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Organ trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224002/secretion-and-endocytosis-in-pollen-tubes-models-of-tip-growth-in-the-spot-light
#1
REVIEW
Gleb Grebnev, Maria Ntefidou, Benedikt Kost
Pollen tube tip growth is a widely used model ideally suited to study cellular processes underlying polarized cell expansion. Local secretion supplying material for plasma membrane (PM) and cell wall extension is essential for this process. Cell wall biogenesis requires fusion of secretory vesicles with the PM at an about 10× higher rate than PM extension. Excess material is therefore incorporated into the PM, which needs to be reinternalized through endocytosis. The classical model of tip growth proposes that exocytosis occurs at the apex and that newly incorporated PM material is transported to adjacent lateral regions, where excess material is endocytically recycled...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218511/engineering-of-radioiodine-labeled-gold-core-shell-nanoparticles-as-efficient-nuclear-medicine-imaging-agents-for-trafficking-of-dendritic-cells
#2
Sang Bong Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Shin Young Jeong, GhilSuk Yoon, Sung Jin Cho, Sang Kyoon Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
The development of highly sensitive, stable, and biocompatible imaging agents allowing visualization of dendritic cell (DC) migration is one of the essential factors for effective DC-based immunotherapy. Here, we used a novel and efficient synthesis approach to develop Radioiodine-124-labeled Tannic Acid Gold Core-Shell Nanoparticles (124I-TA-Au@AuNPs) for DC labeling and in vivo tracking of their migration using positron emission tomography (PET). 124I-TA-Au@AuNPs were produced within 40 min in high yield via straightforward tannic acid-mediated radiolabeling chemistry and incorporation of Au shell, which resulted in high radio-sensitivity and excellent chemical stability of nanoparticles in DCs and living mice...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217126/high-endothelial-venules-and-other-blood-vessels-critical-regulators-of-lymphoid-organ-development-and-function
#3
REVIEW
Ann Ager
The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer's patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216016/the-n-terminal-region-of-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-1b3-oatp1b3-plays-an-essential-role-in-regulating-its-plasma-membrane-trafficking
#4
Se-Eun Chun, Nilay Thakkar, Yunseok Oh, Ji Eun Park, Songhee Han, Gongmi Ryoo, Hyunggu Hahn, Sang Hyun Maeng, Young-Ran Lim, Byung Woo Han, Wooin Lee
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a major influx transporter mediating the hepatic uptake of various endogenous substrates as well as clinically important drugs such as statins and anticancer drugs. However, molecular mechanisms controlling the membrane trafficking of OATP1B3 have been largely unknown. Several reports recently indicated the presence of a distinct, cancer-type OATP1B3 variant lacking the N-terminal 28 amino acids compared to OATP1B3 expressed in non-malignant hepatocytes...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215533/plastid-protein-targeting-preprotein-recognition-and-translocation
#5
P Chotewutmontri, K Holbrook, B D Bruce
Eukaryotic organisms are defined by their endomembrane system and various organelles. The membranes that define these organelles require complex protein sorting and molecular machines that selectively mediate the import of proteins from the cytosol to their functional location inside the organelle. The plastid possibly represents the most complex system of protein sorting, requiring many different translocons located in the three membranes found in this organelle. Despite having a small genome of its own, the vast majority of plastid-localized proteins is nuclear encoded and must be posttranslationally imported from the cytosol...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215142/small-molecule-modulation-of-hdac6-activity-the-propitious-therapeutic-strategy-to-vanquish-neurodegenerative-disorders
#6
Shabir Ahmad Ganai
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic enzymes creating the transcriptionally inactive state of chromatin by erasing acetyl moiety from histone and non-histone substrates. HDAC6 modulates several biological pathways in dividing cells as well as in post-mitotic neurons, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. The distinct cellular functions and survival in these cells are reliant on HDAC6-mediated processes including intracellular trafficking, chaperone-mediated stress responses, anti-oxidation and protein degradation...
8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196728/the-atypical-rho-gtpase-rhod-is-a-regulator-of-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-directed-cell-migration
#7
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Johan Heldin, Johan Kreuger, Pontus Aspenström
RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system...
