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Gang Liu, Ying-Bo Yang, Zhi-Hong Zhu
Elevated nitrogen associated with global change is believed to promote the invasion of many vigorous exotic plants. However, it is unclear how a weak exotic plant will respond to elevated nitrogen in the future. In this study, the competitive outcome of a weak invasive plant (Galinsoga quadriradiata) and two non-invasive plants was detected. The plants were subjected to 3 types of culture (mixed, monoculture or one-plant), 2 levels of nitrogen (ambient or elevated at a rate of 2 g m -2 yr -1 ) and 2 levels of light (65% shade or full sunlight)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hui Wang, Shenlong Jiang, Wei Shao, Xiaodong Zhang, Shichuan Chen, Xianshun Sun, Qun Zhang, Yi Luo, Yi Xie
Recently low-dimensional materials hold great potential in the field of photocatalysis, whereas the concomitantly promoted many-body effects have long been ignored. Such Coulomb interaction-mediated effects would lead to some intriguing, nontrivial band structures, thus promising versatile photocatalytic performances and optimized strategies. Here, we demonstrate that ultrathin black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets exhibit an exotic, excitation-energy-dependent, optical switching effect in photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna L Giuliani, Valentina Vultaggio-Poma, Simonetta Falzoni, Alba C Sarti
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only) agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD + covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ke Liu, Jonas Greitemann, Lode Pollet
Polyhedral nematics are examples of exotic orientational phases that possess a complex internal symmetry, representing highly nontrivial ways of rotational symmetry breaking, and are subject to current experimental pursuits in colloidal and molecular systems. The classification of these phases has been known for a long time; however, their transitions to the disordered isotropic liquid phase remain largely unexplored, except for a few symmetries. In this work, we utilize a recently introduced non-Abelian gauge theory to explore the nature of the underlying nematic-isotropic transition for all three-dimensional polyhedral nematics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Enrique Lomba, Jean-Jacques Weis, Salvatore Torquato
Disordered multihyperuniform many-particle systems are exotic amorphous states that allow exquisite color sensing capabilities due to their anomalous suppression of density fluctuations for distinct subsets of particles, as recently evidenced in photoreceptor mosaics in avian retina. Motivated by this biological finding, we present a statistical-mechanical model that rigorously achieves disordered multihyperuniform many-body systems by tuning interactions in binary mixtures of nonadditive hard-disk plasmas...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Nina Naquiah, Md Eaqub Ali, M A Motalib Hossain, Sharmin Sultana, Mohammad Nasir Uddin Ahamad
The demand for crocodile meat is quickly growing because of its exotic and organoleptic appeal and also low content of cholesterol and lipids. Moreover, crocodile oil and blood have been used in alternative medicines for treating asthma and several other ailments since ancient times. Furthermore, crocodile hides have great demand in leather industries. All of these have collectively contributed to the extensive hunting, illegal trading and consequent decline of crocodiles in most parts of the world. To keep space with the growing demands, some crocodile species such as Crocodylus porosus have been raised in farms and its commercial trades have been legalized...
February 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
K Kitagawa, T Takayama, Y Matsumoto, A Kato, R Takano, Y Kishimoto, S Bette, R Dinnebier, G Jackeli, H Takagi
The honeycomb lattice is one of the simplest lattice structures. Electrons and spins on this simple lattice, however, often form exotic phases with non-trivial excitations. Massless Dirac fermions can emerge out of itinerant electrons, as demonstrated experimentally in graphene, and a topological quantum spin liquid with exotic quasiparticles can be realized in spin-1/2 magnets, as proposed theoretically in the Kitaev model. The quantum spin liquid is a long-sought exotic state of matter, in which interacting spins remain quantum-disordered without spontaneous symmetry breaking...
February 14, 2018: Nature
J Soler Penadés, A Sánchez-Postigo, M Nedeljkovic, A Ortega-Moñux, J G Wangüemert-Pérez, Y Xu, R Halir, Z Qu, A Z Khokhar, A Osman, W Cao, C G Littlejohns, P Cheben, I Molina-Fernández, G Z Mashanovich
In this Letter, we report suspended silicon waveguides operating at a wavelength of 7.67 μm with a propagation loss of 3.1±0.3  dB/cm. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of low-loss silicon waveguides at such a long wavelength, with loss comparable to other platforms that use more exotic materials. The suspended Si waveguide core is supported by a sub-wavelength grating that provides lateral optical confinement while also allowing access to the buried oxide layer so that it can be wet etched using hydrofluoric acid...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Savita Chaudhary, Ahmad Umar, K K Bhasin, Sotirios Baskoutas
Recent advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed numerous triumphs of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials due to their various exotic and multifunctional properties and wide applications. As a remarkable and functional material, ZnO has attracted extensive scientific and technological attention, as it combines different properties such as high specific surface area, biocompatibility, electrochemical activities, chemical and photochemical stability, high-electron communicating features, non-toxicity, ease of syntheses, and so on...
February 12, 2018: Materials
Kimberly H Lohmeyer, Melinda A May, Donald B Thomas, Adalberto A Pérez de León
The Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program was the first parasite eradication program of veterinary importance in the United States and is considered to be one of the greatest disease eradication programs of all time. The program's utilization of pasture vacation and dipping of cattle in acaricide has been extremely successful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) and R. (B.) annulatus (Say), collectively known as cattle fever ticks, on cattle along the Texas border with Mexico for decades...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
X J Li, Jiahan Yu, Kun Luo, Zhenhua Wu, Wen Yang
We investigate theoretically the effects of modulated periodic perpendicular magnetic fields on the electronic states and optical absorption spectrum in a monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene). We demonstrate that different phosphorene magnetic superlattice (PMS) orientations can give rise to distinct energy spectra, i.e., tuning the intrinsic electronic anisotropy. The Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) will develop a spin-splitting energy dispersion in this phosphorene magnetic superlattice...
