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R Ferrer, A Barzakh, B Bastin, R Beerwerth, M Block, P Creemers, H Grawe, R de Groote, P Delahaye, X Fléchard, S Franchoo, S Fritzsche, L P Gaffney, L Ghys, W Gins, C Granados, R Heinke, L Hijazi, M Huyse, T Kron, Yu Kudryavtsev, M Laatiaoui, N Lecesne, M Loiselet, F Lutton, I D Moore, Y Martínez, E Mogilevskiy, P Naubereit, J Piot, S Raeder, S Rothe, H Savajols, S Sels, V Sonnenschein, J-C Thomas, E Traykov, C Van Beveren, P Van den Bergh, P Van Duppen, K Wendt, A Zadvornaya
Resonant laser ionization and spectroscopy are widely used techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities to produce pure beams of exotic nuclei and measure the shape, size, spin and electromagnetic multipole moments of these nuclei. However, in such measurements it is difficult to combine a high efficiency with a high spectral resolution. Here we demonstrate the on-line application of atomic laser ionization spectroscopy in a supersonic gas jet, a technique suited for high-precision studies of the ground- and isomeric-state properties of nuclei located at the extremes of stability...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang, Shenglei Fu
1.The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jincheng Zhuang, Nan Gao, Zhi Li, Xun Xu, Jiaou Wang, Jijun Zhao, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du
Germanene, single-atom-thick germanium nanosheet in a honeycomb lattice, was proposed to be a Dirac-fermion material beyond graphene. We performed scanning tunneling microscopy and in-situ Raman spectroscopy studies combined with first-principles calculations on the atomic structures, and the electronic and phonon properties of germanene on Au(111). The low-buckled 1×1 germanene honeycomb lattice was determined to exist in an unexpected rectangular √7×√7 superstructure. Through in-situ Raman measurements, distinctive vibrational phonon modes were discovered in √7×√7 germanene, revealing the special coupling between Dirac fermion and lattice vibrations, namely, electron-phonon coupling (EPC)...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
Jinsong Zhang, Jie Sun, Yanbin Li, Feifei Shi, Yi Cui
Intercalation of exotic atoms or molecules into the layered materials remains an extensively investigated subject in current physics and chemistry. However, traditionally melt-growth and chemical interaction strategies are either limited by insufficiency of intercalant concentrations or destitute of accurate controllability. Here, we have developed a general electrochemical intercalation method to efficaciously regulate the concentration of zero-valent copper atoms into layered Bi2Se3, followed by a comprehensive experimental characterization and analyses...
February 20, 2017: Nano Letters
J J Parker, I Wiedenhöver, P D Cottle, J Baker, D McPherson, M A Riley, D Santiago-Gonzalez, A Volya, V M Bader, T Baugher, D Bazin, A Gade, T Ginter, H Iwasaki, C Loelius, C Morse, F Recchia, D Smalley, S R Stroberg, K Whitmore, D Weisshaar, A Lemasson, H L Crawford, A O Macchiavelli, K Wimmer
Previous experiments observed a 4^{+} state in the N=28 nucleus ^{44}S and suggested that this state may exhibit a hindered E2-decay rate, inconsistent with being a member of the collective ground state band. We populate this state via two-proton knockout from a beam of exotic ^{46}Ar projectiles and measure its lifetime using the recoil distance method with the GRETINA γ-ray spectrometer. The result, 76(14)_{stat}(20)_{syst}  ps, implies a hindered transition of B(E2;4^{+}→2_{1}^{+})=0.61(19) single-particle or Weisskopf units strength and supports the interpretation of the 4^{+} state as a K=4 isomer, the first example of a high-K isomer in a nucleus of such low mass...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Y Kasahara, Y Takeuchi, R H Zadik, Y Takabayashi, R H Colman, R D McDonald, M J Rosseinsky, K Prassides, Y Iwasa
Controlled access to the border of the Mott insulating state by variation of control parameters offers exotic electronic states such as anomalous and possibly high-transition-temperature (Tc) superconductivity. The alkali-doped fullerides show a transition from a Mott insulator to a superconductor for the first time in three-dimensional materials, but the impact of dimensionality and electron correlation on superconducting properties has remained unclear. Here we show that, near the Mott insulating phase, the upper critical field Hc2 of the fulleride superconductors reaches values as high as ∼90 T-the highest among cubic crystals...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Xiaocheng Zhu, Paul A Weston, Dominik Skoneczny, David Gopurenko, Lucie Meyer, Brendan J Lepschi, Ragan M Callaway, Geoff M Gurr, Leslie A Weston
Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare are congeneric exotics first introduced to Australia in the early 1800 s. There, E. plantagineum is now highly invasive, whereas E. vulgare has a limited distribution. Studies were conducted to evaluate distribution, ecology, genetics and secondary chemistry to shed light on factors associated with their respective invasive success. When sampled across geographically diverse locales, E. plantagineum was widespread and exhibited a small genome size (1 C = 0.34 pg), an annual life cycle, and greater genetic diversity as assessed by DNA sequence analysis...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Uttam Bhat, Munik Shrestha, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne
The giant k-core-maximal connected subgraph of a network where each node has at least k neighbors-is important in the study of phase transitions and in applications of network theory. Unlike Erdős-Rényi graphs and other random networks where k-cores emerge discontinuously for k≥3, we show that transitive linking (or triadic closure) leads to 3-cores emerging through single or double phase transitions of both discontinuous and continuous nature. We also develop a k-core calculation that includes clustering and provides insights into how high-level connectivity emerges...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Ana R Fialho, Nelson R Bernardino, Nuno M Silvestre, Margarida M Telo da Gama
The confinement of liquid crystals inside curved geometries leads to exotic structures, with applications ranging from biosensors to optical switches and privacy windows. Here we study how curvature affects the alignment of a cholesteric liquid crystal. We model the system on the mesoscale using the Landau-de Gennes model. Our study was performed in three stages, analyzing different curved geometries from cylindrical walls and pores, to toroidal domains, in order to isolate the curvature effects. Our results show that the stresses introduced by the curvature influence the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules, and cause distortions in the natural periodicity of the cholesteric that depend on the radius of curvature, on the pitch, and on the dimensions of the system...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Yong Chen, Zhenya Yan
The effect of derivative nonlinearity and parity-time-symmetric (PT-symmetric) potentials on the wave propagation dynamics is explored in the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, where the physically interesting Scarf-II and harmonic-Hermite-Gaussian potentials are chosen. We study numerically the regions of unbroken and broken linear PT-symmetric phases and find some stable bright solitons of this model in a wide range of potential parameters even though the corresponding linear PT-symmetric phases are broken...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Jason Webster, Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán, Andrew Forbes
While photons travel in a straight line at constant velocity in free space, the intensity profile of structured light may be tailored for acceleration in any degree of freedom. Here we propose a simple approach to control the angular acceleration of light. Using Laguerre-Gaussian modes as our twisted beams carrying orbital angular momentum, we show that superpositions of opposite handedness result in a radially dependent angular acceleration as they pass through a focus (waist plane). Due to conservation of orbital angular momentum, we find that propagation dynamics are complex despite the free-space medium: the outer part of the beam (rings) rotates in an opposite direction to the inner part (petals), and while the outer part accelerates, the inner part decelerates...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
L P de Carvalho, F J C Farias, J I S Rodrigues, N D Suassuna, P E Teodoro
Studying genetic diversity among a group of genotypes is important in genetic breeding because identifying hybrid combinations of greater heterotic effect also increases the chance of obtaining plants with favorable allele combinations in an intra-population selection program. The objective of this study was to compare different types of long and extra-long staple cotton and their genetic diversity in relation to the fiber traits and some agronomic traits in order to grant breeding programs. Diversity analysis among 29 cotton accessions based on qualitative and quantitative traits and joint including qualitative and quantitative traits was performed...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
C M Silva, J B Miranda Filho, U C Mendes, E F Reis
