ever migrated outside of Nepal for work were interviewed on their experiences, from predeparture to return (n=194)...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794483/impaired-lymphocyte-trafficking-in-mice-deficient-in-the-kinase-activity-of-pkn1
#3
Rana Mashud, Akira Nomachi, Akihide Hayakawa, Koji Kubouchi, Sally Danno, Takako Hirata, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Takashi Nakayama, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Shigeharu Wakana, Hiroyuki Ohsaki, Shingo Kamoshida, Hideyuki Mukai
Knock-in mice lacking PKN1 kinase activity were generated by introducing a T778A point mutation in the catalytic domain. PKN1[T778A] mutant mice developed to adulthood without apparent external abnormalities, but exhibited lower T and B lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood than those of wild-type (WT) mice. T and B cell development proceeded in an apparently normal fashion in bone marrow and thymus of PKN1[T778A] mice, however, the number of T and B cell counts were significantly higher in the lymph nodes and spleen of mutant mice in those of WT mice...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791633/c-elegans-vulva-induction-an-in-vivo-model-to-study-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-and-trafficking
#4
Kimberley Gauthier, Christian E Rocheleau
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated activation of the canonical Ras/MAPK signaling cascade is responsible for cell proliferation and cell growth. This signaling pathway is frequently overactivated in epithelial cancers; therefore, studying regulation of this pathway is crucial not only for our fundamental understanding of cell biology but also for our ability to treat EGFR-related disease. Genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, a hermaphroditic nematode, played a vital role in identifying components of the EGFR/Ras/MAPK pathway and delineating their order of function, and continues to play a role in identifying novel regulators of the pathway...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775077/chronic-rejection-of-cardiac-allografts-is-associated-with-increased-lymphatic-flow-and-cellular-trafficking
#5
Lindsey A Edwards, Anna K Nowocin, Nazila V Jafari, Lucy Meader, Kathryn Brown, Aurélien Sarde, Carolyn Lam, Alex Murray, Wilson Wong
Background -Cardiac transplantation is an excellent treatment for end-stage heart disease. However, rejection of the donor graft, particularly by chronic rejection leading to cardiac allograft vasculopathy, remains a major cause of graft loss. The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in the alloimmune response, facilitating trafficking of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to draining lymph nodes (dLN). The encounter of APCs with T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs is essential for the initiation of alloimmunity...
August 3, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766335/functional-complementation-studies-reveal-different-interaction-partners-of-escherichia-coli-iscs-and-human-nfs1
#6
Martin Bühning, Martin Friemel, Silke Leimkühler
The trafficking and delivery of sulfur to cofactors and nucleosides is a highly regulated and conserved process among all organisms. All sulfur transfer pathways generally have an l-cysteine desulfurase as an initial sulfur-mobilizing enzyme in common, which serves as a sulfur donor for the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules like iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, thiamine, biotin, lipoic acid, the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), and thiolated nucleosides in tRNA. The human l-cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and the Escherichia coli homologue IscS share a level of amino acid sequence identity of ∼60%...
August 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753658/neuroanatomy-of-the-spleen-mapping-the-relationship-between-sympathetic-neurons-and-lymphocytes
#7
Kaitlin Murray, Dayn Romero Godinez, Ingrid Brust-Mascher, Elaine Nicole Miller, Melanie G Gareau, Colin Reardon
The nervous system plays a profound regulatory role in maintaining appropriate immune responses by signaling to immune cells. These immune cells, including B- and T-cells, can further act as intermediary messengers, with subsets of B- and T-cells expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the enzyme required for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. Neural control of ACh release from ChAT+ T-cells can have powerful immune implications, regulating lymphocyte trafficking, inflammation, and prevent death due to experimental septic shock...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749340/super-resolution-imaging-of-synaptic-and-extra-synaptic-ampa-receptors-with-different-sized-fluorescent-probes
#8
Sang Hak Lee, Chaoyi Jin, En Cai, Pinghua Ge, Yuji Ishitsuka, Kai Wen Teng, Andre A de Thomaz, Duncan L Nall, Murat Baday, Okunola Jeyifous, Daniel Demonte, Christopher M Dundas, Sheldon Park, Jary Y Delgado, William N Green, Paul R Selvin
Previous studies tracking AMPA receptor (AMPAR) diffusion at synapses observed a large mobile extrasynaptic AMPAR pool. Using super-resolution microscopy, we examined how fluorophore size and photostability affected AMPAR trafficking outside of, and within, post-synaptic densities (PSDs) from rats. Organic fluorescent dyes (≈4 nm), quantum dots, either small (≈10 nm diameter; sQDs) or big (>20 nm; bQDs), were coupled to AMPARs via different-sized linkers. We find that >90% of AMPARs labeled with fluorescent dyes or sQDs were diffusing in confined nanodomains in PSDs, which were stable for 15 minutes or longer...
