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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806612/pilots-using-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-compared-to-other-fatally-injured-pilots
#1
Paul Rogers, Christy Hileman, Guillermo Salazar, Kacey Cliburn, Lawrence Paskoff, William Hathaway, Kevin Gildea, Victor Hugo Tejera Villalaz
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) were a disqualifying medication for U.S. civil pilots before April 5, 2010. After this date, a Federal Aviation Administration policy was created that allowed airmen, on select SSRIs, a pathway to hold a valid medical certificate. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed look at SSRIs in the U.S. pilot population since the inception of this new policy. We examined the toxicology results from fatally injured airmen in addition to outcomes concerning pilots who are participating in the program...
August 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806580/the-eco-toxic-effects-of-pesticide-and-heavy-metal-mixtures-towards-earthworms-in-soil
#2
REVIEW
Herman Uwizeyimana, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Kifayatullah Khan
Earthworms are the key soil organisms, contribute to many positive ecological services that could be degraded by pesticides and other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. Chemicals usually occur as mixtures in the environmental systems which can lead synergistic effects. The assessment and characterization of soil pollutants that effects risks are very difficult due to the complexity of soil matrix, poor understanding about the fate and effects of chemical combinations like pesticide and metal mixtures in terrestrial systems, and scarcity of toxicological data on mixtures of pollutants...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806564/tissue-distribution-and-toxicity-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-lizards-eremias-argus
#3
Li Chen, Ruiting Li, Jinling Diao, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou
In recent years, serious environmental pollution has caused a decrease in the abundance of many species worldwide. Reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. There are large amounts of toxicological data available regarding myclobutanil, but the adverse effects of myclobutanil on lizards has not been widely reported. In this study, treatment groups were orally administered a single-dose of myclobutanil (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). Subsequently, it was found that there were differences in myclobutanil levels between the different tissues and concentrations also changed with degradation time...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806082/the-discovery-of-novel-antimalarial-aminoxadiazoles-as-a-promising-nonendoperoxide-scaffold
#4
Elena Sandoval, María José Lafuente-Monasterio, María J Almela, Pablo Castañeda, María Belén Jiménez Díaz, María S Martínez-Martínez, Jaume Vidal, Íñigo Angulo-Barturen, Paul Bamborough, Jeremy Burrows, Nicholas Cammack, María J Chaparro, José M Coterón, Cristina de Cozar, Benigno Crespo, Beatriz Díaz, Gerard Drewes, Esther Fernández, Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga, María Teresa Fraile, Francisco J Gamo, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, Rubén Gómez, John Haselden, Sophie Huss, María Luisa León, Jaime de Mercado, Simon J F Macdonald, José Ignacio Martín Hernando, Sara Prats, Margarita Puente, Anne Rodríguez, Juan C de la Rosa, Lourdes Rueda, Carolyn Selenski, Paul Willis, David M Wilson, Michael Witty, Félix Calderón
Since the appearance of resistance to the current front-line antimalarial treatments, ACTs (artemisinin combination therapies), the discovery of novel chemical entities to treat the disease is recognized as a major global health priority. From the GSK antimalarial set, we identified an aminoxadiazole with an antiparasitic profile comparable with artemisinin (1), with no cross-resistance in a resistant strains panel and a potential new mode of action. A medicinal chemistry program allowed delivery of compounds such as 19 with high solubility in aqueous media, an acceptable toxicological profile, and oral efficacy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804487/the-response-of-phagocytes-to-indoor-air-toxicity
#5
Liisa K Vilén, Janne Atosuo, Esa-Matti Lilius
This perspective presents a viewpoint on potential methods assessing toxicity of indoor air. Until recently, the major techniques to document moldy environment have been microbial isolation using conventional culture techniques for fungi and bacteria as well as in some instances polymerase chain reaction to detect microbial genetic components. However, it has become increasingly evident that bacterial and fungal toxins, their metabolic products, and volatile organic substances emitted from corrupted constructions are the major health risks...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803990/high-doses-of-baicalin-induces-kidney-injury-and-fibrosis-through-regulating-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#6
Yi Cai, Wanqing Ma, Yichuan Xiao, Bo Wu, Xiaobing Li, Fengrong Liu, Jianhua Qiu, Genshui Zhang
Baicalin is a major flavonoid compound purified from Scutellariae radix, which has been described as an herb in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Previous studies have suggested baicalin possessed extensive anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-viral properties. However, up to known, there have been no reports of safety and toxicity in the rats following oral administration of baicalin. In this present study, we showed the first evidence that treatment of baicalin (400, 800 and 1600mg/kg/day) induced significantly kidney injury and fibrosis...
