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Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334263/new-cytotoxic-natural-products-from-the-mangrove-biome-covering-the-period-2007-2015
#1
Boris Pejin, Miodrag Glumac
Nowadays, the mangrove biome is considered to be a profound resource of natural products usually possessing cytotoxicity of a broader range. Covering the period 2007-2015, a total of 21 new naturally occurring compounds has stood out. For example, xylogranin B and swietephragmin C were found to exhibit very potent cytotoxic activity against the colon HCT-116 cells reaching IC50 values of 0.05 and 0.06 μM, respectively. Bearing in mind the efficacy of the majority compounds in the preliminary in vitro screens, these studies should be expanded to both ex vivo and in vivo screens including the evaluation of the relevant toxicological profiles...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334126/methylated-pacs-are-more-potent-than-their-parent-compounds-a-study-on-ahr-mediated-activity-degradability-and-mixture-interactions-in-the-h4iie-luc-assay
#2
Monika M Lam, Rebecca Bülow, Magnus Engwall, John P Giesy, Maria Larsson
In this study, 26 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) including native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hydroxylated PAHs, alkylated and oxygenated PAHs and (alkylated) heterocyclic compounds were investigated for their aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated potencies in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Potential degradabilities of PACs were investigated by use of various durations of exposure (24, 48 or 72 h). Furthermore, various mixtures of PACs including PAHs, alkylated and oxygenated PAHs and heterocyclic compounds were tested for their joint AhR-mediated potency...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332838/rapid-and-sensitive-tapered-capillary-microextraction-combined-to-on-line-sample-stacking-capillary-electrophoresis-for-extraction-and-quantification-of-two-beta-blockers-in-human-urine
#3
Shucheng Sun, Yujia Wang, Xin Liu, Rao Fu, Li Yang
A tapered-capillary microextraction (tCap-μEx) combining with field-amplified stacking (FASI) method for CE analysis was developed. The tCap-μEx method is based on the construction of a micro solid phase extraction (SPE) column by narrowing the end of a silica capillary from 530µm (inner diameter) to 20µm, enabling the packing of 45µm sorbent particles without a frit. Various parameters that may affect the microextraction and FASI-CE analysis have been investigated and optimized. This study shows that microextraction exhibits advantages of small sample and sorbent volumes (less than 200μL sample and 2μL sorbent) and fast extraction time of 6min...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332786/recent-advances-and-developments-on-integrating-nanotechnology-with-chemiluminescence-assays
#4
REVIEW
Ashish Tiwari, S J Dhoble
Chemiluminescence (CL) techniques are extensively utilized for detection of analytes due to their high sensitivity, rapidity and selectivity. With the advent of nanotechnology and incorporation of the nanoparticles in the CL system has revolutionized the assays due to their unique optical and mechanical properties. Several CL-based reactions have been developed where these nanoparticle based CL sensors have evolved as excellent prospects for sensing in various analytical applications. This review article addresses the nanoparticles based CL detection system that are recently developed, the mechanisms has been summarized and the role of luminophors have been discussed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#5
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331911/enhanced-photocatalytic-degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-by-zinc-oxide-photocatalyst-in-the-presence-of-fluoride-ions-optimization-of-parameters-and-toxicological-evaluation
#6
Amir Mirzaei, Laleh Yerushalmi, Zhi Chen, Fariborz Haghighat, Jianbo Guo
The presence of antibiotics in water bodies has received increasing attention since they are continuously introduced and detected in the environment and may cause unpredictable environmental hazards and risks. The photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by ZnO in the presence of fluoride ions (F-ZnO) was evaluated. The effects of operating parameters on the efficiency of SMX removal were investigated by using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimum condition, i.e. photocatalyst dosage = 1...