July 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733327/cenp-a-and-topoisomerase-ii-antagonistically-affect-chromosome-length
#9
A-M Ladouceur, Rajesh Ranjan, Lydia Smith, Tanner Fadero, Jennifer Heppert, Bob Goldstein, Amy Shaub Maddox, Paul S Maddox
The size of mitotic chromosomes is coordinated with cell size in a manner dependent on nuclear trafficking. In this study, we conducted an RNA interference screen of the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleome in a strain carrying an exceptionally long chromosome and identified the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A and the DNA decatenizing enzyme topoisomerase-II (topo-II) as candidate modulators of chromosome size. In the holocentric organism C. elegans, CENP-A is positioned periodically along the entire length of chromosomes, and in mitosis, these genomic regions come together linearly to form the base of kinetochores...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732768/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-four-fish-specific-cc-chemokine-receptors-ccr4la-ccr4lc1-ccr4lc2-and%C3%A2-ccr11-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Zhitao Qi, Jason W Holland, Yousheng Jiang, Christopher J Secombes, Pin Nie, Tiehui Wang
The chemokine and chemokine receptor networks regulate leukocyte trafficking, inflammation, immune cell differentiation, cancer and other biological processes. Comparative immunological studies have revealed that both chemokines and their receptors have expanded greatly in a species/lineage specific way. Of the 10 human CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-10) that bind CC chemokines, orthologues only to CCR6, 7, 9 and 10 are present in teleost fish. In this study, four fish-specific CCRs, termed as CCR4La, CCR4Lc1, CCR4Lc2 and CCR11, with a close link to human CCR1-5 and 8, in terms of amino acid homology and syntenic conservation, have been identified and characterized in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
July 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729419/the-exocyst-is-required-for-photoreceptor-ciliogenesis-and-retinal-development
#11
Glenn P Lobo, Diana Fulmer, Lilong Guo, Xiaofeng Zuo, Yujing Dang, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yanhui Su, Kola George, Elisabeth Obert, Ben Fogelgren, Deepak Nihalani, Russell A Norris, Bärbel Rohrer, Joshua H Lipschutz
We previously have shown that the highly-conserved eight-protein exocyst trafficking complex is required for ciliogenesis in kidney tubule cells. We hypothesized here that ciliogenic programs are conserved across organs and species. To determine if renal primary ciliogenic programs are conserved in the eye, and to characterize the function and mechanisms by which the exocyst regulates eye development in zebrafish, we focused on exoc5, a central component of the exocyst complex, by analyzing both exoc5 zebrafish mutants, and photoreceptor-specific Exoc5 knockout mice...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724000/differences-and-inequalities-in-relation-to-access-to-renal-replacement-therapy-in-the-brics-countries
#12
Fábio Humberto Ribeiro Paes Ferraz, Cibele Isaac Saad Rodrigues, Giuseppe Cesare Gatto, Natan Monsores de Sá
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries due to the high level of economic resources needed to maintain patients in the different programs that make up renal replacement therapy (RRT). To analyze the differences and inequalities involved in access to RRT in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa). This is an applied, descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study, with documentary analysis and a literature review...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722651/ephrin-a-epha-specific-co-adaptation-as-a-novel-mechanism-in-topographic-axon-guidance
#13
Felix Fiederling, Markus Weschenfelder, Martin Fritz, Anne von Philipsborn, Martin Bastmeyer, Franco Weth
Genetic hardwiring during brain development provides computational architectures for innate neuronal processing. Thus, the paradigmatic chick retinotectal projection, due to its neighborhood preserving, topographic organization, establishes millions of parallel channels for incremental visual field analysis. Retinal axons receive targeting information from quantitative guidance cue gradients. Surprisingly, novel adaptation assays demonstrate that retinal growth cones robustly adapt towards ephrin-A/EphA forward and reverse signals, which provide the major mapping cues...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721844/cd81-large-extracellular-loop-containing-fusion-proteins-with-a-dominant-negative-effect-on-hcv-cell-spread-and-replication
#14
Boyan Grigorov, Jennifer Molle, Eric Rubinstein, Fabien Zoulim, Birke Bartosch
The roles of CD81 in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle are multiple but remain ill characterized. CD81 is known to interact with the HCV glycoproteins as an attachment factor. It also has an important role in the post-attachment entry process. Its interaction with claudin-1, for example, is vital for viral uptake and trafficking. Furthermore, CD81 and its role in membrane organization and trafficking are thought to play a pivotal role in HCV replication. Some of these functions are particularly limited to human CD81; others can be substituted with CD81 molecules from other species...
