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Adriana Botero, Irit Kapeller, Crystal Cooper, Peta L Clode, Joseph Shlomai, R C Andrew Thompson
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids. It consists of a few dozen maxicircles and several thousand minicircles, all catenated topologically to form a two-dimensional DNA network. Minicircles are heterogeneous in size and sequence among species. They present one or several conserved regions that contain three highly conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). CSB-1 (10 bp sequence) and CSB-2 (8 bp sequence) present lower interspecies homology, while CSB-3 (12 bp sequence) or the Universal Minicircle Sequence (UMS) is conserved within most trypanosomatids...
May 17, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Zinan Yang, Qian Liang, Le Yang, Guang-Sen Zheng, Si-En Zhang, Xiao-Mei Lao, Yu-Jie Liang, Gui-Qing Liao
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study investigated the reduction rate and speed of shrinkage after marsupialization in mandibular cystic ameloblastoma and clarified whether marsupialization is appropriate for unicystic ameloblastoma and multicystic ameloblastoma. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with mandibular cystic ameloblastoma were initially treated with marsupialization. Premarsupialization and postmarsupialization panoramic radiographs were reviewed for reduction rate and speed of shrinkage, and then were evaluated with age, sex, tumor location, and tumor type...
May 13, 2018: Head & Neck
Sara M Bagher, Ayman M Sulimany, Martin Kaplan, Cheen Y Loo
A mucocele is the most common minor salivary gland disease and among the most common biopsied oral lesions in pediatric patients. Clinically, a mucocele appears as a round well-circumscribed painless swelling ranging from deep blue to mucosa alike in color. Mucoceles rarely resolve on their own and surgical removal under local anesthesia is required in most cases. Different treatment options are described in the literature, including cryosurgery, intra-lesion injection of corticosteroid, micro-marsupialization and conventional surgical removal using a scalpel, and laser ablation...
May 9, 2018: Dentistry journal
Ryan R Witt, Lyn A Hinds, John C Rodger
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists that induce a reversible contraceptive state in several marsupials have the potential to be used to synchronize estrus. We used a model macropod, the tammar wallaby (Notamacropus eugenii), to investigate whether Lucrin Depot (AbbVie), a GnRH agonist microsphere preparation, could (1) inhibit follicular development and estrus in a cycle reactivated by removal of pouch young (RPY) and (2) facilitate a synchronous return to estrus. Our results show that females reactivated with bromocriptine and RPY in early seasonal quiescence (July 2015) were inhibited by Lucrin Depot (0...
April 30, 2018: Theriogenology
Alicia M Dimovski, Kylie A Robert
The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Ingo Schubert
An increasing number of observations suggest an evolutionary switch of centromere position on monocentric eukaryotic chromosomes which otherwise display a conserved sequence of genes and markers. Such observations are particularly frequent for primates and equidae (for review see Heredity 108:59-67, 2012) but occur also in marsupials (J Hered 96:217-224, 2005) and in plants (Chromosome Res 25:299-311, 2017 and references therein). The actual mechanism(s) behind remained unclear in many cases (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:6542-6547, 2004; Trends Genet 30:66-74, 2014)...
April 28, 2018: Chromosoma
Tanapan Sukee, Ian Beveridge, Abdul Jabbar
BACKGROUND: Pharyngostrongylus kappa Mawson, 1965 is a nematode (Strongyloidea: Cloacininae), endemic to the sacculated forestomachs of Australian macropodid marsupials (kangaroos and wallaroos). A recent study revealed genetic variation within the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA among P. kappa specimens collected from Macropus giganteus Shaw and Osphranter robustus (Gould). This study aimed to characterise the genetic and morphological diversity within P...
April 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Cesar Tovar, Amanda L Patchett, Vitna Kim, Richard Wilson, Jocelyn Darby, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest extant carnivorous marsupial and endemic to Tasmania, is at the verge of extinction due to the emergence of a transmissible cancer known as devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). DFTD has spread over the distribution range of the species and has been responsible for a severe decline in the global devil population. To protect the Tasmanian devil from extinction in the wild, our group has focused on the development of a prophylactic vaccine. Although this work has shown that vaccine preparations using whole DFTD tumour cells supplemented with adjuvants can induce anti-DFTD immune responses, alternative strategies that induce stronger and more specific immune responses are required...
2018: PloS One
André F Mendonça, Alexandre R Percequillo, Nicholas F de Camargo, Juliana F Ribeiro, Alexandre R T Palma, Leonardo C Oliveira, Edeltrudes M V C Câmara, Emerson M Vieira
Patterns in distribution and local abundance of species within a biome are central concerns in ecology and allow the understanding of the effects of habitat loss on rates of species extinction; provide support for the creation and management of reserves; and contribute to the identification and quantification of the processes that allow niche partitioning by species. However, despite the importance in the conservation and management of the ecosystems, most systematized information on the abundance and distribution of small mammals is restricted to the northern hemisphere or forest ecosystems...
