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Céline Vernet, Claire Philippat, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Valérie Siroux, Enrique F Schisterman, Rémy Slama
BACKGROUND: Toxicology studies have shown adverse effects of developmental exposure to industrial phenols. Evaluation in humans is challenged by potentially marked within-subject variability of phenol biomarkers in pregnant women, which is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize within-day, between-day, and between-week variability of phenol urinary biomarker concentrations during pregnancy. METHODS: In eight French pregnant women, we collected all urine voids over a 1-wk period (average, 60 samples per week per woman) at three occasions (15±2, 24±2, and 32±1 gestational weeks) in 2012-2013...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Wen-Jing Zhao, Mo-Ran Huang, Zhan-Peng Shang, Zi-Jian Wang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Jia-Yu Zhang
An efficient method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) mass spectrometer was established to elucidate the in vivo metabolites of tanshinone Ⅰ and tanshinone ⅡA in rats. Urine and plasma samples were collected after oral gavage. After processing biological sample by solid phase extraction, Waters ACQUITY HPLC BEH C₁₈ column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid (A) - acetonitrile (B) solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kelly Lien, Alvin Chin, Anton Helman, Teresa M Chan
Introduction Podcasts and blog posts have gained popularity in Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM). Previous work suggests that podcasts may be useful for knowledge acquisition in undergraduate medical education. However, there remains a paucity of research comparing the two mediums. This study aims to investigate if there are differences in knowledge acquisition and usage conditions by medical students using podcasts and blog posts. Methods Medical students were randomized to either the podcast or blog post group...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rui Chen, Jiyan Qiao, Ru Bai, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
Nanomaterials (NMs) are widely used in various areas because of their unique and useful physicochemical properties. However, they may pose toxicity risks to human health after exposure. Applicable and reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. Herein, an intelligent analytical strategy for safety assessment of NMs is proposed that focuses on toxicity assessment using an in vitro cell model. The toxicity assessment by testing on the adverse outcome pathway in a cell culture system was defined by application of a tiered testing approach...
March 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Violaine Sironval, Laurence Reylandt, Perrine Chaurand, Saloua Ibouraadaten, Mihaly Palmai-Pallag, Yousof Yakoub, Bernard Ucakar, Jérôme Rose, Claude Poleunis, Rita Vanbever, Etienne Marbaix, Dominique Lison, Sybille van den Brule
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIB) are increasingly produced and used worldwide. LIB electrodes are made of micrometric and low solubility particles, consisting of toxicologically relevant elements. The health hazard of these materials is not known. Here, we investigated the respiratory hazard of three leading LIB components (LiFePO4 or LFP, Li4 Ti5 O12 or LTO, and LiCoO2 or LCO) and their mechanisms of action. Particles were characterized physico-chemically and elemental bioaccessibility was documented. Lung inflammation and fibrotic responses, as well as particle persistence and ion bioavailability, were assessed in mice after aspiration of LIB particles (0...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Christopher J Martyniuk
Environmental science has benefited a great deal from omics-based technologies. High-throughput toxicology has defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), prioritized chemicals of concern, and identified novel actions of environmental chemicals. While many of these approaches are conducted under rigorous laboratory conditions, a significant challenge has been the interpretation of omics data in "real-world" exposure scenarios. Clarity in the interpretation of these data limits their use in environmental monitoring programs...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Khushi Mukherjee, Krishnendu Acharya
Metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) with multifunctional properties are used extensively in various industries and released into the environment as industrial effluents and waste nano-products. These non-degradable, toxic MO-NPs are accumulating in the environment, debilitating the ecosystem and their biological communities. In this review article, a real-time scenario of MO-NP toxicity towards the soil and aquatic ecosystem and their mode of toxicity have been addressed in detail. The up-to-date information presented here suggests serious consideration of the consequences before random utilization of MO-NPs...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fiona Sewell, Nichola Gellatly, Maria Beaumont, Natalie Burden, Richard Currie, Lolke de Haan, Thomas H Hutchinson, Miriam Jacobs, Catherine Mahony, Ian Malcomber, Jyotigna Mehta, Graham Whale, Ian Kimber
The advent of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) has provided a new lexicon for description of mechanistic toxicology, and a renewed enthusiasm for exploring modes of action resulting in adverse health and environmental effects. In addition, AOPs have been used successfully as a framework for the design and development of non-animal approaches to toxicity testing. Although the value of AOPs is widely recognised, there remain challenges and opportunities associated with their use in practise. The purpose of this article is to consider specifically how the future trajectory of AOPs may provide a basis for addressing some of those challenges and opportunities...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Thomas F Gamage, Charlotte E Farquhar, Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Richard C Kevin, Iain S McGregor, Jenny L Wiley, Brian F Thomas
