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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526768/direct-comparison-of-the-enzymatic-characteristics-and-superoxide-production-of-the-four-aldehyde-oxidase-enzymes-present-in-mouse
#1
Gokhan Kucukgoze, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Silke Leimkuhler
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdoflavoenzymes with an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of heterocyclic compounds and aliphatic as well as aromatic aldehydes. The enzymes use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and produce reduced oxygen species during turnover. Four different enzymes, mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX4 and mAOX2, which are the products of distinct genes, are present in the mouse. A direct and simultaneous comparison of the enzymatic properties and characteristics of the four enzymes has never been performed...
May 19, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526658/nonclinical-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-the-first-biosimilar-insulin-glargine-drug-product-basaglar-%C3%A2-abasaglar-%C3%A2-approved-in-the-european-union
#2
Richard A Byrd, Rebecca A Owens, Jamie L Blackbourne, David E Coutant, Mark W Farmen, M Dodson Michael, Julie S Moyers, A Eric Schultze, Michael K Sievert, Niraj K Tripathi, John L Vahle
Basaglar(®)/Abasaglar(®) (Lilly insulin glargine [LY IGlar]) is a long-acting human insulin analogue drug product granted marketing authorisation as a biosimilar to Lantus(®) (Sanofi insulin glargine [SA IGlar]) by the European Medicines Agency. We assessed the similarity of LY IGlar to the reference drug product, European Union-sourced SA IGlar (EU-SA IGlar), using nonclinical in vitro and in vivo studies. No biologically relevant differences were observed for receptor binding affinity at either the insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors, or in assays of functional or de novo lipogenic activity...
May 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525814/risk-assessment-of-triclosan-in-the-global-environment-using-a-probabilistic-approach
#3
Jiahua Guo, Hisato Iwata
The occurrence of antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in the global aquatic and terrestrial environment is an emerging concern. While risk assessment for TCS is available in certain countries, no studies have attempted to assess the risk of TCS worldwide. This could be due to lack of method to characterize the global exposure. The present study therefore proposed a probabilistic-based approach to approximate the percent-ranked measured environmental concentrations (MECs) by estimating exposure concentration distribution (ECD) for different environmental compartments on a global scale, incorporating approximate 1200 single MECs...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525648/the-role-of-omics-in-the-application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-for-chemical-risk-assessment
#4
Erica K Brockmeier, Geoff Hodges, Thomas H Hutchinson, Emma Butler, Markus Hecker, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Peter Kille, Dörthe Becker, Kevin Chipman, John Colbourne, Timothy W Collette, Andrew Cossins, Mark Cronin, Peter Graystock, Steve Gutsell, Dries Knapen, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Stuart Marshall, Stewart F Owen, Edward J Perkins, Stewart Plaistow, Anthony Schroeder, Daisy Taylor, Mark Viant, Gerald Ankley, Francesco Falciani
In conjunction with the second International Environmental Omics Symposium (iEOS) conference, held at the University of Liverpool (UK) in September 2014, a workshop was held to bring together experts in toxicology and regulatory science from academia, government and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to review the specific roles that high-content omics datasets (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics) can hold within the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for supporting ecological and human health risk assessments...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524743/nanoparticle-exposures-from-nano-enabled-toner-based-printing-equipment-and-human-health-state-of-science-and-future-research-needs
#5
Sandra Vanessa Pirela, John Martin, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Toner formulations used by laser printers (LP) and photocopiers (PC), collectively called "toner-based printing equipment" (TPE), are nano-enabled products (NEP) because they contain several engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that improve toner performance. It has been shown that during consumer use (printing), these ENM are released in the air, together with other semi-volatile organic nanoparticles, and newly formed gaseous co-pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOC). The aim of this review is to detail and analyze physico-chemical and morphological (PCM), as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from TPE...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524734/capillary-microsampling-in-nonclinical-safety-assessment-practical-sampling-and-bioanalysis-from-a-cro-perspective
#6
David Coleman, Graeme Smith, Rachel Lawrence, Deborah McManus, Sunetha Diaram, Joanna Edwards
Microsampling has the 3R benefits of refining blood collection techniques while reducing the number of animals required for rodent safety assessment studies. There are significant scientific benefits of correlating study findings with systemic exposure and consequently, there is an industry drive to utilize microsampling in regulatory toxicology studies. This article will focus on capillary microsampling and will discuss the initial considerations before using capillary microsampling, study design and some practicalities of sample collection...
