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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821913/molecular-insights-into-the-origin-of-the-brown-rust-resistance-gene-bru1-among-saccharum-species
#2
Heng-Bo Wang, Ping-Hua Chen, Yan-Qing Yang, Angelique D'Hont, Yun-Hai Lu
Analysis of 387 sugarcane clones using Bru 1 diagnostic markers revealed two possible sources of Bru 1 in Chinese cultivars: one from Saccharum spontaneum and another from Saccharum robustum of New Guinea. Sugarcane brown rust (SBR) is an important fungal disease in many sugarcane production areas around the world, and can cause considerable yield losses in susceptible sugarcane cultivars. One major SBR resistance gene, named Bru1, initially identified from cultivar R570, was shown to be a major SBR resistance source in most of the sugarcane producing areas of the world...
August 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820597/deterministic-symmetry-breaking-of-plasmonic-nanostructures-enabled-by-dna-programmable-assembly
#3
Matthew R Jones, Kevin L Kohlstedt, Matthew N O'Brien, Jinsong Wu, George C Schatz, Chad A Mirkin
The physical properties of matter rely fundamentally on the symmetry of constituent building blocks. This is particularly true for structures that interact with light via the collective motion of their conduction electrons (i.e., plasmonic materials), where the observation of exotic optical effects, such as negative refraction and electromagnetically induced transparency, require the coupling of modes that are only present in systems with nontrivial broken symmetries. Lithography has been the predominant fabrication technique for constructing plasmonic metamaterials, as it can be used to form patterns of arbitrary complexity, including those with broken symmetry...
August 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815755/large-scale-synthesis-of-freestanding-layer-structured-pbi2-and-mapbi3-nanosheets-for-high-performance-photodetection
#4
Changyong Lan, Ruoting Dong, Ziyao Zhou, Lei Shu, Dapan Li, SenPo Yip, Johnny C Ho
Recently, due to the possibility of thinning down to the atomic thickness to achieve exotic properties, layered materials have attracted extensive research attention. In particular, PbI2 , a kind of layered material, and its perovskite derivatives, CH3 NH3 PbI3 (i.e., MAPbI3 ), have demonstrated impressive photoresponsivities for efficient photodetection. Herein, the synthesis of large-scale, high-density, and freestanding PbI2 nanosheets is demonstrated by manipulating the microenvironment during physical vapor deposition...
August 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811574/interactions-count-plant-origin-herbivory-and-disturbance-jointly-explain-seedling-recruitment-and-community-structure
#5
Lotte Korell, Birgit R Lang, Isabell Hensen, Harald Auge, Helge Bruelheide
Herbivory and disturbance are major drivers of biological invasions, but it is unclear how they interact to determine exotic vs. native seedling recruitment and what consequences arise for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Previous studies neglected the roles of different, potentially interacting, guilds of generalist herbivores such as rodents and gastropods. We therefore set up a full-factorial rodent exclusion x gastropod exclusion x disturbance x seed-addition experiment in a grassland community in Central Germany and measured early seedling recruitment, as well as species richness, species composition and aboveground biomass...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809412/charging-assisted-structural-phase-transitions-in-monolayer-inse
#6
Liangzhi Kou, Aijun Du, Yandong Ma, Ting Liao, Changfeng Chen
A recently synthesized InSe monolayer exhibits highly promising electronic and transport properties; it also possesses intricate intralayer atomic bonding configurations that are conducive to modulations of crystal and electronic structures. Here we identify by first-principles calculations two new structural phases of monolayer InSe distinct from the experimentally synthesized β phase. The first, α phase, has the Se atom positions displaced relative to those in the β phase, and exhibits outstanding electronic properties similar to those of the β phase...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808822/is-prey-specificity-constrained-by-geography-semiochemically-mediated-oviposition-in-rhizophagus-grandis-coleoptera-monotomidae-with-its-specific-prey-dendroctonus-micans-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae-and-with-exotic-dendroctonus-species
#7
Loïc Dohet, Jean-Claude Grégoire
Examples of totally specific predators are rare, and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus grandis is found only in the galleries of its prey, the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans. The specificity of R. grandis relies on kairomones which female predators use to adjust their oviposition to the number of prey larvae available in a gallery. Yet these chemical signals are still largely unknown. The North American D. punctatus and D. valens, which are not sympatric with R...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805230/the-influence-of-topological-phase-transition-on-the-superfluid-density-of-overdoped-copper-oxides
#8
V R Shaginyan, V A Stephanovich, A Z Msezane, G S Japaridze, K G Popov
We show that a quantum phase transition, generating flat bands and altering Fermi surface topology, is a primary reason for the exotic behavior of the overdoped high-temperature superconductors represented by La2-xSrxCuO4, whose superconductivity features differ from what is predicted by the classical Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. This observation can open avenues for chemical preparation of high-Tc materials. We demonstrate that (1) at temperature T = 0, the superfluid density ns turns out to be considerably smaller than the total electron density; (2) the critical temperature Tc is controlled by ns rather than by doping, and is a linear function of the ns; (3) at T > Tc the resistivity ρ(T) varies linearly with temperature, ρ(T) ∝ αT, where α diminishes with Tc → 0, whereas in the normal (non superconducting) region induced by overdoping, Tc = 0, and ρ(T) ∝ T(2)...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802478/dynamics-of-network-fluids
#9
REVIEW
C S Dias, N A M Araújo, M M Telo da Gama
Network fluids are structured fluids consisting of chains and branches. They are characterized by unusual physical properties, such as, exotic bulk phase diagrams, interfacial roughening and wetting transitions, and equilibrium and nonequilibrium gels. Here, we provide an overview of a selection of their equilibrium and dynamical properties. Recent research efforts towards bridging equilibrium and non-equilibrium studies are discussed, as well as several open questions.
