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Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007363/machine-learning-of-toxicological-big-data-enables-read-across-structure-activity-relationships-rasar-outperforming-animal-test-reproducibility
#1
Thomas Luechtefeld, Dan Marsh, Craig Rowlands, Thomas Hartung
Simple RASAR models tested in cross-validation achieve 70-80% balanced accuracies with constraints on tested compounds. Cross validation of data fusion RASARs show balanced accuracies in the 80-95% range across 9 health hazards with no constraints on tested compounds.
July 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007331/determination-of-cyanide-by-microdiffusion-technique-coupled-to-spectrophotometry-and-gc-npd-and-propofol-by-fast-gc-ms-tof-in-a-case-of-poisoning
#2
Gabriella Roda, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Michele Dei Cas, Valeria Ottaviano, Eleonora Casagni, Fausto Tregambe, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Fiorenza Farè, Rino Froldi, Veniero Gambaro
A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish fluid. In the hotel room the Police found a broken propofol glass vial plus four sealed ones, an opened NaCl plastic vial and six more still sealed, and a number of packed smaller disposable syringes and needles. An opened plastic bottle containing a white crystalline powder labeled as potassium cyanide was also found...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007323/the-dangerous-pattern-of-concurrent-use-of-alcohol-and-cocaine-among-drunk-drivers-of-northeast-italy
#3
Rossella Snenghi, Guido Pelletti, Anna Chiara Frigo, Giovanni Forza, Alessandro Nalesso, Massimo Montisci, Donata Favretto
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of drug and polydrug use among drunk-drivers during the driving license regranting program, in order to assess the inclusion of toxicological tests on hair and urine samples in the systematic methodology in this category of subjects. Short summary: A total of 2160 drunk-drivers were tested for alcohol and drugs during driving license regranting. Thirty-one subjects showed alcohol use, 212 illicit drug use and, among these, 131 were polydrug users...
July 11, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007156/integrated-multi-biomarker-responses-of-juvenile-seabass-to-diclofenac-warming-and-acidification-co-exposure
#4
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Carolina Camacho, Sara Cunha, José O Fernandes, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Diniz
Pharmaceutical drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), are frequently detected in the marine environment, and recent evidence has pointed out their toxicity to non-target marine biota. Concomitantly, altered environmental conditions associated with climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also affect the physiology of marine organisms. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceutical exposure and climate change-related stressors) still require a deeper understanding...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005353/a-combination-of-ternary-classification-models-and-reporter-gene-assays-for-the-comprehensive-thyroid-hormone-disruption-profiles-of-209-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#5
Xiaoxia Bai, Lu Yan, Chenyang Ji, Quan Zhang, Xiaowu Dong, An Chen, Meirong Zhao
Computational toxicology is widely applied to screen tens and thousands of potential environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) for its great efficiency and rapid evaluation in recent years. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with 209 congeners have not been comprehensively tested for their ability to interact with the thyroid receptor (TR), which is one of the most extensively studied targets related to the effects of EDCs. In this study, we aimed to determine the thyroid-disrupting mechanisms of 209 PCBs through the combination of a novel computational ternary classification model and luciferase reporter gene assay...
July 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005311/socio-cognitive-functioning-in-stimulant-polysubstance-users
#6
Sara L Kroll, Michael D Wunderli, Matthias Vonmoos, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Oliver G Bosch, Markus R Baumgartner, Boris B Quednow
BACKGROUND: Using more than one psychotropic substance is accompanied by increased risks for psychiatric and physical disorders. Accordingly, deficits in basal cognitive functions have been consistently associated with polysubstance use (PSU), whereas little is known about potential impairments in more complex socio-cognitive skills, which are relevant for daily-life functioning. Therefore, we investigated the effects of toxicological validated stimulant PSU on social cognition under consideration of potential cumulative effects...
June 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004662/sputtering-enabled-intracellular-x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy-sei-xps-a-versatile-method-to-analyze-the-biological-fate-of-metal-nanoparticles
#7
Antonio Turco, Mauro Moglianetti, Stefania Corvaglia, Simona Rella, Tiziano Catelani, Roberto Marotta, Cosimino Malitesta, Pier Paolo Pompa
The investigation of the toxicological profile and biomedical potential of nanoparticles (NPs) requires deep understanding of their intracellular fate. Various techniques are usually employed to characterize NPs upon cellular internalization, including high-resolution optical and electron microscopies. Here, we show a versatile method, named sputtering-enabled intracellular XPS (SEI-XPS), proving that it is able to provide valuable information about the behavior of metallic NPs in culture media as well as within cells, directly measuring their internalization, stability/degradation, and oxidation state, without any preparative steps...
