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Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051216/prolyl-4-hydroxylase-domain-protein-3-overexpression-improved-obstructive-sleep-apnea-induced-cardiac-perivascular-fibrosis-partially-by-suppressing-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#1
Guang-Hao Zhang, Fu-Chao Yu, Yang Li, Qin Wei, Song-Song Song, Fang-Ping Zhou, Jia-Yi Tong
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) induced by obstructive sleep apnea is the key factor involved in cardiovascular fibrosis. Under persistent hypoxia condition, endothelial cells respond by endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which is associated with cardiovascular fibrosis. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase domain protein 3 (PHD3) is a cellular oxygen sensor and its expression increased in hypoxia. However, its role in obstructive sleep apnea-induced EndMT and cardiovascular fibrosis is still uncertain...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042934/intermittent-hypoxia-simulating-obstructive-sleep-apnea-causes-pulmonary-inflammation-and-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#2
Yeying Wang, Yanling Chai, Xiaojie He, Li Ai, Xia Sun, Yiling Huang, Yongxia Li
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder with high morbidity in adults. OSA damages multiple organs and tissues, including the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, the metabolism system, the lungs, liver and heart. OSA-induced damage is earliest and greatest to the pulmonary tissue. The present study established a rat OSA model of differing severity by inducing intermittent hypoxia with different concentrations of O2 and it was determined that OSA caused a severe oxidative stress response and pulmonary inflammation in a dose-dependent manner...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036393/angiotensin-receptor-expression-and-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Rami N Khayat, Saradhadevi Varadharaj, Kyle Porter, Angela Sow, David Jarjoura, Mikhail A Gavrilin, Jay L Zweier
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in otherwise healthy patients. The role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the OSA induced VED is not well understood. Methods: Recently diagnosed OSA patients with very low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (Framingham score <5%) were studied at diagnosis and after 12 weeks of verified continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Participants underwent biopsy of gluteal subcutaneous tissue at baseline and after CPAP...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035666/examination-of-risk-for-sleep-disordered-breathing-among-college-football-players
#4
Bailey Peck, Timothy Renzi, Hannah Peach, Jane Gaultney, Joseph S Marino
CONTEXT: Professional football linemen are at risk for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) compared to other types of athletes. It is currently unknown whether collegiate football linemen display a similar risk profile. OBJECTIVE: 1) Determine for the first time whether collegiate football linemen show risk for SDB, and 2) Test the hypothesis that SDB risk is higher in collegiate football linemen compared to an athletic comparison group. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029984/sleep-sleep-apnea-and-atrial-fibrillation-questions-and-answers
#5
REVIEW
Younghoon Kwon, Ryan J Koene, Alan D Johnson, Gen-Min Lin, John D Ferguson
Sleep apnea (SA) is a common sleep disorder increasingly recognized as a risk for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of investigations in recent years have linked SA to AF. In this review, we aim to provide a critical overview of the existing evidence in a question and answer format by addressing the following: What is the prevalent association between the two conditions (separating nocturnally detected AF episodes from AF as a prevalent condition)? Is SA a risk factor for incident AF? Is SA a risk factor for recurrence of AF following cardioversion/catheter-based ablation? What is the association between SA and AF in patients with heart failure? Are there signature electrocardiographic markers of AF found in patients with SA? Are there electrophysiology-based studies supporting the link between SA and AF? What other sleep characteristics (beyond SA) are found in patients with AF? What is the impact of SA treatment on AF? What is the effect of AF treatment on sleep? Finally, we address unsolved questions and suggest future directions to enhance our understanding of the AF-SA relationship...
September 4, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024553/obesity-risk-factors-complications-and-strategies-for-sustainable-long-term-weight-management
#6
Sharon M Fruh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aims of this article are to review the effects of obesity on health and well-being and the evidence indicating they can be ameliorated by weight loss, and consider weight-management strategies that may help patients achieve and maintain weight loss. METHODS: Narrative review based on literature searches of PubMed up to May 2016 with no date limits imposed. Search included terms such as "obesity," "overweight," "weight loss," "comorbidity," "diabetes," cardiovascular," "cancer," "depression," "management," and "intervention...
