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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102586/creatinine-in-urine-a-method-comparison
#1
Marc Luginbühl, Wolfgang Weinmann
Drug screening in urine is widely applied in forensic toxicology. Contrary to blood analysis, excessive or reduced fluid intake can substantially alter the concentration of substances in urine. As a standard to detect urinary dilution, creatinine concentrations are analyzed. A sample with a concentration below 20 mg/dL is generally defined as too diluted to provide a valid result in abstinence control samples. This work investigates the potential of three different methods for the determination of creatinine concentrations in urine samples: A ZIC-HILIC based LC-MS/MS method, a spectrophotometric method on an AU 480 chemistry system, and a portable, immunoassay based point-of-care testing device was compared by measuring 200 urine samples...
January 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099090/nutritional-evaluation-bioaccumulation-and-toxicological-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-edible-fruits-of-ficussurforssk-moraceae
#2
Olumuyiwa O O Ogunlaja, Roshila Moodley, Himansu Baijnath, Sreekantha B Jonnalagadda
Ficussur (Moraceae) is an indigenous medicinal plant with a wide distribution in Africa. In this study, the nutritional potential fruit of this indigenous plant to meet domestic food demands and reduce food insecurity in KwaZulu-Natal. South Africa, was investigated. The proximate composition and concentrations of metals in the edible fruits collected from eight different sites in KwaZulu-Natal were determined to assess for nutritional value and the concentrations of metals in the growth soil was determined to evaluate the impact of soil quality on elemental uptake...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098779/unravelling-the-diversity-of-the-cyclopiazonic-acid-family-of-mycotoxins-in-aspergillus-flavus-by-uhplc-triple-tof-hrms
#3
Valdet Uka, Geromy G Moore, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Dashnor Nebija, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098428/the-self-sufficient-p450-rhf-expressed-in-a-whole-cell-system-selectively-catalyses-the-5-hydroxylation-of-diclofenac
#4
Jan M Klenk, Bernd A Nebel, Joanne L Porter, Justyna K Kulig, Shaneela A Hussain, Sven M Richter, Michele Tavanti, Nicholas J Turner, Martin A Hayes, Bernhard Hauer, Sabine L Flitsch
P450 monooxygenases are able to catalyse the highly regio- and stereoselective oxidations of many organic molecules. However, the scale-up of such bio-oxidations remains challenging due to the often-low activity, level of expression and stability of P450 biocatalysts. Despite these challenges they are increasingly desirable as recombinant biocatalysts, particularly for the production of drug metabolites. Diclofenac is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug that is persistent in the environment along with the 4'- and 5-hydroxy metabolites...
January 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097866/pharmacokinetics-and-biodistribution-of-the-illegal-food-colorant-rhodamine-b-in-rats
#5
Yung-Yi Cheng, Tung-Hu Tsai
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) demonstrated rhodamine B as a potential carcinogen in 1978. Nevertheless, rhodamine B has been illegally used as a colorant in food in many countries. Few pharmacokinetic and toxicological investigations have been performed since the first pharmacokinetic study on rhodamine B in 1961. The aims of this study were to develop a simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for the quantitative detection of rhodamine B in the plasma and organs of rats and to estimate its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097528/pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-n-benzylphenethylamine-nbome-hallucinogens
#6
Adam L Halberstadt
Serotonergic hallucinogens induce profound changes in perception and cognition. The characteristic effects of hallucinogens are mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. One class of hallucinogens are 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines, such as the so-called 2C-X compounds 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I). Addition of an N-benzyl group to phenethylamine hallucinogens produces a marked increase in 5-HT2A-binding affinity and hallucinogenic potency...
