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Gráinne I McNamara, Rosalind M John, Anthony R Isles
Genomic imprinting, the epigenetic process by which transcription occurs from a single parental allele, is believed to influence social behaviors in mammals. An important social behavior is group living, which is enriched in Eutherian mammals relative to monotremes and marsupials. Group living facilitates resource acquisition, defense of territory and co-care of young, but requires a stable social group with complex inter-individual relationships. Co-occurring with increased group living in Eutherians is an increase in the number of imprinted loci, including that spanning the maternally expressed Cdkn1c ...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Reda Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Andrea N Loes, Jamie T Bridgham, Michael J Harms
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces inflammation in response to both pathogen- and host-derived molecules. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition by TLR4 has been shown to occur across the amniotes, but endogenous signaling through TLR4 has not been validated outside of placental mammals. To determine whether endogenous danger signaling is also shared across amniotes, we studied the evolution of TLR4-activation by the calgranulin proteins (S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12), a clade of host molecules that potently activate TLR4 in placental mammals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lorenzo Alibardi
The presence and localization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor involved in barrier formation in human and mice epidermis, has been studied in the epidermis of piscine and terrestrial vertebrates using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Cystatin has been localized by Immunostaining in the pre-corneous and corneous layers of monotreme, marsupial and placental mammals, and sparsely in the thin corneous layer of birds. Cystatin-immunolabeling is present in the pre-corneous and corneous layer of crocodilian and turtle epidermis, in the alpha-corneous layer and likely also in the beta-corneous layer of the epidermis in lizards, snakes and the tuatara...
February 13, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Hani Aljohani, A Romano, C Iaccarino, M Ganau, P Diemidio, S Chibbaro
Arachnoid cysts (ACs) within the fourth ventricle are rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. These are benign lesions within the arachnoid membrane, and they have been reported to occur in almost all locations where arachnoid is present. Different procedures have been performed to restore a normal cerebrospinal fluid dynamic and/or pressure, including shunting and partial or complete excision of the cyst by open microsurgery or endoscopic fenestration. We report the case of a fourth ventricle AC successfully treated using only endoscopic anterior trans-frontal cyst fenestration/marsupialization and standard third ventriculostomy...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Patricia Pilatti, Diego Astúa
Usually considered a morphologically conservative group, didelphid marsupials present considerable variation in ecology and body size, some of which were shown to relate to morphological structures. Thus, changes on orbit morphology are likely and could be related to that variation. We calculated orbit orientation in 873 specimens of 16 Didelphidae genera yielding estimates of orbits convergence (their position relative to midsagittal line) and verticality (their position relative to frontal plane). We then compared similarities in these variables across taxa to ecological, morphological and phylogenetic data to evaluate the influencing factors on orbit orientation in didelphids...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Kiona Sharon de Nies, Ralph Alexander Edwards, Niklas Bergknut, Martijn Beukers, Björn Petrus Meij
BACKGROUND: Spinal cysts are rare findings in veterinary medicine, but they are increasingly recognized due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques. Extradural meningeal cysts in French Bulldogs have not been reported previously and arachnoid cysts (diverticula) have not been reported at the caudal lumbar (L6-L7) region in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: Two French Bulldogs, aged 5 and 8 years, were referred for evaluation of lower back pain and bilateral hind limb neurological deficits...
March 1, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Banu Atalay Erdogan, Nazmiye Unlu, Sedat Aydin, Hakan Avci
Mucocele is benign, slow-growing, mucous-filled cystic lesions that arise in the paranasal sinuses. It causes progressive distension of the bony walls and induces compressive symptoms. Surgical treatment of paranasal sinus mucoceles includes endoscopic approach or external approach. The authors report a patient of frontal mucocele who presented with a history of progressive unilateral protrusion. Computed tomography scan revealed a large mucocele of the frontal sinus with orbital extension on the same side...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Stephen Frankenberg
Marsupials and monotremes differ from eutherian mammals in many features of their reproduction and development. Some features appear to be representative of transitional stages in evolution from therapsid reptiles to humans and mice, particularly with respect to the extraembryonic tissues that have undergone remarkable modifications to accommodate reduced egg size and quantity of yolk/deutoplasm, and increasing emphasis on viviparity and placentation. Trophoblast and hypoblast contribute the epithelial layers in most of the extraembryonic membranes and are the first two lineages to differentiate from the embryonic lineage...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Kenji Kondo, Shintaro Baba, Sayaka Suzuki, Hironobu Nishijima, Shu Kikuta, Tatsuya Yamasoba
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to examine variations in the location of the infraorbital nerve relative to postoperative maxillary cysts to assess the potential risk of nerve injury during endonasal marsupialization. METHODS: Coronal computed tomography images of 130 patients (162 sides) with postoperative maxillary cysts who visited our clinic between 2003 and 2014 were reviewed from the viewpoint of the anatomical relationship between the infraorbital nerves and cysts...