In Brazil, the total production of maize has increased continuously due to the advances in technology but also to the new frontiers for the maize crop, including the expansion of the second crop (safrinha; usually maize after soybean). Therefore, the exploitation of new sources of germplasm seems to be imperative to attend the actual and future demands for modern cultivars adapted to the greatly variable environments available to the maize crop. The present study was based on a partial diallel (intergroup) cross to provide quantitative information on the potential of two groups of varieties (NAP - exotics and HG - local) and their combining abilities to direct the synthesis of new populations to be used in hybrid crosses or as a base for breeding programs...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Nicholas Zareifopoulos, George Panayiotakopoulos
Antimicrobial drugs used in clinical practice are selected on the basis of their selective toxicity against bacterial cells. However, all exhibit multiple offsite interactions with eukaryotic cell structures, resulting in adverse reactions during antimicrobial pharmacotherapy. A multitude of these side effects involve the nervous system as antimicrobials at clinically relevant concentrations seem to interact with many of the same molecules usually implicated in the action of psychotropic drugs. The importance of such events cannot be overstated, as the misdiagnosis of an adverse drug reaction as a symptom of a primary psychiatric or neurological disorder entails great suffering for the patient affected as well as significant costs for the healthcare system...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
M Mogi, M Kawamura, R Yoshimi, A Tsukazaki, Y Kozuka, N Shirakawa, K S Takahashi, M Kawasaki, Y Tokura
The axion insulator which may exhibit an exotic quantized magnetoelectric effect is one of the most interesting quantum phases predicted for the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). The axion insulator state is expected to show up in magnetically doped TIs with magnetizations pointing inwards and outwards from the respective surfaces. Towards the realization of the axion insulator, we here engineered a TI heterostructure in which magnetic ions (Cr) are modulation-doped only in the vicinity of the top and bottom surfaces of the TI ((Bi,Sb)2Te3) film...
February 13, 2017: Nature Materials
Shashi Bhushan Choudhary, Hariom Kumar Sharma, Arroju Anil Kumar, Rangappa Thimmaiah Maruthi, Jiban Mitra, Isholeena Chowdhury, Binay Kumar Singh, Pran Gobinda Karmakar
A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous...
February 7, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Julie M O'Connor, Colin J Limpus, Kate M Hofmeister, Benjamin L Allen, Scott E Burnett
The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland's southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period...
2017: PloS One
Abdul Wajid, Asma Basharat, Taseer Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Wasim, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani
The complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain isolated from an exotic parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) is described here. The virulent strain parakeet/Pak/R-Pindi/SFR-16/2016 was isolated from a bird reared as a pet in the province of Punjab in the northern region of Pakistan in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, subgenotype VIIi, in genotype VII.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
K J Wallace, Daniel C Laughlin, Bruce D Clarkson
Restoring forest structure and composition is an important component of urban land management, but we lack clear understanding of the mechanisms driving restoration success. Here we studied two indicators of restoration success in temperate rainforests: native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization. We hypothesized that ecosystem properties such as forest canopy openness, abundance of exotic herbaceous weeds, and the microclimate directly affect the density and diversity of native tree seedlings and epiphytes...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
L Lu, M Song, W Liu, A P Reyes, P Kuhns, H O Lee, I R Fisher, V F Mitrović
Study of the combined effects of strong electronic correlations with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) represents a central issue in quantum materials research. Predicting emergent properties represents a huge theoretical problem since the presence of SOC implies that the spin is not a good quantum number. Existing theories propose the emergence of a multitude of exotic quantum phases, distinguishable by either local point symmetry breaking or local spin expectation values, even in materials with simple cubic crystal structure such as Ba2NaOsO6...
February 9, 2017: Nature Communications
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