January 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096302/postmortem-and-toxicological-findings-in-a-series-of-furanylfentanyl-related-deaths
#7
Davide Guerrieri, Emma Rapp, Markus Roman, Henrik Druid, Robert Kronstrand
Over the course of 4 months in 2015 and 2016, a cluster of seven fatal intoxications involving the opioid-analogue furanylfentanyl occurred in Sweden; toxicological analysis showed presence of furanylfentanyl either as the only drug or in combination with other illicit substances. Previous publications have only reported non-lethal furanylfentanyl intoxications. In the cases presented here, furanylfentanyl intoxication-alone or in combination with other drugs-was determined to be the cause of death by the responsible pathologist...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095959/general-aviation-pilots-over-70-years-old
#8
Alpo Vuorio, Saryani Asmayawati, Bruce Budowle, Robin Griffiths, Timo Strandberg, Jaana Kuoppala, Antti Sajantila
BACKGROUND: Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095954/predicting-air-quality-at-first-ingress-into-vehicles-visiting-the-international-space-station
#9
Amelia A Romoser, Robert R Scully, Thomas F Limero, Vanessa De Vera, Patti F Cheng, Jennifer J Hand, John T James, Valerie E Ryder
INTRODUCTION: NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095253/lichen-microalgae-are-sensitive-to-environmental-concentrations-of-atrazine
#10
Helena Moreno Traba, Noelia Domínguez-Morueco, Eva Barreno, Myriam Catalá
The identification of new organisms for environmental toxicology bioassays is currently a priority, since these tools are strongly limited by the ecological relevance of taxa used to study global change. Lichens are sensitive bioindicators of air quality and their microalgae are an untapped source for new low-cost miniaturized bioassays with ecological importance. In order to increase the availability of a wider range of taxa for bioassays, the sensitivity of two symbiotic lichen microalgae, Asterochloris erici and Trebouxia sp...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095184/ecotoxicological-effects-of-larvicide-used-in-the-control-of-aedes-aegypti-on-nontarget-organisms-redefining-the-use-of-pyriproxyfen
#11
Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Evelyn Siqueira Caixeta, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
The continued widespread use of larvicides in Aedes aegypti control programs is still a necessary strategy, since there are no apparent efficient vaccines against arboviruses. However, chemical approaches may affect nontarget organisms and produce detrimental effects to environmental health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct toxicity testing for pyriproxyfen at different concentrations using Daphnia magna and Artemia salina as model organisms to evaluate the ecotoxicological parameters. This study describes the toxicological effects of pyriproxyfen on both microcrustaceans, which are widely used in bioassays because of their sensitivity to changes in hydrosphere...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095175/evaluation-of-the-droplet-microarray-platform-for-high-throughput-screening-of-suspension-cells
#12
Anna A Popova, Claire Depew, Katya Manuella Permana, Alexander Trubitsyn, Ravindra Peravali, Jorge Ángel González Ordiano, Markus Reischl, Pavel A Levkin
Phenotypic cell-based high-throughput screenings play a central role in drug discovery and toxicology. The main tendency in cell screenings is the increase of the throughput and decrease of reaction volume in order to accelerate the experiments, reduce the costs, and enable screenings of rare cells. Conventionally, cell-based assays are performed in microtiter plates, which exist in 96- to 1536-wells formats and cannot be further miniaturized. In addition, performing screenings of suspension cells is associated with risk of losing cell content during the staining procedures and incompatibility with high-content microscopy...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094799/activation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-via-gsk3-inhibitors-direct-differentiation-of-human-adipose-stem-cells-into-functional-hepatocytes
#13
Jieqiong Huang, Xinyue Guo, Weihong Li, Haiyan Zhang
The generation of hepatocytes that are derived from human adipose stem cells (hASCs) represents an alternative to human hepatocytes for individualized therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the mechanisms facilitating hepatocyte differentiation from hASCs are not well understood. Here, we show that upon exposure to glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors alone, the expression of definitive endoderm specific genes GATA4, FOXA2, and SOX17 in hASCs significantly increased in a manner with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094496/chemoproteomic-profiling-of-acetanilide-herbicides-reveals-their-role-in-inhibiting-fatty-acid-oxidation
#14
Jessica L Counihan, Megan Duckering, Esha Dalvie, Wan-Min Ku, Leslie A Bateman, Karl J Fisher, Daniel K Nomura
Acetanilide herbicides are among the most widely used pesticides in the United States, but their toxicological potential and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we have used chemoproteomic platforms to map proteome-wide cysteine reactivity of acetochlor (AC), the most widely used acetanilide herbicide, in vivo in mice. We show that AC directly reacts with >20 protein targets in vivo in mouse liver, including the catalytic cysteines of several thiolase enzymes involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation...