February 20, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Roland Frey, David Reby, Guido Fritsch, Benjamin D Charlton
Koalas are characterised by a highly unusual vocal anatomy, with a descended larynx and velar vocal folds, allowing them to produce calls at disproportionately low frequencies. Here we use advanced imaging techniques, histological data, classical macroscopic dissection and behavioural observations to provide the first detailed description and interpretation of male and female koala vocal anatomy. We show that both males and females have an elongated pharynx and soft palate, resulting in a permanently descended larynx...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Maryam Akbari, Harold Chen, Grace Guo, Zachary Legan, Ghali Ghali
In this article, we present three clinical case reports on Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome). Gorlin syndrome is an inherited medical condition with challenges that manifest in multiple body systems and complicate early diagnosis. We examine the epidemiology of the disease and benefits of genetic testing, molecular pathophysiology, and advancement in the molecular-based therapy of Basal Cell Nevus syndrome. The goal of this paper is to shed light on both unmet challenges and advancements in the management of Gorlin syndrome and to provide a new clinical perspective and guidance for future research...
January 31, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Siew-May Loh, Andrea Paparini, Una Ryan, Peter Irwin, Charlotte Oskam
Piroplasms, including the genera Babesia and Theileria, are intra-erythrocytic protozoa that are generally transmitted by ticks and are the aetiological agents for piroplasmosis in animals, as well as humans, worldwide. In Australia, numerous studies have been conducted on piroplasms in domestic animals; however, less is known about these protozoa in ticks from native wildlife. The present study characterised piroplasms in Ixodes australiensis (n = 119) and Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 35) ticks collected from kangaroos in Western Australia (WA)...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Yoshie Ochiai, Yusuke Ando, Shigehiko Tokunaga, Jun Muneuchi
We present a very rare case of isolated right pulmonary veins atresia in a 4-year-old girl. As the presence of a pulsatile blind pulmonary venous confluence adjacent to the left atrium was demonstrated by preoperative right pulmonary arterial wedge angiography, we applied sutureless pericardial marsupialization for the repair of right pulmonary veins atresia. She is currently 8 years old without pulmonary veins stenosis.
February 8, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Xinyu Zhang, Liu Liu, Xi Yang, Lizhen Wang, Chenping Zhang, Yongjie Hu
In this study, we evaluated the effects of marsupialization in treating unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) and investigated the relationship between TP53 and interleukin 1 α (IL-1α) expression and the clinical outcome of UA treated with marsupialization.Consecutive patients treated with marsupialization and curettage at Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital were included. According to the unified standard, 48 patients were included in this study. Of these, 20 showed a good response, 10 a partial response, and 18 no response, based on the outcome of the marsupialization procedure...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anthony M Carter
The mammalian placenta shows an extraordinary degree of variation in gross and fine structure, but this has been difficult to interpret in physiological terms. Transcriptomics offers a path to understanding how structure relates to function. This essay examines how studies of gene transcription can inform us about placental evolution in eutherian and marsupial mammals and more broadly about convergent evolution of viviparity and placentation in vertebrates. Thus far, the focus has been on the chorioallantoic placenta of eutherians at term, the reproductive strategies of eutherians and marsupials, and the decidual response of the uterus at implantation...
2018: F1000Research
Janine E Deakin
Marsupials typically possess very large, distinctive chromosomes that make them excellent subjects for cytogenetic analysis, and the high level of conservation makes it relatively easy to track chromosome evolution. There are two speciose marsupial families with contrasting rates of karyotypic evolution that could provide insight into the mechanisms driving genome reshuffling and speciation. The family Dasyuridae displays exceptional karyotype conservation with all karyotyped species possessing a 2n = 14 karyotype similar to that predicted for the ancestral marsupial...
February 6, 2018: Genes
Vincent Pommier de Santi, Sébastien Briolant, Aba Mahamat, Carole Ilcinkas, Denis Blanchet, Benoit de Thoisy, Yann Reynaud, Georges Hyvert, Jean-Lou Marié, Sophie Edouard, Bernard Davoust, Didier Raoult
A Q fever epidemic occurred in 2013 in a small military residential area in Cayenne, French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify Q fever risk factors. Confirmed acute Q fever case was defined as positive serology (IgM ≥ 50 and phase II IgG ≥ 200) and/or positive qPCR on serum or blood. In addition, wild mammals were captured at the study site and tested by serology and real-time PCR performed on blood, vaginal swabs and ticks. The attack rate was 20 percent (11/54). All the cases were symptomatic with fever >38...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Camilla M Whittington, Denis O'Meally, Melanie K Laird, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson, Bronwyn M McAllan
Early pregnancy is a critical time for successful reproduction; up to half of human pregnancies fail before the development of the definitive chorioallantoic placenta. Unlike the situation in eutherian mammals, marsupial pregnancy is characterised by a long pre-implantation period prior to the development of the short-lived placenta, making them ideal models for study of the uterine environment promoting embryonic survival pre-implantation. Here we present a transcriptomic study of pre-implantation marsupial pregnancy, and identify differentially expressed genes in the Sminthopsis crassicaudata uterus involved in metabolism and biosynthesis, transport, immunity, tissue remodelling, and uterine receptivity...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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