May 19, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524252/in-vivo-noninvasive-analysis-of-graphene-nanomaterial-pharmacokinetics-using-photoacoustic-flow-cytometry
#7
Dmitry A Nedosekin, Jacqueline Nolan, Chengzhong Cai, Shawn E Bourdo, Zeid Nima, Alexandru S Biris, Vladimir P Zharov
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) are quickly revolutionizing modern electronics, energy generation and storage, clothing and biomedical devices. Due to GBN's variety of physical and chemical parameters that define their toxicity and their aggregation in suspension, interpreting its toxicology without accurate information on graphene's distribution and behavior in live organisms is challenging. In this work, we present a laser-based optical detection methodology for noninvasive detection and pharmacokinetics analysis of GBNs directly in blood flow in mice using in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523455/-heat-induced-contaminants-in-foodstuffs-acrylamide-furan-and-fatty-acid-esters-of-monochloropropanediols-and-glycidol
#8
REVIEW
Susanne Andres, Katharina Schultrich, Bernhard Monien, Thorsten Buhrke, Nadiya Bakhiya, Falko Frenzel, Klaus Abraham, Bernd Schäfer, Alfonso Lampen
The production and preparation of foodstuffs may entail at high temperatures the generation of undesirable, potentially harmful compounds. Among the best investigated heat-induced contaminants are acrylamide, furan, and the fatty acid esters of glycidol and the monochloropropanediols. This article presents the main insights into the formation, toxicology, and exposure of these compounds. Acrylamide and glycidol were characterized as carcinogens with a genotoxic mechanism in animal experiments. Their content in foods should be minimized...
May 18, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522773/severe-neurological-symptoms-following-synthetic-cannabinoid-intoxication
#9
F van Gorp, L C Wejden, N A Stienstra, E M Kuck, L E M Haas
Synthetic cannabinoids are becoming increasingly popular as substances of abuse. However, in the Netherlands synthetic cannabinoid intoxications are rare. We report a 16-year-old male who became deeply comatose and was admitted to the intensive care unit for invasive mechanical ventilation after a buse of aninitially unknown drug. Routine toxicology screening with an immunoassay only detected tetrahydrocannabinol, but additional tests with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry revealed synthetic cannabinoid use...
May 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522587/preclinical-evaluation-of-medi0641-a-pyrrolobenzodiazepine-conjugated-antibody-drug-conjugate-targeting-5t4
#10
Jay Harper, Christopher Lloyd, Nazzareno Dimasi, Dorin Toader, Rose Marwood, Leeanne Lewis, David Bannister, Jelena Jovanovic, Ryan Fleming, Francois d'Hooge, Shenlan Mao, Allison M Marrero, Martin Korade, Patrick Strout, Linda Xu, Cui Chen, Leslie Wetzel, Shannon Breen, Lilian van Vlerken-Ysla, Sanjoo Jalla, Marlon Rebelatto, Helen Zhong, Elaine M Hurt, Mary Jane Hinrichs, Keven Huang, Philip W Howard, David A Tice, Robert E Hollingsworth, Ronald Herbst, Adeela Kamal
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are used to selectively deliver cytotoxic agents to tumors and have the potential for increased clinical benefit to cancer patients. 5T4 is an oncofetal antigen overexpressed on the cell surface in many carcinomas on both bulk tumor cells as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs), has very limited normal tissue expression, and can internalize when bound by an antibody. An anti-5T4 antibody was identified and optimized for efficient binding and internalization in a target-specific manner, and engineered cysteines were incorporated into the molecule for site-specific conjugation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522354/corrigendum-to-differential-effects-of-the-persistent-ddt-metabolite-methylsulfonyl-dde-in-nonstimulated-and-lh-stimulated-neonatal-porcine-leydig-cells-toxicology-and-applied-pharmacology-267-2013-247-255
#11
Cesilie Granum Castellanos, Irene Beate Sørvik, Marte Bruu Tanum, Steven Verhaegen, Ingvar Brandt, Erik Ropstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521790/unintentional-drowning-role-of-medicinal-drugs-and-alcohol
#12
Tuulia Pajunen, Erkki Vuori, Frank F Vincenzi, Pirjo Lillsunde, Gordon Smith, Philippe Lunetta
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. METHODS: Drowning cases, 2000 through 2009, for which post-mortem toxicological analysis was performed, came from the database of the Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, using the ICD-10 nature-of-injury code T75...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521495/thank-you-for-our-reviewers-of-2016-environmental-health-and-toxicology
#13
Mina Ha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521388/non-targeted-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-strategy-for-simultaneous-monitoring-of-xenobiotics-and-endogenous-compounds-in-green-sea-turtles-on-the-great-barrier-reef
#14
Amy L Heffernan, Maria M Gómez-Ramos, Caroline Gaus, Soumini Vijayasarathy, Ian Bell, Christine Hof, Jochen F Mueller, Maria J Gómez-Ramos
Chemical contamination poses a threat to ecosystem, biota and human health, and identifying these hazards is a complex challenge. Traditional hazard identification relies on a priori-defined targets of limited chemical scope, and is generally inappropriate for exploratory studies such as explaining toxicological effects in environmental systems. Here we present a non-target high resolution mass spectrometry environmental monitoring study with multivariate statistical analysis to simultaneously detect biomarkers of exposure (e...
