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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786613/biophysics-of-membrane-curvature-remodeling-at-molecular-and-mesoscopic-lengthscales
#1
Natesan Ramakrishnan, Ryan P Bradley, Richard W Tourdot, Ravi Radhakrishnan
At the micron scale, where cell organelles display an amazing complexity in their shape and organization, the physical properties of a biological membrane can be better-understood using continuum models subject to thermal (stochastic) undulations. Yet, the chief orchestrators of these complex and intriguing shapes are a specialized class of membrane associating often peripheral proteins called curvature remodeling proteins (CRPs) that operate at the molecular level through specific protein-lipid interactions...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784874/select-%C3%AE-arrestins-control-cell-surface-abundance-of-the-mammalian-kir2-1-potassium-channel-in-a-yeast-model
#2
Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inwardly rectifying channel Kir2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778978/tough-love-accommodating-intracellular-bacteria-through-directed-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-during-the-nitrogen-fixing-symbiosis
#3
REVIEW
Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#4
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776606/advances-in-membrane-trafficking-and-endosomal-signaling-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#5
Aylin C Hanyaloglu
The integration of GPCR signaling with membrane trafficking, as a single orchestrated system, is a theme increasingly evident with the growing reports of GPCR endosomal signaling. Once viewed as a mechanism to regulate cell surface heterotrimeric G protein signaling, the endocytic trafficking system is complex, highly compartmentalized, yet deeply interconnected with cell signaling. The organization of receptors into distinct plasma membrane signalosomes, biochemically distinct endosomal populations, endosomal microdomains, and its communication with distinct subcellular organelles such as the Golgi provides multiple unique signaling platforms that are critical for specifying receptor function physiologically and pathophysiologically...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766620/insane-in-the-apical-membrane-trafficking-events-mediating-apicobasal-epithelial-polarity-during-tube-morphogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Cayla E Jewett, Rytis Prekeris
The creation of cellular tubes is one of the most vital developmental processes, resulting in the formation of most organ types. Cells have co-opted a number of different mechanisms for tube morphogenesis that vary among tissues and organisms; however, generation and maintenance of cell polarity is fundamental for successful lumenogenesis. Polarized membrane transport has emerged as a key driver not only for establishing individual epithelial cell polarity, but also for coordination of epithelial polarization during apical lumen formation and tissue morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764317/generatehope-a-comprehensive-treatment-model-for-sex-trafficked-women
#7
Susan Munsey, Heather E Miller, Terence Rugg
GenerateHope (GH) is a San Diego-based 501c3 nonprofit organization providing fully integrated, comprehensive rehabilitation services to adult female survivors of sex trafficking. While best practices for working with survivors of sex trafficking are slowly emerging, to date, there have been few publications on this subject and little data on either short- or long-term outcomes from the many and varied programs nationwide. This paper examines the GH residential program and provides early outcome results for residents living at the GH program between six and 12 months...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757220/annexins-coordinators-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-endocytic-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Carles Rentero, Patricia Blanco-Muñoz, Elsa Meneses-Salas, Thomas Grewal, Carlos Enrich