January 11, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331735/internal-exposure-based-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-potential-for-biopersistence-of-6-2-fluorotelomer-alcohol-ftoh-and-its-metabolites
#7
Shruti V Kabadi, Jeffrey Fisher, Jason Aungst, Penelope Rice
Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are authorized for use as greaseproofing agents in food contact paper. As C8-PFCs (8-carbons) are known to accumulate in tissues, shorter-chain C6-PFCs (6-carbons) have replaced C8-PFCs in many food contact applications. However, the potential of C6-PFCs for human biopersistence has not been fully evaluated. For the first time, we provide internal exposure estimates to key metabolites of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (6:2 FTOH), a monomeric component of C6-PFCs, to extend our understanding of exposure beyond estimates of external exposure...
January 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331732/computational-toxicology-from-cheminformatics-to-nanoinformatics
#8
EDITORIAL
Georgia Melagraki, Antreas Afantitis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331713/repeated-attempted-homicide-by-administration-of-drugs-documented-by-hair-analysis
#9
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331315/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-arctotis-arctotoides-l-f-o-hoffm-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Johannes Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) is part of the genus Arctotis. Arctotis is an African genus of approximately 70 species that occur widely in the African continent with diverse medicinal values. This plant is used for the treatment of indigestion and catarrh of the stomach, epilepsy, topical wounds and skin disorders among the ethnic groups in South Africa and reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to appraise the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological potential, analytical methods and safety issues of A...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330135/apbb2-is-associated-with-amphetamine-use-and-plasma-beta-amyloids-in-patients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#11
Chia-Chen Liu, Chiu-Ping Fang, Tung-Hsia Liu, Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Shu Chi Liu, Sheng-Chang Wang, Andrew C H Chen, Yu-Li Liu
APBB2, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding family B member 2, has been reported to be associated with opioid dependence. In this study, we reported the first time that the genetic variants in the APBB2 gene were associated with use of amphetamine in opioid dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). 344 heroin-dependent patients undergoing MMT were recruited and assessed for use of amphetamine and opioids by urine toxicology, withdrawal severity, and side effects. DNAs were genome-widely genotyped for all patients...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330132/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-strategic-plan
#12
M K Pugsley, S Authier, J E Koerner, W S Redfern, C G Markgraf, T Brabham, K Correll, M V Soloviev, A Botchway, M Engwall, M Traebert, J-P Valentin, T J Mow, A Greiter-Wilke, D J Leishman, H M Vargas
Safety Pharmacology studies are conducted to characterize the confidence by which biologically active new chemical entities (NCE) may be anticipated as safe. Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies aim to detect and characterize potentially undesirable pharmacodynamic activities using an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo animal models. While a broad spectrum of methodological innovation and advancement of the science occurs within the Safety Pharmacology Society, the society also focuses on partnerships with health authorities and technology providers and facilitates interaction with organizations of common interest such as pharmacology, physiology, neuroscience, cardiology and toxicology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329804/a-rapid-and-sensitive-fluorometric-method-for-determination-of-aldehyde-oxidase-activity
#13
Nancy Apenova, Hui Peng, Markus Hecker, Markus Brinkmann
Previous research has characterized the important role of aldehyde oxidases (AOX) in biotransformation of N-heterocyclic therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants in mammals. Research pertaining to AOX activity in non-mammalian vertebrates, however, is scarce, despite its biological role as a potentially important metabolic pathway for xenobiotics. One of the limiting factors of research on AOX is that available photometric methods are relatively insensitive, limited in throughput, and prone to cross-reactivity from other enzymes...
