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Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Arisa Nabi, Nawab John Dar, Aashiq Hussain, Nazia Nazam, Abid Hamid, Waseem Ahmad
Dichlorophene; a halogenated phenolic compound with wide applications as a fungicide, bactericide and antiprotozoan. Dichlorophene spray also has therapeutic use in the disease digital dermatitis. In guinea pigs, a few studies obtained mixed results in dicholorophene sensitization tests. In consideration of the fact, that the mechanism of its genotoxicity has not been adequately elucidated lead to present study assessing the acute in vivo toxicological impact in Rattus norvegicus. A systematic research has been made encompassing the use of molecular and flow cytometric approaches...
October 17, 2016: Chemosphere
S A Kulkarni, E Benfenati, T S Barton-Maclaren
One of the key challenges of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) is assessing chemicals with limited/no empirical hazard data for their risk to human health. In some instances, these chemicals have not been tested broadly for their toxicological potency; as such, limited information exists on their potential to induce human health effects following exposure. Although (quantitative) structure activity relationship ((Q)SAR) models are able to generate predictions to address data gaps for certain toxicological endpoints, the confidence in predictions also needs to be addressed...
October 20, 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Shokoufeh Hassani, Saeideh Momtaz, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Armin Salek Maghsoudi, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Parviz Norouzi, Mohammad Abdollahi
This review discusses the past and recent advancements of biosensors focusing on detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) due to their exceptional use during the last decades. Apart from agricultural benefits, OPs also impose adverse toxicological effects on animal and human population. Conventional approaches such as chromatographic techniques used for pesticide detection are associated with several limitations. A biosensor technology is unique due to the detection sensitivity, selectivity, remarkable performance capabilities, simplicity and on-site operation, fabrication and incorporation with nanomaterials...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Hesham Dahshan, Ayman Mohamed Megahed, Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall, Mahdy Abdel-Goad Abd-El-Kader, Ehab Nabawy, Mariam Hassan Elbana
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. METHODS: Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD...
2016: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Yongbo Bao, Xiao Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Jianping Cao, Wei Li, Chenghua Li, Zhihua Lin
Clam, a filter-feeding lamellibranch mollusk, is capable to accumulate high levels of trace metals and has therefore become a model for investigation the mechanism of heavy metal toxification. In this study, the effects of cadmium were characterized in the gills of Tegillarca granosa during a 96-hour exposure course using integrated metabolomic and proteomic approaches. Neurotoxicity and disturbances in energy metabolism were implicated according to the metabolic responses after Cd exposure, and eventually affected the osmotic function of gill tissue...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Claudia Baumung, Jürgen Rehm, Heike Franke, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Silvia Echeverría-Sáenz, Freylan Mena, María Arias-Andrés, Seiling Vargas, Clemens Ruepert, Paul J Van den Brink, Luisa E Castillo, Jonas S Gunnarsson
The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Johannes F Wentzel, Martani J Lombard, Lissinda H Du Plessis, Lizelle Zandberg
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a range of fungi and are common contaminants of agricultural crops. These toxins are chemically diverse and structurally stable, enabling them to enter the food chain which can lead to numerous adverse health effects in animals and humans. Although mycotoxin exposure is associated with the development of several cancers, it has proved challenging to show a direct connection between exposure and oncogenic change. This study investigates the in vitro cytotoxicity, molecular mechanisms and secondary signalling responses associated with the exposure to three major mycotoxins, fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (Don) and zearalenone (Zea)...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Stefan C Weiss, Nicole Egetenmeyer, Wolfgang Schulz
Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Shinbum Kim, Sanghyuk Im, Youngeun Choi, Soomi Park, Jaesoon Hyun, Kyung Seok Lee, Sunimm Lee, Sung-Nan Lee, Jeongri Seo, Ju Hee Kim, Hyunsun Na, Minsun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Marek Stebnicki, Michał Stebnicki
Sosnowsky's hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) is a genus of plants in the family Apiaceae which also includes Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier). They are both found in Central Europe, mainly in neglected green areas or riversides. Sosnowsky's hogweed was brought to Poland from the Soviet Union in the 1950s to be used in animal feed production. Intended goals couldn't be achieved and the plant spread throughout grounds distant to the primarily cultivated lands. Sosnowsky's hogweed is especially hazardous in direct contact with human skin...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jamie Suki Chang, Margot Kushel, Christine Miaskowski, Rachel Ceasar, Kara Zamora, Emily Hurstak, Kelly R Knight
BACKGROUND: In the United States and internationally, providers have adopted guidelines on the management of prescription opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). For "high-risk" patients with co-occurring CNCP and a history of substance use, guidelines advise that providers monitor patients using urine toxicology screening tests, develop opioid management plans, and refer patients to substance use treatment. OBJECTIVE: We report primary care provider experiences in the safety net interpreting and implementing prescription opioid guideline recommendations for patients with CNCP and substance use...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
The modes of action of most insecticides are known, but little information exists regarding the toxicological interactions involving insecticide mixtures at low doses. The effects of mixtures of four insecticides were investigated using LC10 values (concentration leading to 10% mortality), acetamiprid (ACE, 0.235 µg/mL), chlorpyriphos (CHL, 107.0 µg/mL), deltamethrin (DEL, 5.831 µg/mL), and fipronil (FIP, 3.775 µg/mL) on the larvae of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After 24 h exposure, 6 of the 11 tested combinations, DEL/FIP, ACE/DEL, CHL/FIP, ACE/DEL/FIP, ACE/CHL/FIP, and ACE/DEL/CHL/FIP, were toxic through an additive effect...
