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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330168/mrb7260-is-essential-for-productive-protein-rna-interactions-within-the-rna-editing-substrate-binding-complex-during-trypanosome-rna-editing
#1
Natalie M McAdams, Rachel M Simpson, Runpu Chen, Yijun Sun, Laurie Read
The trypanosome RNA Editing Substrate Binding Complex (RESC) acts as the platform for mitochondrial uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing and facilitates the protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions required for the editing process. RESC is broadly comprised of two subcomplexes: GRBC (Guide RNA Binding Complex) and REMC (RNA Editing Mediator Complex). Here, we characterize the function and position in RESC organization of a previously unstudied RESC protein, MRB7260. We show that MRB7260 forms numerous RESC-related complexes, including a novel, small complex with the guide RNA binding protein, GAP1, which is a canonical GRBC component, and REMC components MRB8170 and TbRGG2...
January 12, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330115/pediatric-onset-evans-syndrome-heterogeneous-presentation-and-high-frequency-of-monogenic-disorders-including-lrba-and-ctla4-mutations
#2
Caroline Besnard, Eva Levy, Nathalie Aladjidi, Marie-Claude Stolzenberg, Aude Magerus-Chatinet, Olivier Alibeu, Patrick Nitschke, Stéphane Blanche, Olivier Hermine, Eric Jeziorski, Judith Landman-Parker, Guy Leverger, Nizar Mahlaoui, Gérard Michel, Isabelle Pellier, Felipe Suarez, Isabelle Thuret, Geneviève de Saint-Basile, Capucine Picard, Alain Fischer, Bénédicte Neven, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Pierre Quartier
Evans syndrome (ES) is defined by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of immune dysregulation, found in primary immune deficiencies, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with FAS (ALPS-FAS), Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Lipopolysaccharide-Responsive vesicle trafficking Beige-like and Anchor protein (LRBA) defects. We report the clinical history and genetic results of 18 children with ES after excluding ALPS-FAS...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#3
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320955/therapeutic-roles-of-statins-in-gynecology-and-obstetrics-the-current-evidence
#4
Burak Zeybek, Maged Costantine, Gokhan S Kilic, Mostafa A Borahay
INTRODUCTION: Statins are a class of drugs, which act by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase). The inhibition of mevalonate synthesis leads to subsequent inhibition of downstream products of this pathway, which explains the pleiotropic effects of these agents in addition to their well-known lipid-lowering effects. Accumulating evidence suggests that statins might be beneficial in various obstetric and gynecologic conditions...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311541/yolk-sac-macrophage-progenitors-traffic-to-the-embryo-during-defined-stages-of-development
#5
C Stremmel, R Schuchert, F Wagner, R Thaler, T Weinberger, R Pick, E Mass, H C Ishikawa-Ankerhold, A Margraf, S Hutter, R Vagnozzi, S Klapproth, J Frampton, S Yona, C Scheiermann, J D Molkentin, U Jeschke, M Moser, M Sperandio, S Massberg, F Geissmann, C Schulz
Tissue macrophages in many adult organs originate from yolk sac (YS) progenitors, which invade the developing embryo and persist by means of local self-renewal. However, the route and characteristics of YS macrophage trafficking during embryogenesis are incompletely understood. Here we show the early migration dynamics of YS-derived macrophage progenitors in vivo using fate mapping and intravital microscopy. From embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) CX3CR1+ pre-macrophages are present in the mouse YS where they rapidly proliferate and gain access to the bloodstream to migrate towards the embryo...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309625/autophagy-in-turnover-of-lipid-stores-trans-kingdom-comparison
#6
Pernilla H Elander, Elena A Minina, Peter V Bozhkov
Lipids and their cellular utilization are essential for life. Not only are lipids energy storage molecules, but their diverse structural and physical properties underlie various aspects of eukaryotic biology, such as membrane structure, signalling, and trafficking. In the ever-changing environment of cells, lipids, like other cellular components, are regularly recycled to uphold the housekeeping processes required for cell survival and organism longevity. The ways in which lipids are recycled, however, vary between different phyla...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305615/primary-cilia-proteins-ciliary-and-extraciliary-sites-and-functions
#7
REVIEW
Kiet Hua, Russell J Ferland
Primary cilia are immotile organelles known for their roles in development and cell signaling. Defects in primary cilia result in a range of disorders named ciliopathies. Because this organelle can be found singularly on almost all cell types, its importance extends to most organ systems. As such, elucidating the importance of the primary cilium has attracted researchers from all biological disciplines. As the primary cilia field expands, caution is warranted in attributing biological defects solely to the function of this organelle, since many of these "ciliary" proteins are found at other sites in cells and likely have non-ciliary functions...