February 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192532/role-of-arf-gtpases-in-fungal-morphogenesis-and-virulence
#8
Hayet Labbaoui, Stéphanie Bogliolo, Vikram Ghugtyal, Norma V Solis, Scott G Filler, Robert A Arkowitz, Martine Bassilana
Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179572/spectrin-%C3%AE-v-adaptive-mutations-and-changes-in-subcellular-location-correlate-with-emergence-of-hair-cell-electromotility-in-mammalians
#9
Matteo Cortese, Samantha Papal, Francisco Pisciottano, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Jean-Pierre Hardelin, Christine Petit, Lucia Florencia Franchini, Aziz El-Amraoui
The remarkable hearing capacities of mammals arise from various evolutionary innovations. These include the cochlear outer hair cells and their singular feature, somatic electromotility, i.e., the ability of their cylindrical cell body to shorten and elongate upon cell depolarization and hyperpolarization, respectively. To shed light on the processes underlying the emergence of electromotility, we focused on the βV giant spectrin, a major component of the outer hair cells' cortical cytoskeleton. We identified strong signatures of adaptive evolution at multiple sites along the spectrin-βV amino acid sequence in the lineage leading to mammals, together with substantial differences in the subcellular location of this protein between the frog and the mouse inner ear hair cells...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179459/practical-method-for-targeted-disruption-of-cilia-related-genes-by-using-crispr-cas9-mediated-homology-independent-knock-in-system
#10
Yohei Katoh, Saki Michisaka, Shohei Nozaki, Teruki Funabashi, Tomoaki Hirano, Ryota Takei, Kazuhisa Nakayama
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing in virtually all organisms. Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system enables the targeted cleavage of genomic DNA, its use for gene knock-in remains challenging because levels of homologous recombination activity vary among various cells. In contrast, the efficiency of homology-independent DNA repair is relatively high in most cell types. Therefore, the utilization of a homology-independent repair mechanism is a possible alternative for efficient genome editing...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178913/training-us-health-care-professionals-on-human-trafficking-where-do-we-go-from-here
#11
Clydette Powell, Kirsten Dickins, Hanni Stoklosa
: Some 21 million adults and children are labor-trafficked or sex-trafficked through force, fraud, or coercion. In recognition of the interface between trafficking victims and the healthcare setting, over the last 10 years there has been a notable increase in training of health care professionals (HCPs) on human trafficking (HT) and its health implications. Many organizations have developed curricula and offered training in various clinical settings. However, methods and content of this education on trafficking vary widely, and there is little evaluation of the impact of the training...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178702/dysregulation-of-the-expression-of-asparagine-linked-glycosylation-13-short-isoform-2-affects-nephrin-function-by-altering-its-n-linked-glycosylation
#12
Teresa Esposito, Giovanni De Stefano, Mafalda Giovanna Reccia, Ilaria Di Lorenzo, Filomena Napolitano, Francesco Scalabrì, Alessia Lombardi, Moin A Saleem, Lyn R Griffiths, Fernando Gianfrancesco
BACKGROUND: N-linked glycosylation, which is a post-translational modification process, plays an important role in protein folding, intracellular trafficking and membrane targeting, as well as in regulating the protein function. Recently, we identified a missense variant (p.T141L) in the short isoform 2 of the X-linked gene asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 (ALG13-is2), which segregated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and PCCD in a large Australian pedigree; however, any evidence of its pathogenicity was demonstrated...
February 9, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174279/a-cytoplasmic-role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-transcriptional-cofactors-bcl9-bcl9l-and-pygopus-in-tooth-enamel-formation
#13
Claudio Cantù, Pierfrancesco Pagella, Tania D Shajiei, Dario Zimmerli, Tomas Valenta, George Hausmann, Konrad Basler, Thimios A Mitsiadis
Wnt-stimulated β-catenin transcriptional regulation is necessary for the development of most organs, including teeth. Bcl9 and Bcl9l are tissue-specific transcriptional cofactors that cooperate with β-catenin. In the nucleus, Bcl9 and Bcl9l simultaneously bind β-catenin and the transcriptional activator Pygo2 to promote the transcription of a subset of Wnt target genes. We showed that Bcl9 and Bcl9l function in the cytoplasm during tooth enamel formation in a manner that is independent of Wnt-stimulated β-catenin-dependent transcription...
