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Thomas Luechtefeld, Dan Marsh, Craig Rowlands, Thomas Hartung
Simple RASAR models tested in cross-validation achieve 70-80% balanced accuracies with constraints on tested compounds. Cross validation of data fusion RASARs show balanced accuracies in the 80-95% range across 9 health hazards with no constraints on tested compounds.
July 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Fatima-Zohra Boufroura, Carole Le Bachelier, Céline Tomkiewicz-Raulet, Dimitri Schlemmer, Jean-François Benoist, Pascal Grondin, Yann Lamotte, Olivier Mirguet, Sophie Mouillet-Richard, Jean Bastin, Fatima Djouadi
Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 2 (CPT2) deficiency is one of the most common inherited fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects and represents a prototypical mitochondrial metabolic myopathy. Recent studies have suggested a pivotal role of AMPK in skeletal muscle plasticity and mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, we tested the potential of GSK773, a novel direct AMPK activator, to improve or correct FAO capacities in muscle cells from patients harboring various mutations.We used control and patients' myotubes and studied parameters of fatty acid oxidation metabolism, of mitochondrial quantity and quality, and of differentiation...
July 11, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
HeeSun Choi, Jonathan Kasko, Jing Feng
Background and Objectives : Mobility is a critical factor that influences older adults' independence and well-being. Older drivers may experience increased crash risks due to age-related cognitive declines. Ensuring safe driving practices among older drivers is important to maintain their mobility without sacrificing safety. Investigations for an effective assessment technology that can inform older drivers' risks associated with cognitive declines are warranted. This study aims to identify attentional deteriorations that may underlie crashes in various situations...
July 10, 2018: Gerontologist
Markus O Scheinhardt, Tamara Lerman, Inke R König, Georg Griesinger
STUDY QUESTION: What is the performance of previously established regression models in predicting low and high ovarian response to 150 μg corifollitropin alfa/GnRH-antagonist ovarian stimulation in an independent dataset? SUMMARY ANSWER: The outcome of ovarian stimulation with 150 μg corifollitropin alfa in a fixed, multiple dose GnRH-antagonist protocol can be validly predicted using logistic regression models with AMH being of paramount importance. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Predictors of ovarian response have been identified in FSH/GnRH agonist protocols as well as ovarian stimulation with corifollitropin alfa/GnRH-antagonist...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Stephanie M Zimmerman, Yoshiko Kon, Alayna C Hauke, Bianca Y Ruiz, Stanley Fields, Eric M Phizicky
To develop a system for conditional amino acid misincorporation, we engineered tRNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be substrates of the rapid tRNA decay (RTD) pathway, such that they accumulate when RTD is turned off. We used this system to test the effects on growth of a library of tRNASer variants with all possible anticodons, and show that many are lethal when RTD is inhibited and the tRNA accumulates. Using mass spectrometry, we measured serine misincorporation in yeast containing each of six tRNA variants, and for five of them identified hundreds of peptides with serine substitutions at the targeted amino acid sites...
July 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Mostefa Moubri, Christophe Burucoa, Nicolas Kalach, R Rezki Larras, Nouria Nouar, Fawsia Mouffok, Zakia Arrada
We aimed to evaluate in an Algerian pediatric population the diagnostic performances of the IDEIA HpStAR noninvasive stool antigen test (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) to detect Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication therapy. A prospective study including 158 symptomatic Algerian children was conducted. Patients were initially diagnosed with invasive (culture, histology, and rapid urease test) and noninvasive tests (urea breath test and IDEIA HpStAR test). Infected patients were treated, and 101 were controlled after treatment with two invasive (culture and histology) and two noninvasive tests (urea breath test and IDEIA HpStAR test)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
H R Shin, H S Bae, B S Kim, H I Yoon, Y D Cho, W J Kim, K Y Choi, Y S Lee, K M Woo, J H Baek, H M Ryoo
Gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) cause congenital skeletal anomalies including craniosynostosis (CS), which is characterized by the premature closure of craniofacial sutures. Apert syndrome (AS) is one of the severest forms of CS, and the only treatment is surgical expansion of prematurely fused sutures in infants. Previously, we demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase PIN1 plays a critical role in mediating FGFR signaling, and that Pin1+/- mice exhibit delayed closure of cranial sutures...
July 11, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
A Campabadal, B Segura, H C Baggio, A Abos, C Uribe, A I Garcia-Diaz, M J Marti, F Valldeoriola, Y Compta, N Bargallo, C Junque
Objective: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is the most commonly used test to detect olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the cut-off score for clinical purposes is often difficult to establish because of age and sex effects. The current work aims to study the sensitivity and specificity of the UPSIT Spanish version and its accuracy in discriminating PD patients at different age groups from healthy controls (HC), and to perform an item analysis...
July 11, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Yassir A Yassir, Ahmed M El-Angbawi, Grant T McIntyre, Gavin F Revie, David R Bearn
Objective: To compare the quality of orthodontic treatment between 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot bracket systems. Subjects and methods: Eligible participants aged 12 years or over were allocated to the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch slot MBT appliance (3M-Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) using block randomization in groups of 10. Outcome measures included: 1. ABO cast-radiograph evaluation (CR-EVAL), 2. peer assessment rating (PAR) scores, 3. incisor inclination, and 4...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Reza Sadeghi, Mehri Hashemi, Narges Khanjani
Providing health care services has always been considered as a hazardous job due to a number of reasons. The risk of blood-borne viruses and the importance of their prevention has led to the formulation of principles called standard precautions (SPs). The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model constructs on the behavior of nurses in emergency centers regarding observing SPs in Sirjan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. The study population included 100 emergency personnel working in health centers in Sirjan city (of Iran), who were randomly divided into two intervention (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups...