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of novel psychoactive substances that exhibit high affinity at the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor and produce effects similar to those of THC, the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis. Illicit drug manufacturers are continually circumventing laws banning the sale of synthetic cannabinoids by synthesizing novel structures and doing so with little regard for their potential impact on pharmacological and toxicological effects. Synthetic cannabinoids produce a wide range of effects including cardiotoxicity, seizure activity, and kidney damage and can result in death...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Annesa Flentje, Kord Kober, Adam Carrico, Torsten B Neilands, Elena Flowers, Nicholas Heck, Bradley Aouizerat
Sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) individuals experience poorer mental and physical health, accounted for in part by the additional burden of sexual minority stress occurring from being situated in a culture favoring heteronormativity. Informed by previous research, the purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between sexual minority stress and leukocyte gene expression related to inflammation, cancer, immune function, and cardiovascular function. Sexual minority men living with HIV who were on anti-retroviral medication, had viral load <200 copies/mL, and had biologically confirmed, recent methamphetamine use completed minority stress measures and submitted blood samples for RNA sequencing on leukocytes...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Zachary T Bitzer, Reema Goel, Samantha M Reilly, Ryan J Elias, Alexey Silakov, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, John P Richie
BACKGROUND: Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Marcella Malavolti, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Marina Tesauro, Ilaria Bottecchi, Angela Ferrari, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti
This study provides the dietary intakes of six trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc), generally characterized by both nutritional and toxicological features depending on their exposure. Being diet the most relevant source of exposure to trace elements in non-professionally exposed subjects, we measured content of these trace elements in foods composing the typical Italian diet using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and assessing dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we eventually estimated dietary daily intake of trace elements in a Northern Italian community...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Edna M S Oliveira, Francisco R Silva, Crislânia C O Morais, Thiago Mielle B F Oliveira, Carlos A Martínez-Huitle, Artur J Motheo, Cynthia C Albuquerque, Suely S L Castro
This study investigated the anodic oxidation of phenolic wastewater generated by cashew-nut processing industry (CNPI) using active (Ti/RuO2 -TiO2 ) and inactive (boron doped diamond, BDD) anodes. During electrochemical treatment, various operating parameters were investigated, such as current density, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenols, O2 production, temperature, pH, as well as current efficiency and energy consumption. After electrolysis under optimized working conditions, samples were evaluated by chromatography and toxicological tests against L...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Joe Dooley, Gareth Ryan, Lianne Gerber Finn, Megan Bollinger, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Wilma M Hopman, Len Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Opioid use in pregnancy is increasing globally. In northwest Ontario, rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are alarmingly high. We sought to document the increasing rates of opioid exposure during pregnancy and associated cases of NAS over a 7-year period in northwest Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre catchment area (population 29 000) maternity program in northwest Ontario of mother-infant dyads of live births from Jan...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
Bjoern Titz, Ulrike Kogel, Florian Martin, Walter K Schlage, Yang Xiang, Catherine Nury, Sophie Dijon, Karine Baumer, Dariusz Peric, David Bornand, Remi Dulize, Blaine Phillips, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Stefan Lebrun, Ashraf Elamin, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Nikolai V Ivanov, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) have the potential to reduce smoking-related health risks. The Carbon Heated Tobacco Product 1.2 (CHTP1.2) is a potential MRTP that uses a pressed carbon heat source to generate an aerosol by heating tobacco. Here, we report the results from the systems toxicology arm of a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413) to assess the effects of CHTP1.2 aerosol compared with cigarette smoke (CS). Transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics analyses complemented the standard endpoints...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ellen V S Hessel, Yvonne C M Staal, Aldert H Piersma
Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain development and neural specification, aiming at illustrating complexity rather than comprehensiveness. We also give a flavor of the wealth of alternative methods in this area...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Shenglin Fang, Zhao Zhuo, Xiaonan Yu, Haichao Wang, Jie Feng
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of excess iron in a liquid iron preparation (especially on intestinal barrier function) and the possible etiology of side effects or diseases caused by the excess iron. In study 1, forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (4-5 wk old) were subjected to oral gavage with 1 ml vehicle (0.01 mol/L HCl) or 1 ml liquid iron preparation containing 8 mg, 16 mg or 24 mg of iron for 30 d. Iron status, oxidative stress, histology (H&E staining), ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) in the intestines and liver were assessed...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
M Murali, P Athif, P Suganthi, A Sadiq Bukhari, H E Syed Mohamed, H Basu, R K Singhal
In the present study, freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (120, 150 and 180 ppm) of Aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) for 96 h. Histological abnormalities were not observed in the organs of control fishes whereas severe damages and extensive architectural loss was found in the brain, gill, intestine, kidney and muscle tissues of treated fishes with more pronounced effects in 180 ppm. The results showed that the acute exposure to Al2 O3 NPs altered the histoarchitecture in various fish tissues...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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