October 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018786/hypoglossal-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa-a-primer-for-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeons
#7
REVIEW
Sung Ok Hong, Yu-Feng Chen, Junho Jung, Yong-Dae Kwon, Stanley Yung Chuan Liu
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated to be 1-5% of the adult population world-wide, and in Korea, it is reported at 4.5% of men and 3.2% of women (Age 40 to 69 years old). Active treatment of OSA is associated with decrease in insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, psychosocial problems, and mortality. Surgical treatment of OSA has evolved in the era of neuromodulation with the advent of hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS). We share this review of HGNS with our maxillofacial surgical colleagues to expand the scope of surgical care for OSA...
December 2017: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018021/short-sleep-duration-obstructive-sleep-apnea-shiftwork-and-the-risk-of-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#8
Laura K Barger, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Christopher P Cannon, Mary Ann Lukas, KyungAh Im, Erica L Goodrich, Charles A Czeisler, Michelle L O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and overnight shift work are associated with the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: SOLID-TIMI 52 (The Stabilization of PLaques UsIng Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52 Trial) was a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 13 026 patients ≤30 days of acute coronary syndrome...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992834/prevalence-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-asian-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-singapore-sleep-center-experience
#9
Wei Li Neo, Adele C W Ng, Mahalakshmi Rangabashyam, Ying Hao, Kah Leng Ho, Siti Raudha Binte Senin, Song Tar Toh
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac arrhythmias are common in patients with OSA. However, the prevalence and significance of cardiac arrhythmias in Asian patients with OSA are not well studied. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with OSA in Singapore and to evaluate possible factors that may predispose patients with OSA to arrhythmias. METHODS: A retrospective study of 2,019 patients was carried out from January 2011 to December 2012 at a sleep center in a tertiary medical center...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991897/the-influence-of-different-diets-on-metabolism-and-atherosclerosis-processes-a-porcine-model-blood-serum-urine-and-tissues-1h-nmr-metabolomics-targeted-analysis
#10
Adam Zabek, Robert Paslawski, Urszula Paslawska, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Katarzyna Drozdz, Sergio Polakof, Marzena Podhorska, Piotr Dziegiel, Piotr Mlynarz, Andrzej Szuba
The global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused mainly by myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the major pathological process behind this epidemic. We designed a novel model of atherosclerosis in swine. Briefly, the first group (11 pigs) received normal pig feed (balanced diet group-BDG) for 12 months, the second group (9 pigs) was fed a Western high-calorie diet (unbalanced diet group-UDG) for 12 months, the third group (8 pigs) received a Western type high-calorie diet for 9 months later replaced by a normal diet for 3 months (regression group-RG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987230/controversies-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Carolyn C Dicus Brookes, Scott B Boyd
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disease characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. OSA is associated with cardiovascular disease and increased mortality, among other issues. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered first line therapy for OSA, but is not always tolerated. Both non-surgical and surgical alternative management strategies are available for the CPAP intolerant patient. This article explores controversies surrounding airway evaluation, definition of successful treatment, and surgical management of the CPAP intolerant patient with moderate to severe OSA...
November 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980333/long-term-right-ventricular-changes-in-mustard-exposed-patients-a-historical-cohort
#12
Arezoo Khosravi, Mohamad Ali Motamedi, Davoud Kazemi-Saleh, Jafar Aslani, Mostafa Ghanei
INTRODUCTION: Mustard gas (MG) is a chemical warfare agent widely used in the Iran-Iraq War. Its catastrophic effects on the lungs, eyes, and skin have been well studied. However, it also affects the cardiovascular system. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of MG on right ventricular (RV) function. METHODS: All patients presenting to the university clinics between May 2014 and September 2015 were consecutively evaluated to enter the study based on the inclusion criteria (documented proof of chemical injury, no past or present cardiovascular disease, not a current smoker, and no history of sleep apnea)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966594/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-pathophysiology-of-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Daniela Guarino, Monica Nannipieri, Giorgio Iervasi, Stefano Taddei, Rosa Maria Bruno
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions globally and represents a major cause of comorbidities, mostly related to cardiovascular disease. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has a two-way relationship with obesity. Indeed, alterations of the ANS might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, acting on different pathways. On the other hand, the excess weight induces ANS dysfunction, which may be involved in the haemodynamic and metabolic alterations that increase the cardiovascular risk of obese individuals, i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955382/atrial-fibrillation-in-heart-failure-a-therapeutic-challenge-of-our-times
#14
REVIEW
Syeda Atiqa Batul, Rakesh Gopinathannair
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are growing cardiovascular disease epidemics worldwide. There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of AF and HF correlating with an increased burden of cardiac risk factors and improved survival rates in patients with structural heart disease. AF is associated with adverse prognostic outcomes in HF and is most evident in mild-to-moderate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction where the loss of "atrial kick" translates into poorer quality of life and increased mortality...