August 10, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803761/an-in-silico-perspective-on-the-toxicodynamic-of-tetrodotoxin-and-analogues-a-tool-for-supporting-the-hazard-identification
#7
Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin naturally found in terrestrial and marine animals targeting the voltage-gated sodium channels. Historically, TTX has raised food safety concerns mainly in the Asian countries due to the consumption of the typical pufferfish-derived delicacy fugu. However, the diffusion of TTX is getting wider today, reasonably threating in a close future a broader number of consumers than before. The understanding of TTX group toxicity is still incomplete as most of the analogues and metabolites found together with TTX are largely understudied...
August 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#8
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
July 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803428/environmental-hazard-assessment-by-the-ecoscore-system-to-discriminate-pah-polluted-soils
#9
Christine Lors, Jean-François Ponge, Denis Damidot
A bioassay battery-integrated index was applied to different soils sampled from a former coke factory, with the aim to evaluate the discriminating capacity of the Ecoscore system (ES) to assess the environmental hazard of PAH-polluted soils. Two soils from a former coke factory, polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were evaluated for their ecotoxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and their genotoxicity. These soils have been already presented in a previous paper but data have been reanalyzed for the present article in an endeavor to standardize the ES...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803025/the-effect-of-nano-tio2-photocatalysis-on-the-antioxidant-activities-of-cu-zn-sod-at-physiological-ph
#10
Wen Zheng, Hai-Feng Zou, Shao-Wu Lv, Yan-Hong Lin, Min Wang, Fei Yan, Ye Sheng, Yan-Hua Song, Jie Chen, Ke-Yan Zheng
Security issues of nanoparticles on biological toxicity and potential environmental risk have attracted more and more attention with the rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology. In this work, we explored the effect and probable mechanism of nano-TiO2 on antioxidant activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) under natural light and mixed light at physiological pH. Nano-TiO2 was prepared by sol-hydrothermal method, and then characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron micrographs (TEM)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802948/modelling-the-toxicity-of-a-large-set-of-metal-and-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-using-the-ochem-platform
#11
Vasyl Kovalishyn, Natalia Abramenko, Iryna Kopernyk, Larysa Charochkina, Larysa Metelytsia, Igor V Tetko, Willie Peijnenburg, Leonid Kustov
Inorganic nanomaterials have become one of the new areas of modern knowledge and technology and have already found an increasing number of applications. However, some nanoparticles show toxicity to living organisms, and can potentially have a negative influence on environmental ecosystems. While toxicity can be determined experimentally, such studies are time consuming and costly. Computational toxicology can provide an alternative approach and there is a need to develop methods to reliably assess Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships for nanomaterials (nano-QSPRs)...
August 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802738/bioaccumulation-and-toxicity-of-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#12
Liang Hu, Guangming Zeng, Guiqiu Chen, Zhenzhen Huang, Jia Wan, Anwei Chen, Zhigang Yu, Jiangli Yang, Kai He, Lei Qin
The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has raised considerable concerns regarding their toxicological impact. Consequently, there has been a need to understand the underlying toxicity mechanism of QDs. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the bioaccumulation and toxicity of three CdSe/ZnS QDs (COOH CdSe/ZnS 525, NH2 CdSe/ZnS 525, and NH2 CdSe/ZnS 625) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) using confocal laser scanning microscopy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements, and cell viability assays...
August 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802559/absence-of-subchronic-oral-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-rice-koji-with-aspergillus-terreus
#13
Jun-Won Yun, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yun-Soon Kim, Ji-Ran You, Eun-Young Cho, Jung-Hee Yoon, Euna Kwon, Sang Ju Lee, Seong Pil Kim, Jae Hoon Seo, Jae Pyung In, Jae Hun Ahn, Ja-June Jang, Jin-Sung Park, Jeong-Hwan Che, Byeong-Cheol Kang
Koji products have been considered as an effective fermented food consumed in East Asia with many health benefits. Particularly, rice koji with Aspergillus terreus (RAT) has been reported to be able to prevent hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis through regulating cholesterol synthesis. Despite its biological activities, there is a lack of comprehensive information to give an assurance of its safety. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a series of toxicological studies (repeated dose oral toxicity and genotoxicity) according to test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development...