July 6, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798966/can-exotic-disordered-stealthy-particle-configurations-tolerate-arbitrarily-large-holes
#10
G Zhang, F H Stillinger, S Torquato
The probability of finding a spherical cavity or "hole" of arbitrarily large size in typical disordered many-particle systems in the infinite-system-size limit (e.g., equilibrium liquid states) is non-zero. Such "hole" statistics are intimately linked to the thermodynamic and nonequilibrium physical properties of the system. Disordered "stealthy" many-particle configurations in d-dimensional Euclidean space [Doublestruck R](d) are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between a liquid and crystal that prohibit single-scattering events for a range of wave vectors and possess no Bragg peaks [Torquato et al...
August 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794219/dodging-silver-bullets-good-crispr-gene-drive-design-is-critical-for-eradicating-exotic-vertebrates
#11
Thomas A A Prowse, Phillip Cassey, Joshua V Ross, Chandran Pfitzner, Talia A Wittmann, Paul Thomas
Self-replicating gene drives that can spread deleterious alleles through animal populations have been promoted as a much needed but controversial 'silver bullet' for controlling invasive alien species. Homing-based drives comprise an endonuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) that are replicated during meiosis via homologous recombination. However, their efficacy for controlling wild populations is threatened by inherent polymorphic resistance and the creation of resistance alleles via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794218/exotic-species-enhance-response-diversity-to-land-use-change-but-modify-functional-composition
#12
Jamie R Stavert, David E Pattemore, Anne C Gaskett, Jacqueline R Beggs, Ignasi Bartomeus
Two main mechanisms may buffer ecosystem functions despite biodiversity loss. First, multiple species could share similar ecological roles, thus providing functional redundancy. Second, species may respond differently to environmental change (response diversity). However, ecosystem function would be best protected when functionally redundant species also show response diversity. This linkage has not been studied directly, so we investigated whether native and exotic pollinator species with similar traits (functional redundancy) differed in abundance (response diversity) across an agricultural intensification gradient...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789692/diversity-of-use-and-local-knowledge-of-wild-and-cultivated-plants-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#13
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Traditional ecological knowledge among indigenous communities plays an important role in retaining cultural identity and achieving sustainable natural resource management. Hundreds of millions of people mostly in developing countries derive a substantial part of their subsistence and income from plant resources. The aim of this study was to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783074/in-field-habitat-management-to-optimize-pest-control-of-novel-soil-communities-in-agroecosystems
#14
REVIEW
Kirsten A Pearsons, John F Tooker
The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control...
August 5, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781046/how-to-report-exotic-animal-research
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Di Girolamo, Alexandra L Winter
Reporting the results of primary research is a key step in knowledge creation. Many well-conducted studies are rejected by journal editors, criticized by peers, or unsuitable for systematic reviewers because of poor reporting. This article summarizes the most important methodological items to report when writing an original research article.
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781045/an-introduction-to-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-for-exotic-animal-practitioners
#16
REVIEW
Reint Meursinge Reynders
Developing and conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses is a complex process that requires many judgments and the input from a wide variety of stakeholders. This article presents an introduction on how to develop, conduct, and report these research studies. Veterinary clinicians should seek systematic reviews to address their research questions. Criteria for including meta-analyses in a systematic review are presented. However, before applying the findings of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to a particular patient, clinicians should weigh a variety of issues...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781044/advanced-statistics-for-exotic-animal-practitioners
#17
REVIEW
John Hodsoll, Jennifer M Hellier, Elizabeth G Ryan
Correlation and regression assess the association between 2 or more variables. This article reviews the core knowledge needed to understand these analyses, moving from visual analysis in scatter plots through correlation, simple and multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. Correlation estimates the strength and direction of a relationship between 2 variables. Regression can be considered more general and quantifies the numerical relationships between an outcome and 1 or multiple variables in terms of a best-fit line, allowing predictions to be made...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781043/basic-statistics-for-the-exotic-animal-practitioner
#18
REVIEW
Michelle A Giuffrida
Clinical research attempts to answer questions about patient populations by studying small samples of patients drawn from those populations. Statistics are used to describe the data collected in a study and to make inferences about the larger populations. Practitioners of evidence-based practice need a basic understanding of these principles to critically appraise the results of research studies. The main paradigm for statistical inference in medicine is called hypothesis testing, which involves generating a null hypothesis and examining the strength of evidence against it...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781042/information-resources-for-the-exotic-animal-practitioner
#19
REVIEW
Laura L Pavlech
An essential component of evidence-based practice is finding the best available evidence to answer a clinical question. Finding evidence is difficult for veterinarians in general, and exotic animal clinicians in particular, owing to the lack of studies that provide a high level of clinically relevant evidence and limited access to resources. Knowing where and how to search for evidence can facilitate evidence-based practice.
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781041/advancements-in-evidence-based-anesthesia-of-exotic-animals
#20
REVIEW
Julie A Balko, Sathya K Chinnadurai
Anesthesia and sedation of pet nondomestic species are often necessary for both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Even minimally invasive procedures can be stressful for small prey species that are not domesticated or acclimated to human contact and restraint. Recent advancements in evidence-based practice will continue to improve the field based on scientifically sound best practices and rely less on anecdotal recommendations. This article focuses on new scientific literature that has been published in the past 5 years...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
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