July 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#15
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718179/genetic-alterations-in-pendrin-slc26a4-gene-in-adult-hypothyroid-patients
#16
Sourav Mukherjee, Manalee Guha, Bidisha Adhikary, Biswabandhu Bankura, Pubali Mitra, Subhankar Chowdhury, Madhusudan Das
Current study was aimed to screen the SLC26A4 gene in 127 nonautoimmune and noncongenital hypothyroid patients, who were under optimal iodine nutrition and devoid of any characteristics of Pendred syndrome from eastern part of Indian population. 8 single nucleotide variants/mutations were identified in heterozygous state in 20% patient population, which include 1 novel nonsynonymous (p.C18S), 1 novel intronic (g.942C>A), 3 known nonsynonymous (p.S23X, p.V239D, and p.I455F), and 3 known intronic (g.23034G>T, g...
July 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713398/a-hops-protein-movps41-is-crucially-important-for-vacuolar-morphogenesis-vegetative-growth-reproduction-and-virulence-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#17
Xiaojie Zhang, Guanghui Wang, Chengdong Yang, Jun Huang, Xiaofeng Chen, Jie Zhou, Guangpu Li, Justice Norvienyeku, Zonghua Wang
The homotypic fusion and protein sorting protein complex (HOPS) is the first known tether complex identified in the endocytic system that plays a key role in promoting homotypic vacuolar fusion, vacuolar biogenesis and trafficking in a wide range of organisms, including plant and fungi. However, the exact influence of the HOPS complex on growth, reproduction and pathogenicity of the economically destructive rice blast fungus has not been investigated. In this study, we identified M. oryzae vacuolar protein sorting 41 (MoVps41) an accessory subunit of HOPS complex and used targeted gene deletion approach to evaluate its contribution to growth, reproduction and infectious life cycle of the rice blast fungus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707374/localization-and-functional-analysis-of-the-insect-specific-rabx4-in-the-brain-of-bombyx-mori
#18
Tomohide Uno, Masayuki Furutani, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Yuichi Uno, Kengo Kanamaru, Akira Mizoguchi, Susumu Hiragaki, Makio Takeda
Rab proteins are small monomeric GTPases/GTP-binding proteins, which form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. The different Rab GTPases are localized to the cytosolic face of specific intracellular membranes, where they function as regulators of distinct steps in membrane trafficking. RabX4 is an insect-specific Rab protein that has no close homolog in vertebrates. There is little information about insect-specific Rab proteins. RabX4 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Antibodies against Bombyx mori RabX4 were produced in rabbits for western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703789/capturing-suboptical-dynamic-structures-in-lipid-bilayer-patches-formed-from-free-standing-giant-unilamellar-vesicles
#19
Tripta Bhatia, Flemming Cornelius, John H Ipsen
There is accumulating evidence that the small-scale lateral organization of biological membranes has a crucial role in signaling and trafficking in cells. However, it has been difficult to characterize these features with existing methods for preparing and analyzing freestanding membranes, because the dynamics occurs below the optical resolution possible with these protocols. We have developed a protocol that permits the imaging of lipid nanodomains and lateral protein organization in membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702760/regulation-of-long-distance-transport-of-mitochondria-along-microtubules
#20
REVIEW
Anna Melkov, Uri Abdu
Mitochondria are cellular organelles of crucial importance, playing roles in cellular life and death. In certain cell types, such as neurons, mitochondria must travel long distances so as to meet metabolic demands of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is essentially microtubule (MT) based and is executed by two main motor proteins, Dynein and Kinesin. The organization of the cellular MT network and the identity of motors dictate mitochondrial transport. Tight coupling between MTs, motors, and the mitochondria is needed for the organelle precise localization...
July 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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