August 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802207/the-effect-of-aluminium-and-sodium-impurities-on-the-in-vitro-toxicity-and-pro-inflammatory-potential-of-cristobalite
#14
C Nattrass, C J Horwell, D E Damby, D Brown, V Stone
BACKGROUND: Exposure to crystalline silica (SiO2), in the form of quartz, tridymite or cristobalite, can cause respiratory diseases, such as silicosis. However, the observed toxicity and pathogenicity of crystalline silica is highly variable. This has been attributed to a number of inherent and external factors, including the presence of impurities. In cristobalite-rich dusts, substitutions of aluminium (Al) for silicon (Si) in the cristobalite structure, and impurities occluding the silica surface, have been hypothesised to decrease its toxicity...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802169/human-health-risk-assessment-on-the-consumption-of-fruits-and-vegetables-containing-residual-pesticides-a-cancer-and-non-cancer-risk-benefit-perspective
#15
Mathieu Valcke, Marie-Hélène Bourgault, Louis Rochette, Louise Normandin, Onil Samuel, Denis Belleville, Carole Blanchet, Denise Phaneuf
Pesticide residues in food is a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate health risk and benefit associated with chronic consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) containing residual pesticides in the province of Quebec, Canada. Based on a representative sample of Quebecers (n=4727, aged 1-79) enrolled in the Canadian nutrition survey, population's mean chronic dietary exposure through consumption of F&V was evaluated for 169 different pesticide active ingredients (PAI), including 135 for which toxicological reference values (TRV) were available in the literature...
August 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#16
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802021/acute-exposure-to-an-environmentally-relevant-concentration-of-diclofenac-elicits-oxidative-stress-in-the-culturally-important-galaxiid-fish-galaxias-maculatus
#17
Nicole K Mcrae, Chris N Glover, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Sally Gaw
Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of growing concern in aquatic environments worldwide, yet knowledge of its effects on aquatic biota are restricted to a few model species and mechanisms of impact. In the current study, diclofenac accumulation, its effects on metabolic rate, ionoregulation, and oxidative stress were examined at environmentally-relevant (0.17 μg L-1) and elevated (763 μg L-1) concentrations in a culturally and economically important galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), from the Southern Hemisphere...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801728/arctium-minus-crude-extract-presents-antinociceptive-effect-in-a-mice-acute-gout-attack-model
#18
Susana Paula Moreira Fischer, Indiara Brusco, Camila Camponogara, Mariana Piana, Henrique Faccin, Luciana Assis Gobo, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
Gout is a disorder that triggers a severe inflammatory reaction which generates episodes of intense pain and discomfort to the patient. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) is known as "burdock" and displays anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, against rheumatic pain and radical-scavenging activities. Species of the genus Arctium have been used in assistant therapy of gout and other inflammatory processes. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-edematogenic effects of the crude extract of A. minus seeds in an acute gout attack model induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in adult male Swiss mice (25-30 g)...
August 11, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801706/seasonal-distribution-source-identification-and-toxicological-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-sediments-from-wadi-el-bey-watershed-in-tunisia
#19
Imen Gdara, Ines Zrafi, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Ahmed Ghrabi
Surface sediments were collected from the Watershed of Wadi El Bey in Tunisia to evaluate the degree of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination. Sediments were collected during different seasons in 14 sites that received wastes from domestic effluent, industrial discharge, and agricultural drainage wastes. Twenty-six individual PAHs were analyzed. The total PAH contents (Σ PAHs) in surface sediments showed wide variability, ranging from 6.89 ± 0.05 to 340 ± 0.1 ng g(-1). The 4-, 5-, and 6-ring compounds were the most abundant PAHs detected at the majority of sites...
August 11, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801182/prediction-of-regioselectivity-and-preferred-order-of-metabolisms-on-cyp1a2-mediated-reactions-part-2-solving-substrate-interactions-of-cyp1a2-with-non-pah-substrates-on-the-template-system
#20
Yasushi Yamazoe, Kouichi Yoshinari
In our previous paper (Drug Metabolism Parmacokinet31: 363, 2016), a simulation system for ligand interactions of human CYP1A2 was developed using "Template" composed of hexagonal grids focusing on polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The system has been expanded for the application of non-PAH chemicals including medical drugs, industrial chemicals and natural products in the present study. Additions of two Templates C and D around Ring C/E and Ring B, respectively, perpendicular each to Template A, offered the accommodation of non-PAH substrates...
May 29, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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