September 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949781/rem-sleep-imposes-a-vascular-load-in-copd-patients-independent-of-sleep-apnea
#15
Grote L, Sommermeyer D, Ficker Jh, Randerath W, Penzel T, Fietze I, Sanner B, Hedner J, Schneider H
Arterial stiffness, a marker for cardiovascular risk, is increased in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The specific influence of both on arterial stiffness during sleep is unknown. Nocturnal arterial stiffness (Pulse Propagation Time (PPT) of the finger pulse wave) was calculated in 142 individuals evaluated for sleep apnea: 27 COPD patients (64.7 ± 11y, 31.2 ± 8 kg/m(2)), 72 patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD group, 58.7 ± 13y, 33.6 ± 6 kg/m(2)) and 43 healthy controls (HC group 49...
September 26, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933970/the-importance-of-calprotectin-levels-in-the-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-severity
#16
Mümtaz Taner Torun, Ethem Ünver, Yusuf Yalçın, Lutfi Kanmaz, Ender Seçkin
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is mostly seen in adult populations. It is known that increased levels of several inflammatory mediators play roles in OSAS and related comorbidities. Calprotectin is an inflammatory mediator that increases in some diseases such as Bechet's syndrome, bowel diseases and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether calprotectin can be used as a biomarker in OSAS by determining the relation between the serum calprotectin levels and OSAS severity...
September 21, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899518/relationship-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-neuroimaging-signatures-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-the-atahualpa-project
#17
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Mauricio Zambrano, Pablo R Castillo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence of a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and neuroimaging signatures of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate this association in older adults living in rural Ecuador, where small vessel disease is a major pathogenetic mechanism underlying stroke. METHODS: A representative random sample of Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project neuroimaging substudy underwent a single-night diagnostic polysomnography...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893610/sex-differences-in-the-respiratory-sympathetic-coupling-in-rats-exposed-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#18
REVIEW
George Miguel P R Souza, Mateus R Amorim, Davi J A Moraes, Benedito H Machado
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease in which humans face episodes of intermittent hypoxia and it affects men and women. Patients with OSA present hypertension and sympathetic overactivity among several other dysfunctions. Therefore, one important question remains: are the autonomic dysfunctions associated with OSA similar in male and female? This is an unresolved question since sex factors are overlooked in most clinical and experimental studies. Epidemiological data indicate that sex exerts an important influence in the prevalence of OSA and associated comorbidities, such as hypertension...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890147/obstructive-sleep-apnea-influence-of-hypertension-on-adiponectin-inflammatory-markers-and-dyslipidemia
#19
Mahmoud R Abdel-Fadeil, Azza S Abedelhaffez, Hoda A Makhlouf, Ghada A Al Qirshi
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but often unrecognized condition with potentially serious complications. The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanisms linking hypertension (HT), a common cardiovascular disease (CVD), with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by investigating the levels of morning and evening serum adiponectin, inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6), and lipid profiles in OSA patients with and without HT. Four groups were enrolled in this case-control analytic study: control, OSA, OSA+HT, and HT groups, each of which included 22 subjects...
September 1, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888522/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-heart%C3%A2-failure-what-does-the-future-hold
#20
REVIEW
Martin R Cowie, Angela M Gallagher
Most patients with heart failure (HF) have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), with central (rather than obstructive) sleep apnea becoming the predominant form in patients with more severe disease. Cyclical apnea and hypopneas are associated with sleep disturbance, hypoxemia, hemodynamic changes, and sympathetic activation. These patients have a worse prognosis than those without SDB. Mask-based therapies of positive airway pressure targeted at SDB can improve measures of sleep quality and can partially normalize the sleep and respiratory physiology...
October 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
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