February 13, 2018: Nanotechnology
Swagatam Nayak, Sanjeev Kumar
We show that the extended attractive Hubbard model on a square lattice allows for a variety of superconducting phases, including exotic mixed-symmetry phases with $d_{x^2-y^2} + {\rm i} [s + s^*]$ and $ d_{x^2-y^2} + p_{x}$ symmetries, and a novel $p_x + {\rm i} p_y$ state. The calculations are performed within the Hartree-Fock Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (HF-BCS) framework. The ground states of the mean-field Hamiltonian are obtained via a minimization scheme that relaxes the symmetry constraints on the superconducting solutions, hence allowing for a mixing of $s$-, $p$- and $d$-wave order parameters...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jin-Chang Guo, Lin-Yan Feng, Hua-Jin Zhai
Planar hypercoordinate carbons as exotic chemical species are dominated by 18-electron counting. We report herein a 16-electron planar tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) cluster, CBe4Au4, which is quasi-planar to be exact, being composed of a C center, a square-planar Be4 ring, and four outer Au bridges. The quasi-ptC cluster is established as a global minimum via computer structural searches, located 14.6 kcal mol-1 below the nearest competitor at the CCSD(T) level. It shows thermodynamic and electronic robustness, with a low electron affinity (1...
February 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Clément Tisseuil, Enkelejda Velo, Silvia Bino, Perparim Kadriaj, Kujtim Mersini, Ada Shukullari, Artan Simaku, Elton Rogozi, Beniamino Caputo, Els Ducheyne, Alessandra Della Torre, Paul Reiter, Marius Gilbert
The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84) and temporal (weekly) resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Subramani Pandian, Lakkakula Satish, Ramakrishnan Rameshkumar, Pandiyan Muthuramalingam, Arockiam Sagina Rency, Periyasamy Rathinapriya, Manikandan Ramesh
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Geartn.) is one of the important small millets serves as a food security crop because of its high nutritional values. The complex tetraploid genome of finger millet requires a large number of informative, functional DNA markers for different applications in genetics and breeding. Yet, less number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been developed from expressed sequence tags in finger millet. In the present study, 56 new genic SSR markers were developed from publicly available drought related ESTs...
February 8, 2018: Gene
Jacob E Lucero, Ragan M Callaway
Seed predation and resource competition are fundamental biotic filters that affect the assembly of plant communities, yet empirical studies rarely assess their importance relative to one another. Here, we used rodent exclosures and experimental seed additions to compare how rodent granivory and resource competition affected the net establishment of an exotic invader (Bromus tectorum) and two native bunchgrasses (Pseudoroegneria spicata and Elymus elymoides) in the Great Basin Desert, USA. Rodent granivory limited the establishment of both native grasses, but had no significant effect on B...
February 8, 2018: Oecologia
Hannah Middleton, Siyuan Chen, Walter Del Pozzo, Alberto Sesana, Alberto Vecchio
Pulsar timing arrays are presently the only means to search for the gravitational wave stochastic background from super massive black hole binary populations, considered to be within the grasp of current or near-future observations. The stringent upper limit from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array has been interpreted as excluding (>90% confidence) the current paradigm of binary assembly through galaxy mergers and hardening via stellar interaction, suggesting evolution is accelerated or stalled. Using Bayesian hierarchical modelling we consider implications of this upper limit for a range of astrophysical scenarios, without invoking stalling, nor more exotic physical processes...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
H F Groba, G Martínez, C Rossini, A González
The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), is an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa, and southern Europe. Information on the chemical communication system and reproductive ecology of this insect is scant, and it may be relevant for designing management strategies for eucalypt plantations. Males emit large amounts of 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate, which attracts conspecific adult males but not females. To learn more about the biological function of this putative male-produced pheromone, we quantified this compound in volatile emissions collected from males, females, and couples, in three 4-h collecting periods during the morning, afternoon, and night of a single 24-h cycle...
February 7, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Hee Jun Shin, Jaesu Kim, Sungho Kim, Homin Choi, Sahnghyub Lee, Young Hee Lee, Joo-Hiuk Son, Seong Chu Lim
We observe that carriers in graphene can be accelerated to the Fermi velocity without heating the lattice. At large Fermi energy |E_F |> 110 meV, electrons excited by a high power terahertz pulse E_THz relax by emitting optical phonons, resulting in heating of the graphene lattice and optical-phonon generation. This is owing to enhanced electron-phonon scattering at large Fermi energy, at which the large phase space is available for hot electrons. The emitted optical phonons cause carrier scattering, reducing the drift velocity or carrier mobility...
February 7, 2018: Nano Letters
Ioana D Olaru, Steven Van Den Broucke, Andrew J Rosser, Helmut J F Salzer, Gerrit Woltmann, Emmanuel Bottieau, Christoph Lange
More than 2 million people fleeing conflict, persecution, and poverty applied for asylum between 2015 and 2016 in the European Union. Due to this, medical practitioners in recipient countries may be facing a broader spectrum of conditions and unusual presentations not previously encountered, including a wide range of infections with pulmonary involvement. Tuberculosis is known to be more common in migrants and has been covered broadly in other publications. The scope of this review was to provide an overview of exotic infections with pulmonary involvement that could be encountered in refugees and migrants and to briefly describe their epidemiology, diagnosis, and management...
February 7, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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