January 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329431/a-validated-method-for-the-screening-of-320-forensically-significant-compounds-in-blood-by-lc-qtof-with-simultaneous-quantification-of-selected-compounds
#14
Emma Partridge, Stephen Trobbiani, Peter Stockham, Timothy Scott, Chris Kostakis
A broad drug screening method for toxicologically significant drugs and metabolites in whole blood using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF) was developed and comprehensively validated. The method qualitatively screens for 320 compounds while simultaneously quantifying 39. Compounds were extracted from the blood using alkaline liquid/liquid extraction and chromatographic separation was achieved in 12 min. The QTOF was operated using positive mode electrospray ionization using data dependent acquisition...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#15
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329099/accumulation-patterns-and-risk-assessment-of-metals-and-metalloid-in-muscle-and-offal-of-free-range-chickens-cattle-and-goat-in-benin-city-nigeria
#16
Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida, Shouta M M Nakayama, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Balazs Oroszlany, Isioma Tongo, Alex Ajeh Enuneku, Ogbeide Ozekeke, Martins Oshioriamhe Ainerua, Iriagbonse Priscillia Fasipe, Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
The use of free range animals for monitoring environmental health offers opportunities to detect exposure and assess the toxicological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Potential human health risk of dietary intake of metals and metalloid via consumption of offal and muscle of free range chicken, cattle and goats by the urban population in Benin City was evaluated. Muscle, gizzard, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while Hg was determined using Hg analyzer...
January 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329090/simultaneous-accelerated-solvent-extraction-and-hydrolysis-of-11-nor-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic-acid-glucuronide-in-meconium-samples-for-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#17
Cinthia de Carvalho Mantovani, Jefferson Pereira E Silva, Guilherme Forster, Rafael Menck de Almeida, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz, Mauricio Yonamine
Cannabis misuse during pregnancy is associated with severe impacts on the mother and baby health, such as newborn low birth weight, growth restriction, pre-term birth, neurobehavioral and developmental deficits. In most of the cases, drug abuse is omitted or denied by the mothers. Thus, toxicological analyzes using maternal-fetal matrices takes place as a suitable tool to assess drug use. Herein, meconium was the chosen matrix to evaluate cannabis exposure through identification and quantification of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic (THCCOOH)...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328973/feeding-inhibition-in-corbicula-fluminea-o-f-muller-1774-as-an-effect-criterion-to-pollutant-exposure-perspectives-for-ecotoxicity-screening-and-refinement-of-chemical-control
#18
Bruno Branco Castro, Carlos Silva, Inês Patrunilho Efe Macário, Bruno Oliveira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana Luísa Pereira
Bivalves are commonly used in biomonitoring programs to track pollutants. Several features, including its filter-feeding abilities, cumulatively argue in favour of the use of the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) as a biosentinel and an ecotoxicological model. Filtration in bivalves is very sensitive to external stimuli and its control is dictated by regulation of the opening/closure of the valves, which may be used as an avoidance defence against contaminants. Here, we investigate the filter-feeding behaviour of the Asian clam as an endpoint for assessing exposure to pollutants, driven by two complementary goals: (i) to generate relevant and sensitive toxicological information based on the ability of C...
January 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328875/environmental-determinants-of-breast-cancer
#19
Robert A Hiatt, Julia Green Brody
In the United States, breast cancer is the most common invasive malignancy and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women. Reproductive factors, estrogen, and progesterone have major causal roles, but concerns about other potential causes in the external environment continue to drive research inquiries and stimulate calls for action at the policy level. The environment is defined as anything that is not genetic and includes social, built, and chemical toxicant aspects. This review covers the scope of known and suspected environmental factors that have been associated with breast cancer and illustrates how epidemiology, toxicology, and mechanistic studies work together to create the full picture of environmental effects on this malignancy...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326135/isolation-of-human-testicular-cells-and-co-culture-with-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Meenakshi Gaur, Cyril Ramathal, Renee A Reijo Pera, Paul J Turek, Constance M John
Our overall goal is to create a three-dimensional human cell-based testicular model for toxicological and spermatogenesis studies. Methods to purify the major somatic testicular cells, namely Leydig cells (LCs), peritubular myoid cells (PCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs), from rats, mice and guinea pigs have been reported. In humans, the isolation of populations enriched for primary LCs, PCs or SCs also have described. One objective of this study was to determine if populations of cells enriched for all three of these cell types can be isolated from testes of single human donors, and we were successful in doing so from testes of three donors...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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