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Meredith L Brantley, Katherine H A Footer, Sahnah Lim, Deanna Kerrigan, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Women who grow up in economic scarcity often face limited opportunities for upward mobility, as a result of challenges securing stable housing, quality education, and steady employment. Chronic instability may limit the capacity of women to protect themselves against HIV/STI-related harm when engaging in sexual activity or drug use. Characterizing the structural contexts that facilitate HIV/STI risk among women are critical to effective design and implementation of drug and sexual harm reduction interventions...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Mary E Blair, Minh D Le, Hoàng M Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B Vũ, Mark G Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J Sterling
Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Violeta Furlan, María L Pochettino, Norma I Hilgert
Home gardens are considered germplasm repositories and places for experimentation, thus they are key sites for the domestication of plants. Domestication is considered a constant process that occurs along a continuum from wild to managed to domesticated populations. Management may lead to the modification of populations and in other cases to their distribution, changing population structure in a landscape. Our objective is focused on the management received in home gardens by perennial species of fruits. For this, the management practices applied to native and exotic perennial fruits species by a group of 20 women in the periurban zone of Iguazú, Argentina, were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Scott C Williams, Megan A Linske, Jeffrey S Ward
Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Nerilee Hing, Peter Vitartas, Matthew Lamont
Background and aims Despite recent growth in sports betting advertising, minimal research has examined the influence of different advertising message attributes on betting attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to identify which attributes of sports betting advertisements most engage attention, interest, desire and likelihood of betting among non-problem, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem gamblers. Methods A novel approach utilizing an experimental design incorporating conjoint analysis examined the effects of: three message formats (commentary, on-screen display, and studio crossover); four appeals (neutral, jovial, ease of placing the bet, and sense of urgency); three types of presenters (match presenter, sports betting operator, and attractive non-expert female presenter); and four bet types (traditional, exotic key event, risk-free, and micro-bet)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Lingfei Wang, Rokyeon Kim, Yoonkoo Kim, Choong H Kim, Sangwoon Hwang, Myung Rae Cho, Yeong Jae Shin, Saikat Das, Jeong Rae Kim, Sergei V Kalinin, Miyoung Kim, Sang Mo Yang, Tae Won Noh
Quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons across ultrathin insulating oxide barriers has been studied extensively for decades due to its great potential in electronic-device applications. In the few-nanometers-thick epitaxial oxide films, atomic-scale structural imperfections, such as the ubiquitously existed one-unit-cell-high terrace edges, can dramatically affect the tunneling probability and device performance. However, the underlying physics has not been investigated adequately. Here, taking ultrathin BaTiO3 films as a model system, an intrinsic tunneling-conductance enhancement is reported near the terrace edges...
October 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yuherman, Reswati, Yulianti Fitri Kurnia, Indahwati, Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Female exotic breed cattle raised by traditional small farms are susceptible to reproductive disturbances that result in failure or delay to produce calves. The present research investigated the hematologic profiles of exotic breed cattle having reproductive troubles versus heifers and pregnant cows raised by small farms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted to identify the reproduction performance of 160 female Simmental cows raised at 15 smallholders in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Leifeng Zhang, Yanming Che, Jibiao Wang, Qijin Chen
Atomic Fermi gases have been an ideal platform for simulating conventional and engineering exotic physical systems owing to their multiple tunable control parameters. Here we investigate the effects of mixed dimensionality on the superfluid and pairing phenomena of a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas with a short-range pairing interaction, while one component is confined on a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice whereas the other is in a homogeneous 3D continuum. We study the phase diagram and the pseudogap phenomena throughout the entire BCS-BEC crossover, using a pairing fluctuation theory...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jason M Argyris, Aurora Díaz, Valentino Ruggieri, Marta Fernández, Torben Jahrmann, Yves Gibon, Belén Picó, Ana M Martín-Hernández, Antonio J Monforte, Jordi Garcia-Mas
Sugar content is the major determinant of both fruit quality and consumer acceptance in melon (Cucumis melo L), and is a primary target for crop improvement. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from the intraspecific cross between a "Piel de Sapo" (PS) type and the exotic cultivar "Songwhan Charmi" (SC), and several populations generated from the cross of PS × Ames 24294 ("Trigonus"), a wild melon, were used to identify QTL related to sugar and organic acid composition. Seventy-eight QTL were detected across several locations and different years, with three important clusters related to sugar content located on chromosomes 4, 5, and 7...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nacer Bellaloui, James R Smith, Alemu Mengistu
The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Masataka Mogi, Minoru Kawamura, Atsushi Tsukazaki, Ryutaro Yoshimi, Kei S Takahashi, Masashi Kawasaki, Yoshinori Tokura
Exploration of novel electromagnetic phenomena is a subject of great interest in topological quantum materials. One of the unprecedented effects to be experimentally verified is the topological magnetoelectric (TME) effect originating from an unusual coupling of electric and magnetic fields in materials. A magnetic heterostructure of topological insulator (TI) hosts such exotic magnetoelectric coupling and can be expected to realize the TME effect as an axion insulator. We designed a magnetic TI with a tricolor structure where a nonmagnetic layer of (Bi, Sb)2Te3 is sandwiched by a soft ferromagnetic Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 and a hard ferromagnetic V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3...