The spatiotemporal regulation of calcium (Ca2+ ) storage in late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (Lys) is increasingly recognized to influence a variety of membrane trafficking events, including endocytosis, exocytosis, and autophagy. Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis within the LE/Lys compartment are implicated in human diseases, ranging from lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) to neurodegeneration and cancer, and they correlate with changes in the membrane binding behaviour of Ca2+ -binding proteins. This also includes Annexins (AnxA), which is a family of Ca2+ -binding proteins participating in membrane traffic and tethering, microdomain organization, cytoskeleton interactions, Ca2+ signalling, and LE/Lys positioning...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755449/immunization-elicits-antigen-specific-antibody-sequestration-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-sensory-neurons
#9
Manojkumar Gunasekaran, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Andrew Shih, Gavin H Imperato, Meghan Addorisio, Gopal Kumar, Annette Lee, John F Graf, Dan Meyer, Michael Marino, Christopher Puleo, Jeffrey Ashe, Maureen A Cox, Tak W Mak, Chad Bouton, Barbara Sherry, Betty Diamond, Ulf Andersson, Thomas R Coleman, Christine N Metz, Kevin J Tracey, Sangeeta S Chavan
The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754803/a-combinatorial-lipid-code-shapes-the-electrostatic-landscape-of-plant-endomembranes
#10
Matthieu Pierre Platre, Lise C Noack, Mehdi Doumane, Vincent Bayle, Mathilde Laetitia Audrey Simon, Lilly Maneta-Peyret, Laetitia Fouillen, Thomas Stanislas, Laia Armengot, Přemysl Pejchar, Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Martin Potocký, Alenka Čopič, Patrick Moreau, Yvon Jaillais
Membrane surface charge is critical for the transient, yet specific recruitment of proteins with polybasic regions to certain organelles. In eukaryotes, the plasma membrane (PM) is the most electronegative compartment of the cell, which specifies its identity. As such, membrane electrostatics is a central parameter in signaling, intracellular trafficking, and polarity. Here, we explore which are the lipids that control membrane electrostatics using plants as a model. We show that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), phosphatidic acidic (PA), and phosphatidylserine (PS) are separately required to generate the electrostatic signature of the plant PM...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753464/development-of-the-national-transplant-program-has-significantly-decreased-but-not-ended-transplant-tourism-in-montenegro
#11
M Ratkovic, N Basic Jukic, Z Kastelan, D Radunovic, P Kavaric, J Brezak, M Topalovic Grkovic, T Hudolin, V Prelevic
Organ transplantation has prolonged and improved the lives of many patients around the world. However, a widespread shortage of donors remains the main factor that has led to organ trafficking and transplant tourism. To stop transplant tourism and to provide optimal treatment for its citizens with end-stage renal disease, Montenegro started performing renal transplantations in September 2012. Thirty-five transplantations have been performed since that time, 34 from living donors and only 1 from a deceased donor...
March 12, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752385/the-phosphoinositide-phosphatase-sac1-regulates-cell-shape-and-microtubule-stability-in-the-developing-drosophila-eye
#12
Lauren M Del Bel, Nigel Griffiths, Ronit Wilk, Ho-Chun Wei, Anastasia Blagoveshchenskaya, Jason Burgess, Gordon Polevoy, James V Price, Peter Mayinger, Julie A Brill
Epithelial patterning in the developing Drosophila melanogaster eye requires the Neph1 homolog Roughest (Rst), an immunoglobulin family cell surface adhesion molecule expressed in interommatidial cells (IOC). Here, using a novel temperature-sensitive (ts) allele, we show that the phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac1 is also required for IOC patterning. sac1 ts mutants have rough eyes and retinal patterning defects that resemble rst mutants. sac1 ts retinas exhibit elevated levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), consistent with the role of Sac1 as a PI4P phosphatase...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750923/ion-channel-modulators-in-cystic-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Martina Gentzsch, Marcus A Mall
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and remains one of the most common life-shortening genetic diseases affecting the lung and other organs. CFTR functions as a cAMP-dependent anion channel that transports chloride and bicarbonate across epithelial surfaces and disruption of these ion transport processes plays a central role in the pathogenesis of CF. These findings provided the rationale for pharmacological modulation of ion transport, either by targeting mutant CFTR or alternative ion channels that can compensate for CFTR dysfunction, as a promising therapeutic approach...