January 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094042/responses-of-the-rotifer-brachionus-plicatilis-to-flame-retardant-bde-47-stress
#15
Xiaoyang Jian, Xuexi Tang, Ningning Xu, Jingjing Sha, You Wang
A series of short-term toxicological tests were conducted on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis to assess the toxicity of the flame retardant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated biphenyl ether (BDE-47). BDE-47 increased mortality, morphological damage, and altered population dynamics and fecundity of rotifer. Antioxidant enzymes were differentially changed to maintain the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity. However, with increases in the concentration of BDE-47, the metabolic and antioxidant activity decreased...
January 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093828/a-systematic-review-on-ethnomedicines-of-anti-cancer-plants
#16
REVIEW
Akash Tariq, Sehrish Sadia, Kaiwen Pan, Ihteram Ullah, Sakina Mussarat, Feng Sun, Olatunji Olusanya Abiodun, Altanzagas Batbaatar, Zilong Li, Dagang Song, Qinli Xiong, Riaz Ullah, Suliman Khan, Buddha Bahadur Basnet, Brawin Kumar, Rabiul Islam, Muhammad Adnan
Cancer is a serious health problem and the second leading cause of death around the globe. Present review is an attempt to provide utmost information based on ethno-pharmacological and toxicological aspects of anti-cancer plants of the world. A total of 276 articles published in English journals and containing maximum ethnomedicinal information were reviewed using several data sources such as; Google scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and floras of different countries. A total of 199 anti-cancer plants were recorded in present review and results indicated that traditional medicines are mostly being use in developing countries for cancer treatment...
January 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092941/21st-century-cell-culture-for-21st-century-toxicology
#17
David Pamies, Thomas Hartung
There is no good science in bad models. Cell culture is especially prone to artifacts. A number of novel cell culture technologies have become more broadly available in the 21st century, which allow overcoming limitations of traditional culture and are more physiologically relevant. These include the use of stem-cell derived human cells, cocultures of different cell types, scaffolds and extracellular matrices, perfusion platforms (such as microfluidics), 3D culture, organ-on-chip technologies, tissue architecture, and organ functionality...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092939/for-better-or-worse-iron-overload-by-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-a-mri-contrast-agent-for-chronic-liver-diseases
#18
Qibing Zhou, Yushuang Wei
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have recently been used as an effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for the noninvasive diagnosis of chronic liver diseases including nonalcohol fatty liver diseases, nonalcohol steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis as well as liver tumors. However, the potential risk of the iron overload by SPIONs has been highly underestimated in chronic liver diseases. While most of SPIONs have been shown safe in the healthy group, significant toxicity potential by the iron overload has been revealed through immunotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in cirrhosis as a high risk factor...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092200/the-challenges-surrounding-preclinical-testing-in-transcatheter-device-development-and-the-implications-on-the-clinic
#19
Ralf Holzer, Jake Goble, Ziyad Hijazi
Transcatheter devices have contributed significantly to the advances achieved in treating many cardiovascular conditions over the last few decades. Sophisticated and detailed preclinical testing is not only a regulatory requirement to support an investigational device exemption (IDE) application, but more crucially its success and accuracy is needed to safeguard patients during the subsequent clinical testing stages. Areas Covered: This article covers the regulatory background as well as specific considerations related to pre-clinical testing of transcatheter devices...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091985/frequency-of-forensic-toxicological-analysis-in-external-cause-deaths-among-nursing-home-residents-an-analysis-of-trends
#20
Georgia Aitken, Briony Murphy, Jennifer Pilgrim, Lyndal Bugeja, David Ranson, Joseph Elias Ibrahim
There is a paucity of research examining the utility of forensic toxicology in the investigation of premature external cause deaths of residents in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of toxicological analysis conducted in external cause (injury-related) deaths amongst nursing home residents in Victoria, Australia. This study was a retrospective cohort study examining external cause deaths among nursing home residents during the period July 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012 in Victoria, Australia, using the National Coronial Information System (NCIS)...
January 16, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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