October 2017: Science Advances
Timothy H Hsieh, Yuan-Ming Lu, Andreas W W Ludwig
Topologically ordered phases of matter can host fractionalized excitations known as "anyons," which obey neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Despite forming the basis for topological quantum computation, experimental access to these exotic phases has been very limited. We present a new route toward realizing fractionalized topological phases by literally building on unfractionalized phases, which are much more easily realized experimentally. Our approach involves a Kondo lattice model in which a gapped electronic system of noninteracting fermions is coupled to local moments via the exchange interaction...
October 2017: Science Advances
Tristan L Burgess, Carmel L Witte, Bruce A Rideout
Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic, progressive bacterial enteritis of ruminants that can cause serious losses in both livestock and exotic species. Infection risk in exotic ruminants is associated with maternal infection status, but the effect of other herdmates on risk of infection has not been reported, to our knowledge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between MAP infection status and early-life contact with infected herdmates...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Daniel Abate-Pella, Dana M Freund, Janet P Slovin, Adrian D Hegeman, Jerry D Cohen
Carotenoids are a large class of compounds that are biosynthesized by condensation of isoprene units in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some animals. They are characteristically highly conjugated through double bonds, which lead to many isomers as well susceptibility to oxidation and other chemical modifications. Carotenoids are important because of their potent antioxidant activity and are the pigments responsible for color in a wide variety of foods. Human consumption is correlated to many health benefits including prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related disease...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Antonio Fornieri, Francesco Giazotto
The emerging field of phase-coherent caloritronics (from the Latin word calor, heat) is based on the possibility of controlling heat currents by using the phase difference of the superconducting order parameter. The goal is to design and implement thermal devices that can control energy transfer with a degree of accuracy approaching that reached for charge transport by contemporary electronic components. This can be done by making use of the macroscopic quantum coherence intrinsic to superconducting condensates, which manifests itself through the Josephson effect and the proximity effect...
October 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Salvador Flores, Sergio E Campos, Pablo Montoya, Pablo Liedo, Edi A Malo
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is an exotic pest of economic importance in several parts of the world. Systems for monitoring this pest employ mainly trimedlure (TML), a parapheromone specifically for males. Understanding the performance of these attractants under different conditions should contribute to better design trapping networks, better field data interpretation, and a more efficient use of the products. In this study, the release rate of TML was determined at 15, 25, and 35 °C, through plug weight loss over 80 d in a bioclimatic chamber...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Bei Xin, Peixuan Liu, Xiaorui Xu, Shun Zhang, Yanan Zheng
Chouioia cunea (Yang) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an indigenous pupal endoparasitoid that effectively attacks the exotic fall webworm Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in China. In this novel association, the parasitoid's venom has played an important role in subduing the immune defense of the host although little is known about the composition and functions of the parasitoid's venom. We therefore first identified the parasitoid's major venom proteins using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nancy M Endersby-Harshman, Juli Rochmijati Wuliandari, Lawrence G Harshman, Verena Frohn, Brian J Johnson, Scott A Ritchie, Ary A Hoffmann
Although pesticide resistance is common in insect vectors of human diseases, the evolution of resistance might be delayed if management practices are adopted that limit selection of resistance alleles. Outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in Queensland, Australia, since the late 1800s, leading to ongoing attempts to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). Since the 1990s, pyrethroid insecticides have been used for this purpose, but have been applied in a strategic manner with a variety of delivery methods including indoor residual spraying, lethal ovitraps, and use of insect growth regulators as larvicides...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Min Yong Jeong, Seo Hyoung Chang, Beom Hyun Kim, Jae-Hoon Sim, Ayman Said, Diego Casa, Thomas Gog, Etienne Janod, Laurent Cario, Seiji Yunoki, Myung Joon Han, Jungho Kim
Strong spin-orbit coupling lifts the degeneracy of t 2g orbitals in 5d transition-metal systems, leaving a Kramers doublet and quartet with effective angular momentum of J eff = 1/2 and 3/2, respectively. These spin-orbit entangled states can host exotic quantum phases such as topological Mott state, unconventional superconductivity, and quantum spin liquid. The lacunar spinel GaTa4Se8 was theoretically predicted to form the molecular J eff = 3/2 ground state. Experimental verification of its existence is an important first step to exploring the consequences of the J eff = 3/2 state...
October 4, 2017: Nature Communications
Frank Weinhold
We employ standard quantum chemical methods to describe a variety of kinetically stable polyionic molecular species that are trapped in appreciable potential wells by chemical bonding forces, despite powerful electrostatic opposition that challenges conventional chemical detection and characterization. The studied species are covalent or dative analogs of "anti-electrostatic" hydrogen-bonded (AEHB) species, all illustrating how short-range quantum covalency can overcome the powerful "shielding" opposition of long-range electrostatic forces to form highly-charged molecular species, analogous to known neutral or singly ionic counterparts...
October 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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