January 5, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301948/invading-leading-and-navigating-cells-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-insights-into-cell-movement-in-vivo
#8
David R Sherwood, Julie Plastino
Highly regulated cell migration events are crucial during animal tissue formation and the trafficking of cells to sites of infection and injury. Misregulation of cell movement underlies numerous human diseases, including cancer. Although originally studied primarily in two-dimensional in vitro assays, most cell migrations in vivo occur in complex three-dimensional tissue environments that are difficult to recapitulate in cell culture or ex vivo Further, it is now known that cells can mobilize a diverse repertoire of migration modes and subcellular structures to move through and around tissues...
January 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295920/migration-based-selections-of-antibodies-that-convert-bone-marrow-into-trafficking-microglia-like-cells-that-reduce-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE
#9
Kyung Ho Han, Britni M Arlian, Matthew S Macauley, James C Paulson, Richard A Lerner
One goal of regenerative medicine is to repair damaged tissue. This requires not only generating new cells of the proper phenotype, but also selecting for those that properly integrate into sites of injury. In our laboratory we are using a cell-migration-based in vivo selection system to generate antibodies that induce cells to both differentiate and selectively localize to different tissues. Here we describe an antibody that induces bone marrow stem cells to differentiate into microglia-like cells that traffic to the brain where they organize into typical networks...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295704/acyl-coa-binding-protein-family-members-in-laticifers-are-possibly-involved-in-lipid-and-latex-metabolism-of-hevea-brasiliensis-the-para-rubber-tree
#10
Zhiyi Nie, Yihang Wang, Chuntai Wu, Yu Li, Guijuan Kang, Huaide Qin, Rizhong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are mainly involved in acyl-CoA ester binding and trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and their various functions have been characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana), Oryza sativa (rice), and other plant species. In the present study, genome-wide mining and expression analysis of ACBP genes was performed on Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree), the most important latex-producing crop in the world. RESULTS: Six members of the H...
January 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294657/advocates-experiences-with-media-and-the-impact-of-media-on-human-trafficking-advocacy
#11
Jaclyn D Houston-Kolnik, Christina Soibatian, Mona M Shattell
The present qualitative study explores advocates' opinions of misinformation about human trafficking in the media and describes advocates' strategies to counter the misinformation presented by the media. Thus, 15 advocates who work against human trafficking in Chicago-based nonprofit organizations participated in semistructured interviews about their opinions and strategies. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The present study identifies specific misperceptions of human trafficking in the media, highlights advocates' opinions of this misinformation, and discusses advocates' strategies to counteract inaccurate media, adding support to the role of media advocacy...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289568/mapping-the-polarity-interactome
#12
REVIEW
Helena R Pires, Mike Boxem
Interactions between proteins are an essential part of biology, and the desire to identify these interactions has led to the development of numerous technologies to systematically map protein-protein interactions at a large scale. As in most cellular processes, protein interactions are central to the control of cell polarity, and a full understanding of polarity will require comprehensive knowledge of the protein interactions involved. At its core, cell polarity is established through carefully regulated mutually inhibitory interactions between several groups of cortical proteins...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288743/the-good-and-bad-faces-of-the-cxcr4-chemokine-receptor
#13
REVIEW
Joaquin Teixidó, Mónica Martínez-Moreno, Marta Díaz-Martínez, Silvia Sevilla-Movilla
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that promote cell migration and activation under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Chemokines bind to seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that are coupled to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins, which are the responsible for intracellularly transmitting the activating signals for cell migration. Hematopoiesis, vascular development, lymphoid organ morphogenesis, cardiogenesis and neural differentiation are amongst the processes involving chemokine function...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288355/ucs-protein-function-is-partially-restored-in-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-she4-mutant-with-expression-of-the-human-unc45-gc-but-not-unc45-sm
#14
Susana Gómez Escalante, Joseph A Brightmore, Peter W Piper, Stefan H Millson
A dedicated UNC45, Cro1, She4 (UCS) domain-containing protein assists in the Hsp90-mediated folding of the myosin head. Only weak sequence conservation exists between the single UCS protein of simple eukaryotes (She4 in budding yeast) and the two UCS proteins of higher organisms (the general cell and striated muscle UNC45s; UNC45-GC and UNC45-SM, respectively). In vertebrates, UNC45-GC facilitates cytoskeletal functions, whereas the 55% identical UNC45-SM assists assembly of the contractile apparatus of cardiac and skeletal muscles...
