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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429755/opossum-apobec1-is-a-dna-mutator-with-retrovirus-and-retroelement-restriction-activity
#1
Terumasa Ikeda, Mayuko Shimoda, Diako Ebrahimi, John L VandeBerg, Reuben S Harris, Atsushi Koito, Kazuhiko Maeda
APOBEC3s (A3s) are single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases that provide innate immune defences against retroviruses and mobile elements. A3s are specific to eutherian mammals because no direct homologs exist at the syntenic genomic locus in metatherian (marsupial) or prototherian (monotreme) mammals. However, the A3s in these species have the likely evolutionary precursors, the antibody gene deaminase AID and the RNA/DNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 (A1). Here, we used cell culture-based assays to determine whether opossum A1 restricts the infectivity of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the mobility of LTR/non-LTR retrotransposons...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#2
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407634/minimally-invasive-approach-for-treatment-of-seminal-vesicle-cyst-associated-with-ipsilateral-renal-agenesis
#3
Eyal Kord, Amnon Zisman, Abd Elhalim Darawsha, Nasib Dally, Paul H Noh, Amos Neheman
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the clinical presentation and approach for the treatment of symptomatic seminal vesicle cyst associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis while presenting our experience with a series of 5 patients treated with minimally invasive surgery for Zinner syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between the years 2008 and 2016, we operated on 5 patients who presented with symptomatic seminal vesicle cyst and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients' charts and medical records were reviewed and compared with past published minimally invasive series...
April 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401457/comparative-studies-of-vertebrate-iduronate-2-sulfatase-ids-genes-and-proteins-evolution-of-a-mammalian-x-linked-gene
#4
REVIEW
Roger S Holmes
IDS is responsible for the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate and linked to an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, mucopolysaccharidosis 2 (MPS2), resulting in neurological damage and early death. Comparative IDS amino acid sequences and structures and IDS gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate IDS sequences shared 60-99% identities with each other. Human IDS showed 47% sequence identity with fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) IDS...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397980/uterine-remodelling-during-pregnancy-and-pseudopregnancy-in-the-brushtail-possum-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae
#5
Melanie K Laird, Hanon McShea, Bronwyn M McAllan, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
The formation of a placenta is critical for successful mammalian pregnancy and requires remodelling of the uterine epithelium. In eutherian mammals, remodelling involves specific morphological changes that often correlate with the mode of embryonic attachment. Given the differences between marsupial and eutherian placentae, formation of a marsupial placenta may involve patterns of uterine remodelling that are different from those in eutherians. Here we present a detailed morphological study of the uterus of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula; Phalangeridae) throughout pregnancy, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to identify whether uterine changes in marsupials correlate with mode of embryonic attachment as they do in eutherian mammals...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396608/zero-tolerance-biosecurity-protects-high-conservation-value-island-nature-reserve
#6
John K Scott, Simon J McKirdy, Johann van der Merwe, Roy Green, Andrew A Burbidge, Greg Pickles, Darryl C Hardie, Keith Morris, Peter G Kendrick, Melissa L Thomas, Kristin L Horton, Simon M O'Connor, Justin Downs, Richard Stoklosa, Russell Lagdon, Barbara Marks, Malcolm Nairn, Kerrie Mengersen
Barrow Island, north-west coast of Australia, is one of the world's significant conservation areas, harboring marsupials that have become extinct or threatened on mainland Australia as well as a rich diversity of plants and animals, some endemic. Access to construct a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant, Australia's largest infrastructure development, on the island was conditional on no non-indigenous species (NIS) becoming established. We developed a comprehensive biosecurity system to protect the island's biodiversity...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371527/the-unique-paired-retinal-vessels-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica-and-their-relationship-to-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#7
Paul G McMenamin, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Xiangting Chen, Ben Wheaton, Samantha Dando
BACKGROUND: In marsupials that possess a retinal vasculature, the arterial and venous segments, down to the smallest calibre capillaries, have been shown to occur in pairs. This pattern is seen in the marsupial central nervous system (CNS) but not in other tissues in this group or in any tissues in eutherian mammals. The present study aimed to determine if the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), a south American marsupial, possesses double retinal vessels. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between vessels and astrocytes and microglia, which are known to play pivotal roles in the blood retinal barrier and immune surveillance respectively...
April 3, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366511/occurrence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hemoplasmas-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-a-brazilian-wetland
#8
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Caroline Tostes Secato, André do Vale Oliveira, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Mirela Tinucci Costa, Marcos Rogério André
Hemotropic mycoplasmas are known to cause anemia in several mammalian species. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in wild mammals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, seven Leopardus pardalis, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials were trapped and ectoparasites (ticks and fleas) found parasitizing the animals were collected. Mammals and ectoparasites DNA samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for Mycoplasma spp...
