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Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222304/fabrication-of-novel-visible-light-driven-agi-g-c3n4-composites-with-enhanced-visible-light-photocatalytic-activity-for-diclofenac-degradation
#1
Wei Zhang, Li Zhou, Jun Shi, Huiping Deng
A visible-light-driven heterostructured AgI/g-C3N4 was prepared by a deposition-precipitation method. The composition, structure, morphology, and optical properties of the photocatalyst were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), photocurrent, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222179/seed-and-peel-essential-oils-obtained-from-campomanesia-adamantium-fruit-inhibit-inflammatory-and-pain-parameters-in-rodents
#2
Danieli Zuntini Viscardi, Jucicléia da Silva Arrigo, Camila de Azevedo Chaves Correia, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Iriani Rodrigues Maldonade, Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is popularly known as "gabiroba" and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and toxicology of essential oils from peel (EOP) and seed (EOS) of C. adamantium fruits in animal models. Different groups were treated with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and the inflammatory parameters were evaluated in carrageenan induced paw oedema and leukocyte migration in pleurisy model, while antinociceptive activity was evaluated using formalin method in rodents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219712/the-combination-of-mdpv-and-ethanol-results-in-decreased-cathinone-and-increased-alcohol-levels-study-of-such-pharmacological-interaction
#3
R López-Arnau, M Buenrostro-Jáuregui, P Muñoz-Villegas, J Rodríguez-Morató, A Ciudad-Roberts, L Duart, J Camarasa, R De la Torre, D Pubill, E Escubedo
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychostimulant cathinone acting as a selective dopamine transporter blocker. Due to the concomitant consumption of ethanol (EtOH) and new psychoactive substances, it is of interest to explore a possible pharmacological interaction between MDPV and EtOH. In locomotor activity assays, EtOH (1g/kg i.p.) elicited a reduction in the stimulant effect induced by low doses of MDPV (0.1-0.3mg/kg, s.c.) in rats, jointly with a decrease in blood and brain MDPV concentrations...
February 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#4
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217929/phytochemical-characterization-antibacterial-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-cryptostephanus-vansonii-an-endemic-amaryllid
#5
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O Aremu, Jude C Chukwujekwu, Jiri Gruz, Jiri Skorepa, Karel Doležal, Cuthbert A T Katsvanga, Johannes Van Staden
Cryptostephanus vansonii I. Verd., an endemic Amaryllidaceae species from Zimbabwe, was evaluated for its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and cytotoxicity properties using Ellman's colorimetric method and the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against Vero monkey kidney cells, respectively. The plant extracts were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against five bacteria. Furthermore, phytochemical profiles of the extracts were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
February 20, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217922/characterization-of-e-ntpdase-ec-3-6-1-5-activity-in-hepatic-lymphocytes-a-different-activity-profile-from-peripheral-lymphocytes
#6
Pedro H Doleski, Stephen A Adefegha, Fernanda L Cabral, Daniela B R Leal
: The activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase; EC 3.6.1.5) was characterized in hepatic lymphocytes (HL) of rats. For this purpose, a specific method for the isolation of lymphocytes from hepatic tissue was developed. Subsequently, E-NTPDase activity of rat HL was compared with that of rat peripheral lymphocytes. The HL showed high cell count and viability. Also, the characterization test revealed that the optimal E-NTPDase activities were attained at 37°C and pH 8...
February 19, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217795/understanding-the-microscopic-binding-mechanism-of-hydroxylated-and-sulfated-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-with-transthyretin-by-molecular-docking-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#7
Huiming Cao, Yuzhen Sun, Ling Wang, Chunyan Zhao, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), one typical type of persistent environmental contaminant, have toxicological effects such as disrupting thyroid homeostasis in the human body. The high binding affinities of hydroxylated metabolites of PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) with transthyretin (TTR) were considered to be one major reason for their extraordinary capacity of passing through the blood-brain barrier via competitive thyroid hormone (T4) transport protein binding. Recent findings showed that sulfated PBDEs can be formed in human liver cytosol as phase-II metabolites...
February 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217096/gymnadenia-conopsea-l-r-br-a-systemic-review-of-the-ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-an-important-asian-folk-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Xiaofei Shang, Xiao Guo, Yu Liu, Hu Pan, Xiaolou Miao, Jiyu Zhang
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) is a perennial herbaceous orchid plant that grows widely throughout Europe and in temperate and subtropical zones of Asia. In China, its tuber has been used in traditional Chinese medicines, Tibetan medicines, Mongolian medicines and other ethnic medicines, and taken to treat numerous health conditions. The present paper provides a review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology to highlight the future prospects of the plant...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216165/isolation-and-identification-of-new-chemical-constituents-from-chinese-chive-allium-tuberosum-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-raw-and-cooked-chinese-chive
#9
Quan Gao, Xia-Bing Li, Jia Sun, Er-Dong Xia, Feng Tang, Hai-Qun Cao, Hang Xun
Chinese chive (jiu cai) is a popular vegetable in China and has a unique flavour and aroma. The molecular basis of the characteristic fragrance and nutritional properties of Chinese chive has not been previously identified. Sequential extractions in a series of solvents and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate 40 compounds from Chinese chive. The compounds were identified based on high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and circular dichroism spectra...