July 13, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004612/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-generate-light-responsive-retinal-organoids-with-variable-and-nutrient-dependent-efficiency
#8
Dean Hallam, Gerrit Hilgen, Birthe Dorgau, Lili Zhu, Min Yu, Sanja Bojic, Philip Hewitt, Michael Schmitt, Marianne Uteng, Stefan Kustermann, David Steel, Mike Nicholds, Robert Thomas, Achim Treumann, Andrew Porter, Evelyne Sernagor, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako
The availability of in vitro models of the human retina in which to perform pharmacological and toxicological studies is an urgent and unmet need. An essential step for developing in vitro models of human retina is the ability to generate laminated, physiologically functional and light-responsive retinal organoids from renewable and patient specific sources. We investigated five different human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and showed a significant variability in their efficiency to generate retinal organoids...
July 13, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003980/delivery-efficiencies-of-constituents-of-combustion-derived-aerosols-across-the-air-liquid-interface-during-in-vitro-exposures
#9
Sandro Steiner, Pierrick Diana, Eric Dossin, Philippe Guy, Grégory Vuillaume, Athanasios Kondylis, Shoaib Majeed, Stefan Frentzel, Julia Hoeng
In vitro aerosol exposure of epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface is an experimental methodology widely used in respiratory toxicology. The exposure depends to a large part on the physicochemical properties of individual aerosol constituents, as they determine the transfer kinetics from the aerosol into the cells. We characterized the transfer of 70 cigarette smoke constituents from the smoke into aqueous samples exposed in the Vitrocell® 24/48 aerosol exposure system. The amounts of these compounds in the applied smoke were determined by trapping whole smoke in N,N-Dimethylformamide and then compared with their amounts in smoke-exposed, phosphate-buffered saline, yielding compound specific delivery efficiencies...
July 9, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003918/cdc45-mcm2-7-gins-complex-down-regulation-mediates-s-phase-arrest-in-okadaic-acid-induced-cell-damage
#10
Mei Feng, Mi Zhou, Ling-Ling Fu, Jiang-Jia Cai, Lin-Dan Ji, Jin-Shun Zhao, Jin Xu
Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most common and widespread marine toxins and causes acute gastrointestinal symptoms known as diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Although OA is not classified as a typical neurotoxin, an increasing number of studies have reported its neurotoxic effects. However, most of the available studies have focused on OA-induced inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, while the molecular mechanism of OA-induced neurotoxicity remains largely unclear. To better understand the potentially toxicological profile of OA, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and alterations in gene expression in the human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y upon OA exposure were determined using flow cytometry, comet assay, and transcriptome microarray...
July 9, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003905/comparative-proteomics-reveals-the-neurotoxicity-mechanism-of-er-stressors-tunicamycin-and-dithiothreitol
#11
Bingyu Ren, Yujuan Wang, Heng Wang, Yingying Wu, Jiayi Li, Jing Tian
Severity or duration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to two different cellular events: cell survival and apoptosis. Drug-induced ER stress or neurotoxicity has been observed as one of the main side effects. However, how ER stress affects cellular signaling cascades leading to neuronal damage is still not well understood. In this study, the toxicological mechanisms of two typical ER stress inducers, tunicamycin (Tm) and dithiothreitol (DTT), were investigated by cell viability, unfolded protein response, apoptosis and proteomic responses in mouse neuro-2a cells...
July 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003841/comparative-evaluation-of-half-maximum-inhibitory-concentration-and-cytotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-using-buffalo-bull-spermatozoa-as-a-cell-model
#12
Sandhya Sanand, Sandeep Kumar, Nisha Bara, Gautam Kaul
There is a dearth of information regarding the safety of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to their impact on human/animal health and the environment. This study aimed to determine the half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of Ag NPs and MWCNTs by employing different doses and time interval combinations in buffalo bull spermatozoa. Semen samples containing 100 million spermatozoa each were incubated with 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 µg/mL of Ag NPs and MWCNTs at 37°C for 30, 60 and 120 min...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003485/soil-sustainable-utilization-technology-mechanism-of-flavonols-in-resistance-process-of-heavy-metal
#13
Min Li, Xu Zhang, Huanhuan Yang, Xinxin Li, Zhaojie Cui
The soil ecosystem is critical for agricultural production, affecting many aspects of human health. Soil has more unknown biodiversity and edaphic parameters than any other ecosystem especially when polluted. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were applied to research on toxicological characteristics of Pb and resistance mechanism of flavonols. Rhizosphere microorganisms-plants system, a unified system closely related to soil environment was taken as research object. Results emphasize gene expression changes in different test groups...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003185/novichok-agents-a-historical-current-and-toxicological-perspective
#14
Peter R Chai, Bryan D Hayes, Timothy B Erickson, Edward W Boyer
The Novichok , or "newcomer" class of nerve agents are lesser characterized, weaponized organophosphate agents. The use of known Novichok agents in warfare is banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997. Novichok agents are considered more potent than VX gas and can be applied in unitary and binary forms. Like other nerve agents, Novichok agents irreversibly bind acetylcholinesterase and produce a cholinergic toxidrome. Uniquely, these agents are thought to also target neurons in the peripheral nervous system...