April 27, 2018: Ecology
Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Anna-Lena Sander, Namá Silva, Andres Moreira-Soto, Andrea Normann, Bertram Flehmig, Alexander N Lukashev, Andreas Dotzauer, Nicolas Wieseke, Carlos Roberto Franke, Jan Felix Drexler
The discovery of nonprimate hepatoviruses illuminated the evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in small mammals. Marsupials are ancient mammals that diverged during the Jurassic from other Eutheria. Viruses from marsupials may thus provide important insight into virus evolution. To investigate Hepatovirus macroevolutionary patterns, we sampled 112 opossums in northeastern Brazil. A novel marsupial HAV (MHAV) was detected in a Brazilian Common Opossum ( Didelphis aurita ) by nested RT-PCR. MHAV concentration in liver was high at 2...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Reda Mohamed
Common opossums ( Didelphis marsupialis ) are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Lihong Yuan, Shawn Wilder, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J Simpson, Michelle Shaw, Bronwyn M McAllan
Diet regulation behavior can mediate the consequences of imbalanced diets for animal well-being, particularly for captive species that have little dietary choice. Dasyurids (carnivorous marsupials) are of conservation concern in Australia, and many species are in captive breeding programmes. However, their nutrient targets and dietary regulation behaviors are poorly understood, a limitation that may decrease the breeding success and well-being of captive animals. We tested how dietary protein content influenced the intake and utilization of nutrients, physical activity, and body mass of fat-tailed dunnarts Sminthopsis crassicaudata ...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
N B Chilton, F Huby-Chilton, A Koehler, R B Gasser, I Beveridge
The phylogenetic relationships of 42 species of cloacinine nematodes belonging to three tribes (Coronostrongylinea, Macropostrongylinea and Zoniolaiminea) were examined based on sequence data of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. All nematodes examined are parasites of Australian macropodid marsupials. None of the three nematode tribes was monophyletic. Paraphyly was also encountered in three genera: Papillostrongylus, Monilonema and Wallabinema...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Karen B Dzhambazov, Borislav D Kitov, Hristo B Zhelyazkov, Nikoleta I Traykova, Ivo I Kehayov, Tanya T Kitova
AIM: The present study aimed at identifying the risk factors, typical clinical symptoms and applied treatment in seven cases with mucocele of the paranasal sinuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients suffering from mucocele of the paranasal sinuses were admitted to the Clinic of Neurosurgery and the Clinic of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases between 2014 and 2016. There were 4 females and 3 males aged between 22 and 78 (95% CI [31.44, 70.23]). Initial symptoms, their duration, clinical presentation upon admission, localization of the mucocele, type of surgical intervention and outcome have all been studied...
March 1, 2018: Folia Medica
Peter Vdacný
Trichostome ciliates are among the most conspicuous protists in the gastrointestinal tract of a large variety of vertebrates. However, little is still known about phylogeny of the trichostome/vertebrate symbiotic systems, evolutionary correlations between trichostome extrinsic traits, and character-dependent diversification of trichostomes. These issues were investigated here, using the relaxed molecular clock technique along with stochastic mapping of character evolution, and binary-state speciation and extinction models...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Gary C Packard
A novel statistical routine is presented here for exploring and comparing patterns of allometric variation in two or more groups of subjects. The routine combines elements of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with non-linear regression to achieve the equivalent of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on curvilinear data. The starting point is a three-parameter power equation to which a categorical variable has been added to identify membership by each subject in a specific group or treatment. The protocol differs from earlier ones in that different assumptions can be made about the form for random error in the full statistical model (i...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
David Alvarez-Ponce, María Torres-Sánchez, Felix Feyertag, Asmita Kulkarni, Taylen Nappi
DNA methylation is mediated by a conserved family of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts). The human genome encodes three active Dnmts (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b), the tRNA methyltransferase Dnmt2, and the regulatory protein Dnmt3L. Despite their high degree of conservation among different species, genes encoding Dnmts have been duplicated and/or lost in multiple lineages throughout evolution, indicating that the DNA methylation machinery has some potential to undergo evolutionary change. However, little is known about the extent to which this machinery, or the methylome, varies among vertebrates...
2018: PloS One
Erdem Atalay Cetinkaya
Thornwaldt cyst (Tc) is a benign mass, usually localized in the median plan of the nasopharynx. It is generate from permanent notochord remainings. The pharyngeal bursa-being an embryological residual-occurs in 3% of healthy adults. Closing of the orifice of a nasopharyngeal bursa results in the occurrence of Tc. When the Tc become infected or inflamed, causing to signs. The general indications for radiologic study in patients are nasopharyngeal symptoms, headache, seizures, and dizziness. Computed tomography is less effective than magnetic resonance imaging in the detection and characterization of Tc...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ahmed Eissa, Ahmed El Sherbiny, Eugenio Martorana, Giacomo M Pirola, Stefano Puliatti, Michele Scialpi, Salvatore Micali, Bernardo Rocco, Evangelos Liatsikos, Alberto Breda, Francesco Porpiglia, Giampaolo Bianchi
INTRODUCTION: Renal cysts are common findings in nearly 10% of general population. According to Bosniak classification, they are classified into simple and complex renal cysts based on their CT characteristics. The majority of simple renal cysts are asymptomatic and require no intervention. Once they become symptomatic or complicated, a non-conservative management should be considered. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This paper is a narrative review of existing manuscripts regarding the non-conservative management of renal cysts...
April 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Sergio F Nigenda-Morales, Ryan J Harrigan, Robert K Wayne
Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors...
2018: PeerJ
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