February 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216030/sources-health-effects-and-control-strategies-of-indoor-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Zhisheng Li, Qingmei Wen, Ruilin Zhang
Indoor air quality is directly influenced by indoor PM2.5. Short-term and long-term exposure of PM2.5 in the micro environment would severely detriment the health of both humans and animals. The researches both at home and abroad dating from 2000 were analyzed and summarized mainly in the following 3 sections: source apportionment, health effects and control methods. Health effects were illustrated in both epidemiology and toxicology. The epidemiology was explicated in morbidity and mortality, the toxicology was illuminated in inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216029/ecophysiological-responses-of-juvenile-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax-exposed-to-increased-temperature-and-dietary-methylmercury
#11
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Ana Custódio, Patrícia Anacleto, Tiago Repolho, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Diniz
The ecotoxicological effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure have been intensively described in literature. Yet, it is still unclear how marine biota will respond to the presence of MeHg under climate change, namely ocean warming. The present study aimed to investigate, for the first time, fish condition [Fulton's K index (K), hepatosomatic index (HIS) and brain-to-body mass ratio (BB-ratio)] and several stress-related responses in an ecologically and commercially important fish species (Dicentrachus labrax) exposed for 28days to dietary MeHg (8...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215551/maturation-of-behaviour-in-the-fathead-minnow
#12
Caroline Vignet, Joanne Parrott
Fathead minnow (FM, Pimephales promelas) are a species of small fish native to North America. Their small size, fast development, and ability to breed in the lab make them an ideal species to use in research, especially in toxicology. Behaviour in general is poorly studied in FM. The aim of this study was to characterize the normal behaviour of fathead minnow at 3 different stages of development in a light-dark box and in a social behaviour test. Fish larvae showed a preference for the light area, and then an increase in dark preference was seen as the fish aged...
February 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215500/environmental-epigenomics-current-approaches-to-assess-epigenetic-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-edc-s-on-human-health
#13
REVIEW
Natalia Tapia-Orozco, Gerardo Santiago-Toledo, Valeria Barrón, Ana María Espinosa-García, José Antonio García-García, Roeb García-Arrazola
Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214551/effect-of-benzalkonium-chloride-on-trabecular-meshwork-cells-in-a-new-in-vitro-3d-trabecular-meshwork-model-for-glaucoma
#14
Meryem Bouchemi, Christophe Roubeix, Karima Kessal, Luisa Riancho, Anne-Laure Raveu, Hayet Soualmia, Christophe Baudouin, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin
PURPOSE: To validate a new culture model of primary human trabecular meshwork cells (p-hTMCs) using Matrigel®, in order to mimic in vitro 3D-TM organization, and to investigate the proinflammatory effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in 3D p-hTMC cultures. METHODS: p-hTMCs, seeded onto Matrigel®-coated inserts were stimulated with BAK (10(-4)%), dexamethasone (DEX) (10(-6)M) or transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) (5ng/ml) for 48h and observed with confocal microscopy...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214179/mixture-toxicity-of-flubendazole-and-fenbendazole-to-daphnia-magna
#15
Alan Puckowski, Stefan Stolte, Marta Wagil, Marta Markiewicz, Paulina Łukaszewicz, Piotr Stepnowski, Anna Białk-Bielińska
Nowadays, residual amounts of many pharmaceuticals can be found in various environmental compartments including surface and ground waters, soils and sediments as well as biota. Even though they undergo degradability, their environmental discharge is relatively continuous, thus they may be regarded as quasi-persistent contaminants, and are also frequently regarded as emerging organic pollutants. Benzimidazoles, especially flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN), represent two anthelmintic drugs belonging to this group...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212723/redox-dynamics-of-manganese-as-a-mitochondrial-life-death-switch
#16
REVIEW
Matthew Ryan Smith, Jolyn Fernandes, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
Sten Orrenius, M.D., Ph.D., pioneered many areas of cellular and molecular toxicology and made seminal contributions to our knowledge of oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) metabolism, organellar functions and Ca(+2)-dependent mechanisms of cell death, and mechanisms of apoptosis. On the occasion of his 80(th) birthday, we summarize current knowledge on redox biology of manganese (Mn) and its role in mechanisms of cell death. Mn is found in all organisms and has critical roles in cell survival and death mechanisms by regulating Mn-containing enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) or affecting expression and activity of caspases...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212711/advances-in-clinical-mass-spectrometry
#17
D French
Although mass spectrometry has been used clinically for decades, the advent of immunoassay technology moved the clinical laboratory to more labor saving automated platforms requiring little if any sample preparation. It became clear, however, that immunoassays lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity necessary for measurement of certain analytes or for measurement of analytes in specific patient populations. This limitation prompted clinical laboratories to revisit mass spectrometry which could additionally be used to develop assays for which there was no commercial source...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#18
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212474/-zinc-phosphide-poisoning-in-pediatric-patients-from-a-toxicology-center-at-mexico-city
#19
María Carmen Socorro Sánchez-Villegas, Alejandro Bárcena-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Zinc phosphide is a chemical compound that is frequently used as a rodenticide; it is a highly toxic product that is widely used, among other spaces, at home. Given that it is a highly commercialized pesticide and that there is no antidote, it is mandatory to establish favorably the clinical manifestations of the intoxication. The aim was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of children intoxicated with zinc phosphide attended in a toxicological center of a tertiary referral hospital...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212397/a-targeted-gene-expression-platform-allows-for-rapid-analysis-of-chemical-induced-antioxidant-mrna-expression-in-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Margaret G Mills, Evan P Gallagher
Chemical-induced oxidative stress and the biochemical pathways that protect against oxidative damage are of particular interest in the field of toxicology. To rapidly identify oxidative stress-responsive gene expression changes in zebrafish, we developed a targeted panel of antioxidant genes using the Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex (QGP) platform. The genes contained in our panel include eight putative Nrf2 (Nfe2l2a)-dependent antioxidant genes (hmox1a, gstp1, gclc, nqo1, prdx1, gpx1a, sod1, sod2), a stress response gene (hsp70), an inducible DNA damage repair gene (gadd45bb), and three reference genes (actb1, gapdh, hprt1)...
2017: PloS One
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