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174210/a-single-transcription-factor-is-sufficient-to-induce-and-maintain-secretory-cell-architecture
#14
Hei-Yong G Lo, Ramon U Jin, Greg Sibbel, Dengqun Liu, Anju Karki, Matthew S Joens, Blair B Madison, Bo Zhang, Valerie Blanc, James A J Fitzpatrick, Nicholas O Davidson, Stephen F Konieczny, Jason C Mills
We hypothesized that basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) MIST1 (BHLHA15) is a "scaling factor" that universally establishes secretory morphology in cells that perform regulated secretion. Here, we show that targeted deletion of MIST1 caused dismantling of the secretory apparatus of diverse exocrine cells. Parietal cells (PCs), whose function is to pump acid into the stomach, normally lack MIST1 and do not perform regulated secretion. Forced expression of MIST1 in PCs caused them to expand their apical cytoplasm, rearrange mitochondrial/lysosome trafficking, and generate large secretory granules...
January 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165724/persulfide-formation-mediates-cysteine-and-homocysteine-biosynthesis-in-methanosarcina-acetivorans
#15
Benjamin Julius Rauch, John Klimek, Larry L David, John J Perona
The mechanisms of sulfur uptake and trafficking in methanogens inhabiting sulfidic environments are highly distinctive. In aerobes, sulfur transfers between proteins occur via persulfide relay, but direct evidence for persulfides in methanogens has been lacking. Here, we use mass spectrometry to analyze tryptic peptides of the Methanosarcina acetivorans SepCysS and MA1821 proteins purified anaerobically from methanogen cells. These enzymes insert sulfide into phosphoseryl(Sep)-tRNACys and aspartate semialdehyde, respectively, to form Cys-tRNACys and homocysteine...
February 6, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161901/shoot-meristemless-trafficking-controls-axillary-meristem-formation-meristem-size-and-organ-boundaries-in-arabidopsis
#16
Rachappa Balkunde, Munenori Kitagawa, Xianfeng Morgan Xu, Jing Wang, David Jackson
The shoot stem cell niche, contained within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is maintained in Arabidopsis by the homeodomain protein SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). STM is a mobile protein that traffics cell-to-cell, presumably through plasmodesmata. In maize, the STM homolog KNOTTED1 shows clear differences between mRNA and protein localization domains in the SAM. However, the STM mRNA and protein localization domains are not obviously different in Arabidopsis, and the functional relevance of STM mobility is unknown...
February 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154412/superresolution-imaging-identifies-that-conventional-trafficking-pathways-are-not-essential-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-outer-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-transport
#17
Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley
Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146371/critical-importance-of-rab-proteins-for-synaptic-function
#18
Maria Lidia Mignogna, Patrizia D'Adamo
Neurons are highly polarized cells that exhibit one of the more complex morphology and function. Neuronal intracellular trafficking plays a key role in dictating the directionality and specificity of vesicle formation, transport and fusion, allowing the transmission of information in sophisticate cellular network. Thus, the integrity of protein trafficking and spatial organization is especially important in neuronal cells. RAB proteins, small monomeric GTPases belonging to the RAS superfamily, spatially and temporally orchestrate specific vesicular trafficking steps...
February 1, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129038/regulation-of-small-gtpase-activity-by-g1-cyclins
#19
Neus Pedraza, Tània Cemeli, Ma Ventura Monserrat, Eloi Garí, Francisco Ferrezuelo
Together with a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) partner G1 cyclins control cell cycle entry by phosphorylating a number of nuclear targets and releasing a transcriptional program at the end of G1 phase. Yeast G1 cyclins also operate on cytoplasmic targets involved in the polarization of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking. These processes are mainly controlled by the small GTPase Cdc42, and G1 cyclins regulate the activity of this and other small GTPases through the modulation of their regulators and effectors...
January 27, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126722/design-principles-for-robust-vesiculation-in-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#20
Julian E Hassinger, George Oster, David G Drubin, Padmini Rangamani
A critical step in cellular-trafficking pathways is the budding of membranes by protein coats, which recent experiments have demonstrated can be inhibited by elevated membrane tension. The robustness of processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) across a diverse range of organisms and mechanical environments suggests that the protein machinery in this process has evolved to take advantage of some set of physical design principles to ensure robust vesiculation against opposing forces like membrane tension...
January 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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