May 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520935/safety-evaluation-of-daidzein-in-laying-hens-effects-on-laying-performance-hatchability-egg-quality-clinical-blood-parameters-and-organ-development
#15
J Lu, L Qu, M M Shen, S M Li, T C Dou, Y P Hu, K H Wang
Daidzein has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals, as a safe and natural alternative estrogen-like compound. However, there is little available safety data of daidzein in laying hens. A study was conducted to examine if high-dose daidzein affected the safety of hens, including mortality, laying performance, egg quality, hematological parameters, clinical chemical parameters, organ development parameters, and hatchability. A total of 2,448 42-wk-old Rugao laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 102 birds each (612 laying hens per group)...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520563/multiple-deaths-caused-by-a-fire-in-a-factory-identification-and-investigative-issues
#16
V Pinchi, V Bartolini, E Bertol, M Focardi, F Mari, U Ricci, S Vanin, G A Norelli
The article presents a case of multiple casualties following a textile factory fire. The incident required a full DVI team similar to large mass-disaster because of the specific operational aspects and identification difficulties. The autopsy results were consistent with death by fire and the toxicological investigations revealed carbon monoxide poisoning in four cases (HbCO% ranging between 88,05 and 95,77), two deaths by cyanide intoxication (with concentrations between 5,17 and 8,85 mcg/ml), and in one case there was a synergistic effect of the two substances (carbon monoxide and cyanide)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516446/a-primary-human-lung-alveolus-on-a-chip-model-of-intravascular-thrombosis-for-assessment-of-therapeutics
#17
Abhishek Jain, Riccardo Barrile, Andries D van der Meer, Akiko Mammoto, Tadanori Mammoto, Karen De Ceunynck, Omozuanvbo Aisiku, Monicah A Otieno, Calvert S Louden, Geraldine A Hamilton, Robert Flaumenhaft, Donald E Ingber
Pulmonary thrombosis is a significant cause of patient mortality, however, there are no effective in vitro models of thrombi formation in human lung microvessels, that could also assess therapeutics and toxicology of antithrombotic drugs. Here we show that a microfluidic lung alveolus-on-a-chip lined by human primary alveolar epithelium interfaced with endothelium, and cultured under flowing whole blood can be used to perform quantitative analysis of organ-level contributions to inflammation-induced thrombosis...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516444/toxicological-analysis-of-opiates-from-alternative-matrices-collected-from-an-exhumed-body
#18
Marta Cippitelli, Dora Mirtella, Giovanni Ottaviani, Giovanna Tassoni, Rino Froldi, Mariano Cingolani
In this case study, the body of a 45-year-old man was exhumed after 1 year at the request of the public prosecutor to assess whether the death was caused by drug consumption. Toxicological analyses were performed on several matrices, including liver, kidney, and the alternative matrices hair and teeth. The systematic toxicological analysis (STA), which consisted of basic and acid liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, showed the presence of opiates in each of the matrices analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516262/-nanomaterials-in-foodstuffs-toxicological-properties-and-risk-assessment
#19
REVIEW
Linda Böhmert, Peter Laux, Andreas Luch, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
Nanomaterials measure below 100 nm in size in at least one dimension. In general, organic and inorganic nanoparticles can be distinguished. In addition, nanosized structures may differ substantially with regard to their shape, chemical composition and physical properties. They may originate either from natural processes or can be manufactured intentionally. The possible specific toxicological properties of nanoparticles that might be based on their enhanced reactivity due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio, as compared to larger particles, or which might result from preferential uptake in cells and tissues, are the subject of current toxicological research...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516258/-biomarkers-of-internal-exposure-to-toxicologically-relevant-contaminants-in-food
#20
REVIEW
Klaus Abraham, Bernhard Monien, Alfonso Lampen
The assessment of health risks resulting from the intake of genotoxic carcinogens in food depends essentially on a valid exposure assessment. The reliability of the external exposure estimation is restricted by various factors, e. g. inaccurate data from dietary protocols and variations of food contaminant contents. As an alternative, the individual internal exposure to genotoxic substances may be described by specific biomarkers in different matrices. For example, mercapturic acids formed after glutathione conjugation of electrophilic metabolites can be detected in the urine...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
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