October 12, 2016: Insects
Justin D Vidal
Evaluation of the female reproductive system in a general toxicity setting can be challenging for the toxicologic pathologist due to the cyclic nature of the estrous and menstrual cycles, timing of puberty and reproductive senescence, and species differences. Age in particular can have a significant impact on the histologic appearance of the female reproductive system and create challenges when trying to distinguish test article-related findings from normal developmental or senescent changes. This review describes the key physiologic and histologic features of immaturity, the transition through puberty, sexual maturity, and reproductive senescence in the female reproductive system, with an emphasis on practical applications for the toxicologic pathologist, and includes recommendations for distinguishing and documenting these developmental periods...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
W Michael Peden
Revision of the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1 guidance for rat carcinogenicity studies to be more selective of compounds requiring a 2-year rat carcinogenicity study has been proposed following extensive evaluation of rat carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity studies by industry and drug regulatory authorities. To inform the ICH S1 expert working group in their potential revision of ICH S1, a prospective evaluation study was initiated in 2013, in which sponsors would assess the pharmacologic and toxicologic findings present in the chronic toxicity studies and predict a positive or negative carcinogenicity outcome using a weight of evidence argument (a carcinogenicity assessment document [CAD])...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Catherine A Picut, George A Parker
Toxicologic pathologists must evaluate tissues of immature animals from a number of types of nonclinical toxicity studies. The pathologist who is familiar with normal postnatal organ development is in a better position to appropriately detect and differentiate between abnormal, delayed, or precocious development. Vacuolation and apoptosis in multiple tissue types are normal components of development that could influence the interpretation of some tissues. Unique postnatal features such as the germal matrix in the brain, gonocytes in the testes, and saccules in the lung may complicate the histopathological evaluation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Pandeeswar Makam, Satyaprasad P Senanayak, Thimmaiah Govindaraju
Reliable and ultrasensitive detection of mercury ions is of paramount importance for toxicology assessment, environmental protection and human health. Herein, we present a novel optoelectronic approach based on nanoachitectonics of small molecule templated DNA system that consists of an adenine (A) conjugated small organic semiconductor (BNA) and deoxyribo-oligothymidine (dTn). This mutually templated dynamic chiral co-assembly system (BNAn-dTn) with tunable chiroptical, morphological and electrical properties is tapped in to enable ultra-sensitive and selective detection of inorganic and organometallic mercury in water...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thomas C Sparks, Beth A Lorsbach
Agrochemicals have been critical to the production of food and fiber, as well as the control of vectors of disease. The need for the discovery and development of new agrochemicals continues unabated due to the loss of existing products through the development of resistance, the desire for products with more favorable environmental and toxicological profiles, shifting pest spectrums, and changing agricultural needs and practices. As presented in the associated analysis of the agrochemical industry, the rising costs and complexities of agrochemical discovery has, in part, led to increasing consolidation, especially in the US and Europe...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Inge Werner, Annette Aldrich, Benjamin Becker, Dennis Becker, Markus Brinkmann, Michael Burkhardt, Norbert Caspers, Sophie Campiche, Nathalie Chèvre, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Beate I Escher, Fabian Fischer, Sabrina Giebner, Katharina Heye, Henner Hollert, Marion Junghans, Cornelia Kienle, Katja Knauer, Muris Korkaric, Veronika Märkl, Jane Muncke, Jörg Oehlmann, Georg Reifferscheid, Daniel Rensch, Andreas Schäffer, Sabrina Schiwy, Simon Schwarz, Helmut Segner, Eszter Simon, Rita Triebskorn, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Thomas Wintgens, Markus Zennegg
This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany)...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Katharina Kaufmann, Peter Dohmen
BACKGROUND: Literature data indicate that terrestrial life stages of amphibians may be more sensitive to xenobiotics than birds or mammals. It is hypothesized that dermal exposure could potentially be a significant route of exposure for amphibians, as there is evidence that their skin is more permeable than the skin of other vertebrate species. Thus, higher amounts of xenobiotics might enter systemic circulation by dermal uptake resulting in adverse effects. Heretofore, no guidelines exist to investigate dermal toxicity of chemicals to amphibians...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
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