March 31, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366198/another-look-at-the-foramen-magnum-in-bipedal-mammals
#9
Gabrielle A Russo, E Christopher Kirk
A more anteriorly positioned foramen magnum evolved in concert with bipedalism at least four times within Mammalia: once in macropodid marsupials, once in heteromyid rodents, once in dipodid rodents, and once in hominoid primates. Here, we expand upon previous research on the factors influencing mammalian foramen magnum position (FMP) and angle with four new analyses. First, we quantify FMP using a metric (basioccipital ratio) not previously examined in a broad comparative sample of mammals. Second, we evaluate the potential influence of relative brain size on both FMP and foramen magnum angle (FMA)...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363049/the-use-of-the-ligasure%C3%A2-device-for-scrotal-ablation-in-marsupials
#10
Lara Cusack, Daniel Cutler, Joerg Mayer
Five sugar gliders ( Petaurus breviceps ), ranging in age from 3 mo to 3.5 yr of age, and one opossum ( Didelphis virginianus ), age 4.5 mo, presented for elective orchiectomy and scrotal ablation. The LigaSure™ device was safely used for orchiectomy and scrotal ablation in both species. Surgical time with the LigaSure was approximately 4 sec. No grooming of the incision site or self-mutilation was seen in the first 72 hr postoperatively. One sugar glider required postoperative wound care approximately 10 days postoperatively following incision-site grooming by a conspecific...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349942/frugivore-mediated-selection-in-a-habitat-transformation-scenario
#11
Francisco E Fontúrbel, Rodrigo Medel
Plant-animal interactions are strong drivers of phenotypic evolution. However, the extent to which anthropogenic habitat transformation creates new selective scenarios for plant-animal interactions is a little explored subject. We examined the effects of native forest replacement by exotic Eucalyptus trees on the frugivore-mediated phenotypic selection coefficients imposed by the relict marsupial Dromiciops gliroides upon traits involved in frugivore attraction and germination success of the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus (Loranthaceae)...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348050/differential-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-driven-cytokine-response-distinguishes-acute-infection-of-a-metatherian-host-with-toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-caninum
#12
Shannon L Donahoe, David N Phalen, Bronwyn M McAllan, Denis O'Meally, Milton M McAllister, John Ellis, Jan Šlapeta
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum (both Apicomplexa) are closely related cyst-forming coccidian parasites that differ significantly in their host range and ability to cause disease. Unlike eutherian mammals, Australian marsupials (metatherian mammals) have long been thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis and neosporosis because of their historical isolation from the parasites. In this study, the carnivorous fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) was used as a disease model to investigate the immune response and susceptibility to infection of an Australian marsupial to T...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345247/functional-morphological-adaptations-of-the-bony-labyrinth-in-marsupials-mammalia-theria
#13
Cathrin Pfaff, Stefan Czerny, Doris Nagel, Jürgen Kriwet
Diprotodontia represents the largest and ecologically most distinct order of marsupials occurring in Australasian being highly divers in size, locomotion, habitat preferences, feeding, and activity pattern. The spatial orientation in the habitat and therefore the three-dimensional space is detected by the vestibular system of the inner ear, more precisely by the three semicircular canals. In this study, we investigated the bony labyrinth of diprotodontian and selected non-diprotodontian marsupial mammals of almost all genera with noninvasive micro-CT scanning and 3D-reconstructions...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344905/evolution-of-the-patellar-sesamoid-bone-in-mammals
#14
Mark E Samuels, Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson
The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade) groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341539/functional-results-in-endoscopic-zenker-s-diverticulum-surgery
#15
A Dissard, L Gilain, R Pastourel, T Mom, N Saroul
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess functional results in endoscopic Zenker's diverticulum surgery. The secondary objectives were to assess safety, identify recurrence risk factors, and determine optimal management of recurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2000 to 2014, 50 patients underwent endoscopic surgery for marsupialization of Zenker's diverticulum. Regurgitation and dysphagia were assessed on the FOIS scale, pre- and post-operatively...
March 21, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326070/antimicrobial-protection-of-marsupial-pouch-young
#16
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Cheng, Katherine Belov
Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326016/early-origin-and-evolution-of-the-angelman-syndrome-ubiquitin-ligase-gene-ube3a
#17
REVIEW
Masaaki Sato
The human Ube3a gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and exhibits brain-specific genomic imprinting. Genetic abnormalities that affect the maternal copy of this gene cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS), which is characterized by severe mental retardation, speech impairment, seizure, ataxia and some unique behavioral phenotypes. In this review article, I highlight the evolution of the Ube3a gene and its imprinting to provide evolutionary insights into AS. Recent comparative genomic studies have revealed that Ube3a is most phylogenetically similar to HECTD2 among the human HECT (homologous to the E6AP carboxyl terminus) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, and its distant evolutionary origin can be traced to common ancestors of fungi and animals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321372/treatment-outcomes-of-rathke-s-cleft-cysts-managed-with-marsupialization
#18
Edward C Kuan, Frederick Yoo, Jennifer Chyu, Marvin Bergsneider, Marilene B Wang
Objectives Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are benign cystic lesions of the sella resulting from incomplete obliteration of Rathke's cleft. Symptomatic lesions often require surgical decompression, which is often amenable to a transnasal, transsphenoidal (TNTS) approach. We report our experience with marsupialization of RCC and describe a novel technique to promote re-epithelization of the cyst cavity. Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants Patients who underwent TNTS for RCC between 2007 and 2015...
April 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299258/micro-marsupialization-versus-surgical-excision-for-the-treatment-of-mucoceles
#19
Girish B Giraddi, Aamir Malick Saifi
BACKGROUND: Mucocele is a common disorder of minor salivary glands which arises due to mucous accumulation resulting from their alteration. Several techniques have been described for the treatment. However, most of them are invasive or require costly armamentarium. PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of micro-marsupialization technique as an alternative to surgical excision for the treatment of mucoceles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291601/molecular-detection-of-hepatozoon-spp-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-southern-pantanal-brazil-with-implications-in-the-transmission-route
#20
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Marina Pugnaghi Fernandes, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, João Bosco Campos, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Barros Battesti, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated...
February 22, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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