2018: Toxicology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003048/toxicological-safety-evaluation-of-freeze-dried-protaetia-brevitarsis-larva-powder
#15
Jung-Ho Noh, Ji-Seong Jeong, Sang-Jin Park, Eun-Young Yun, Jae Sam Hwang, Ji-Young Kim, Kyung-Jin Jung, Hee Jin Park, Hwa-Young Son, Kyoung-Sik Moon
White-spotted flower chafer ( Protaetia brevitarsis ) is an edible insect and its larva was used as a traditional Asian medicine. It's a promising material as a novel food source because of its nutritional components. In this study, as part of the preclinical toxicity program, we evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried P. brevitarsis larva powder to develop a novel food material. In a single-dose oral toxicity study in rats, there were no changes in mortality, clinical observations, and body weight in rats administered 5000 mg/kg P...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002815/one-environmental-health-an-emerging-perspective-in-toxicology
#16
REVIEW
Adam Pérez, John Pierce Wise
The One Environmental Health research approach, a subspecialty of the One Health initiative, focuses on toxic chemicals. Distinct disciplines work together to give a holistic perspective of a health concern through discrete disciplines, including, but not limited to, public health and the medical and veterinary sciences. In this article, we illustrate the concept of One Environmental Health with two case studies. One case study focuses on alligators and contributions to the field of endocrine disruption. The other case study focuses on whales and contributions to understanding carcinogenic metals...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001624/unexpected-hard-protein-behavior-of-bsa-on-gold-nanoparticle-caused-by-resveratrol
#17
Diego Coglitore, Nicoletta Giamblanco, Agne Kizalaite, Pierre-Eugene Coulon, Benoit Charlot, Jean-Marc Janot, Sebastien Balme
The understanding of the interactions between nanomaterials, biomolecules and polyphenols is fundamental in food chemistry, toxicology and new emerging fields such as nanomedicine. Here we investigated the effect of the resveratrol, a principal actor in drug delivery application on the interaction between BSA, employed as a vector for the delivery of polyphenol drugs, and gold nanoparticle (gNP), the most promising tool in theranostic applications. Through a combination of experimental techniques, which includes an initial evaluation by dynamic light scattering and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, we were able to evaluate the evolution of the gold nanoparticle aggregation with increasing ionic strength and the consequences of the BSA and resveratrol addition...
July 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001150/application-of-different-nanocarriers-for-encapsulation-of-curcumin
#18
Zahra Rafiee, Mohammad Nejatian, Marjan Daeihamed, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Curcumin is the main polyphenol of the curcuminoid class of turmeric, a well-known spice belonging to the ginger family. In addition to its common applications like coloring and antioxidant agent as food additives, it has a broad range of favorable biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic activities, and anti-cancer potentials against various cancers. However, curcumin suffers from some limitations including short shelf life due to its poor chemical stability, low bioavailability due to its poor absorption, low water solubility, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination...
July 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998474/simultaneous-enantioseparation-of-methcathinone-and-two-isomeric-methylmethcathinones-using-capillary-electrophoresis-assisted-by-2-hydroxyethyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#19
Paweł Mateusz Nowak, Katarzyna Olesek, Michał Woźniakiewicz, Paweł Kościelniak
Methcathinone (ephedrone), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) and 3-methylmethcathinone (metaphedrone) are toxicologically-important cathinone derivatives used commonly as designer drugs. In this work we show the first method allowing to separate simultaneously all these molecules in a chiral medium, ensuring good resolution between all enantiomers. Eight cyclodextrins have been tested as potential chiral selectors, the best results were obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin, unreported so far for efficient separation of cathinones...
July 11, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998053/up-in-smoke-an-unusual-case-of-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-from-marijuana
#20
M I Shafi, S Liaquat, D Auckley
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be a serious and life threating condition. Illicit substance use has been associated with DAH, with cocaine being the most widely reported. Marijuana use has been associated with pulmonary complications in the form of pneumomediatsium, pneumothorax, bullous disease, and pulmonary aspergillosis. We present a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) resulting from marijuana inhalation, a finding rarely described in the literature. A 21-year-old male presented with several episodes of hemoptysis after drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
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