July 10, 2018: Health Education Research
Ahmed M El-Angbawi, Yassir A Yassir, Grant T McIntyre, Gavin F Revie, David R Bearn
Objective: To compare orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) and patient perception of pain during orthodontic treatment between 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot bracket systems. Subjects and methods: Eligible participants aged 12 years or above were allocated to treatment with the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch slot MBT appliance (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) using block randomization in groups of 10. OIIRR was assessed radiographically using standardized periapical radiographs before and after 9 months from the start of treatment...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Rossella Snenghi, Guido Pelletti, Anna Chiara Frigo, Giovanni Forza, Alessandro Nalesso, Massimo Montisci, Donata Favretto
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of drug and polydrug use among drunk-drivers during the driving license regranting program, in order to assess the inclusion of toxicological tests on hair and urine samples in the systematic methodology in this category of subjects. Short summary: A total of 2160 drunk-drivers were tested for alcohol and drugs during driving license regranting. Thirty-one subjects showed alcohol use, 212 illicit drug use and, among these, 131 were polydrug users...
July 11, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Molly M Quinn, Liza Jalalian, Salustiano Ribeiro, Katherine Ona, Utkan Demirci, Marcelle I Cedars, Mitchell P Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Does microfluidic sorting improve the selection of sperm with lower DNA fragmentation over standard density-gradient centrifugation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Microfluidic sorting of unprocessed semen allows for the selection of clinically usable, highly motile sperm with nearly undetectable levels of DNA fragmentation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Microfluidic devices have been explored to sort motile and morphologically normal sperm from a raw sample without centrifugation; however, it is uncertain whether DNA damage is reduced in this process...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
C Cuman, C E Beyer, D Brodie, T Fullston, J I Lin, E Willats, D Zander-Fox, J Mullen
STUDY QUESTION: Is next generation sequencing (NGS) capable of detecting smaller sub-chromosomal rearrangements in human embryos than the manufacturer's quoted resolution suggests? SUMMARY ANSWER: NGS was able to detect unbalanced chromosome segments smaller than the manufacturer's resolution. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) has been the gold standard platform used for PGD of chromosome rearrangements...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Wenjian Bi, Yun Li, Matthew P Smeltzer, Guimin Gao, Shengli Zhao, Guolian Kang
It has been well acknowledged that methods for secondary trait (ST) association analyses under a case-control design (ST$_{\text{CC}}$) should carefully consider the sampling process to avoid biased risk estimates. A similar situation also exists in the extreme phenotype sequencing (EPS) designs, which is to select subjects with extreme values of continuous primary phenotype for sequencing. EPS designs are commonly used in modern epidemiological and clinical studies such as the well-known National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project...
July 11, 2018: Biostatistics
Kevin D Chase, Lloyd D Stringer, Ruth C Butler, Andrew M Liebhold, Daniel R Miller, Peter W Shearer, Eckehard G Brockerhoff
Invasions by insects introduced via international trade continue to cause worldwide impacts. Surveillance programs using traps baited with host volatiles and pheromones can detect incursions of nonnative species. We report on two experiments executed to determine if attractants for several insect species can be combined without compromising trap catches and detection ability of target species. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of bark beetle pheromones (plus α-pinene) and trap contact with foliage on trap catches of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in traps baited with a mixture of bisabolenes and methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yassir A Yassir, Ahmed M El-Angbawi, Grant T McIntyre, Gavin F Revie, David R Bearn
Objective: To compare treatment duration between 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot systems and determine factors influencing treatment duration. Subjects and methods: Eligible participants aged 12 years or over were allocated to the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch slot MBT appliance (3M-Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) using block randomization in groups of 10. Outcome measures included duration of: 1. overall treatment, 2. levelling and alignment, 3. working and finishing, and 4...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Linda J Titus, Lisa M Reisch, Anna N A Tosteson, Heidi D Nelson, Paul D Frederick, Patricia A Carney, Raymond L Barnhill, David E Elder, Martin A Weinstock, Michael W Piepkorn, Joann G Elmore
Objectives: The impact of malpractice concerns on pathologists' use of defensive medicine and interpretations of melanocytic skin lesions (MSLs) is unknown. Methods: A total of 207 pathologists interpreting MSLs responded to a survey about past involvement in malpractice litigation, influence of malpractice concerns on diagnosis, and use of assurance behaviors (defensive medicine) to alleviate malpractice concerns. Assurance behaviors included requesting second opinions, additional slides, additional sampling, and ordering specialized tests...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Amira Elmadahm, Sarah J Lord, H Malcolm Hudson, Chee K Lee, Luke Buizen, Gelareh Farshid, Val J Gebski, P Grantley Gill
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph-node biopsy has reduced the need for extensive axillary surgery for staging. It still exposes women to associated morbidity. Risk models that use clinical and pathology information of the primary tumour to predict sentinel lymph-node metastasis may allow further improvements in care. This study assessed the performance of four published risk models for predicting sentinel lymph-node metastasis in Australian women with early breast cancer; including one model developed in an Australian population...
June 26, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Ahmed S Sultan, Mona A Marie, Salah A Sheweita
Studies have emphasized an antineoplastic effect of the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated. Herein, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines: the ER-positive, well differentiated, T-47D and the triple negative, poor differentiated, MDA-MB-231 cells. In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay...
June 22, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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