May 8, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749658/contemporary-understanding-of-the-secretory-granules-in-human-eosinophils
#14
REVIEW
Rossana C N Melo, Peter F Weller
Eosinophil secretory (specific) granules have a unique morphology and are both a morphologic hallmark of eosinophils and fundamental to eosinophil-mediated responses. Eosinophil mediators with multiple functional activities are presynthesized and stored within these granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. The structural organization and changes of eosinophil specific granules are revealing in demonstrating the complex and diverse secretory activities of this cell. Here, we review our current knowledge on the architecture, composition, and function of eosinophil specific granules as highly elaborated organelles able to produce vesiculotubular carriers and to interplay with the intracellular vesicular trafficking...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746244/approaches-to-interrogate-the-role-of-nucleotide-hydrolysis-by-metal-trafficking-ntpases-the-nbp35-cfd1-iron-sulfur-cluster-scaffold-as-a-case-study
#15
John D Grossman, Eric J Camire, Deborah L Perlstein
Nucleotide hydrolases play integral yet poorly understood roles in several metallocluster biosynthetic pathways. For example, the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) is initiated by the CIA scaffold, an ATPase which builds new iron-sulfur clusters for proteins localized to the cytosol and the nucleus in eukaryotic organisms. While in vivo studies have demonstrated the scaffold's nucleotide hydrolase domain is vital for its function, in vitro approaches have not revealed tight allosteric coupling between the cluster scaffolding site and the ATPase site...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740408/the-membrane-bound-c-subunit-of-reductive-dehalogenases-topology-analysis-and-reconstitution-of-the-fmn-binding-domain-of-pcec
#16
Géraldine F Buttet, Mathilde S Willemin, Romain Hamelin, Aamani Rupakula, Julien Maillard
Organohalide respiration (OHR) is the energy metabolism of anaerobic bacteria able to use halogenated organic compounds as terminal electron acceptors. While the terminal enzymes in OHR, so-called reductive dehalogenases, are well-characterized, the identity of proteins potentially involved in electron transfer to the terminal enzymes remains elusive. Among the accessory genes identified in OHR gene clusters, the C subunit ( rdhC ) could well code for the missing redox protein between the quinol pool and the reductive dehalogenase, although it was initially proposed to act as transcriptional regulator...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739433/-because-if-we-talk-about-health-issues-first-it-is-easier-to-talk-about-human-trafficking-findings-from-a-mixed-methods-study-on-health-needs-and-service-provision-among-migrant-and-trafficked-fishermen-in-the-mekong
#17
Nicola S Pocock, Reena Tadee, Kanokwan Tharawan, Wansiri Rongrongmuang, Brett Dickson, Soksreymom Suos, Ligia Kiss, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Human trafficking in the fishing industry or "sea slavery" in the Greater Mekong Subregion is reported to involve some of the most extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. A largely unregulated sector, commercial fishing boats operate in international waters far from shore and outside of national jurisdiction, where workers are commonly subjected to life-threatening risks. Yet, research on the health needs of trafficked fishermen is sparse. This paper describes abuses, occupational hazards, physical and mental health and post-trafficking well-being among a systematic consecutive sample of 275 trafficked fishermen using post-trafficking services in Thailand and Cambodia...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731007/chemokines-critical-regulators-of-memory-t-cell-development-maintenance-and-function
#18
Rod A Rahimi, Andrew D Luster
Memory T cells are central to orchestrating antigen-specific recall responses in vivo. Compared to naïve T cells, memory T cells respond more quickly to cognate peptide:MHC with a shorter lag time for entering the cell cycle and exerting effector functions. However, it is now well established that this enhanced responsiveness is not the only mechanism whereby memory T cells are better equipped than naïve T cells to rapidly and robustly induce inflammation. In contrast to naïve T cells, memory T cells are composed of distinct subsets with unique trafficking patterns and localizations...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724824/distinctive-phosphoinositide-and-ca-2-binding-properties-of-normal-and-cognitive-performance-linked-variant-forms-of-kibra-c2-domain
#19
Mareike G Posner, Abhishek Upadhyay, Rieko Ishima, Antreas C Kalli, Gemma Harris, Joachim Kremerskothen, Mark S P Sansom, Susan J Crennell, Stefan Bagby
KIBRA, a multi-functional scaffold protein with around twenty known binding partners, is involved in memory and cognition, organ size control via the Hippo pathway, cell polarity, and membrane trafficking. KIBRA includes tandem N-terminal WW domains, a C2 domain and motifs for binding aPKC and PDZ domains. A naturally occurring human KIBRA variant involving residue changes at positions 734 (M-to-I) and 735 (S-to-A) within the C2 domain affects cognitive performance. We have elucidated 3D structures, and calcium and phosphoinositide binding properties, of human KIBRA C2 domain...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722136/phospho-regulation-of-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-for-actin-assembly-and-endocytosis
#20
Yansong Miao, Teepiyanut Tipakornsaowapak, Liangzhen Zheng, Yuguang Mu, Eric Lewellyn
Actin filament assembly contributes to the endocytic pathway pleiotropically, with active roles in clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis as well as subsequent endosomal trafficking. Endocytosis comprises a series of dynamic events, including the initiation of membrane curvature, bud invagination, vesicle abscission, and subsequent vesicular transport. The ultimate success of endocytosis requires the coordinated activities of proteins that trigger actin polymerization, recruit actin-binding proteins (ABPs), and organize endocytic proteins (EPs) that promote membrane curvature through molecular crowding or scaffolding mechanisms...
May 2, 2018: FEBS Journal
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