December 29, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286473/a-simple-fluorescence-based-reporter-assay-to-identify-cellular-components-required-for-ricin-toxin-a-chain-rta-trafficking-in-yeast
#15
Björn Becker, Manfred J Schmitt
Bacterial and plant A/B toxins exploit the natural trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells to reach their intracellular target(s) in the cytosol and to ultimately kill. Such A/B toxins generally consist of an enzymatically active Asubunit (e.g., ricin toxin A (RTA)) and one or more cell binding Bsubunit(s), which are responsible for toxin binding to specific cell surface receptors. Our current knowledge of how A/B toxins are capable of efficiently intoxicating cells helped scientists to understand fundamental cellular mechanisms, like endocytosis and intracellular protein sorting in higher eukaryotic cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281629/loss-of-function-of-the-ciliopathy-protein-cc2d2a-disorganizes-the-vesicle-fusion-machinery-at-the-periciliary-membrane-and-indirectly-affects-rab8-trafficking-in-zebrafish-photoreceptors
#16
Irene Ojeda Naharros, Matthias Gesemann, José M Mateos, Gery Barmettler, Austin Forbes, Urs Ziegler, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Ruxandra Bachmann-Gagescu
Ciliopathies are human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous organelles involved in transduction of environmental signals such as light sensation in photoreceptors. Concentration of signal detection proteins such as opsins in the ciliary membrane is achieved by RabGTPase-regulated polarized vesicle trafficking and by a selective barrier at the ciliary base, the transition zone (TZ). Dysfunction of the TZ protein CC2D2A causes Joubert/Meckel syndromes in humans and loss of ciliary protein localization in animal models, including opsins in retinal photoreceptors...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277745/cellulose-synthase-complex-organization-and-cellulose-microfibril-structure
#17
REVIEW
Simon Turner, Manoj Kumar
Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al...
February 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274121/brain-metabolic-sensing-and-metabolic-signaling-at-the-level-of-an-astrocyte
#18
Nephtali Marina, Egor Turovsky, Isabel N Christie, Patrick S Hosford, Anna Hadjihambi, Alla Korsak, Richard Ang, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Shahriar Sheikhbahaei, Shefeeq M Theparambil, Alexander V Gourine
Astrocytes support neuronal function by providing essential structural and nutritional support, neurotransmitter trafficking and recycling and may also contribute to brain information processing. In this article we review published results and report new data suggesting that astrocytes function as versatile metabolic sensors of central nervous system (CNS) milieu and play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolic homeostasis. We discuss anatomical and functional features of astrocytes that allow them to detect and respond to changes in the brain parenchymal levels of metabolic substrates (oxygen and glucose), and metabolic waste products (carbon dioxide)...
December 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273618/at-the-ends-of-their-tethers-how-coiled-coil-proteins-capture-vesicles-at-the-golgi
#19
REVIEW
Alison K Gillingham
Cells face a complex problem: how to transfer lipids and proteins between membrane compartments in an organized, timely fashion. Indeed, many thousands of membrane and secretory proteins must traffic out of the ER to different organelles to function, while others are retrieved from the plasma membrane having fulfilled their roles [Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2013) 14, 382-392]. This process is highly dynamic and failure to target cargo accurately leads to catastrophic consequences for the cell, as is clear from the numerous human diseases associated with defects in membrane trafficking [Int...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259710/regulation-of-blood-vascular-permeability-in-the-skin
#20
REVIEW
Sachiko Ono, Gyohei Egawa, Kenji Kabashima
Regulation of blood vessel permeability is essential for the homeostasis of peripheral tissues. This regulation controls the trafficking of plasma contents, including water, vitamins, ions, hormones, cytokines, amyloids, lipoproteins, carrier proteins, and immunoglobulins. The properties of blood vessels vary among tissues based on their structural differences: continuous, fenestrated, or sinusoidal. These three types of blood vessels have different charge and size barrier properties. The anionic luminal glycocalyx layer on endothelial cells establishes the "charge barrier" that repels the attachment of negatively charged blood cells and plasma molecules...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
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