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Cristina Meregalli, Giulia Fumagalli, Paola Alberti, Annalisa Canta, Valentina Alda Carozzi, Alessia Chiorazzi, Laura Monza, Eleonora Pozzi, Åsa Sandelius, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Paola Marmiroli, Guido Cavaletti
The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of using serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) as a disease biomarker in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) since this easy accessible biological test may have a large impact on clinical management and safety of cancer patients. We performed this preclinical study using a well-characterized rat model based on repeated administration of the cytostatic drug vincristine (VCR, 0.2 mg/kg intravenously via the tail vein once/week for 4 times)...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Franz Schaefer, Gianluigi Ardissino, Gema Ariceta, Fadi Fakhouri, Marie Scully, Nicole Isbel, Åsa Lommelé, Varant Kupelian, Christoph Gasteyger, Larry A Greenbaum, Sally Johnson, Masayo Ogawa, Christoph Licht, Johan Vande Walle, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, genetic, life-threatening disease. The Global aHUS Registry collects real-world data on the natural history of the disease. Here we characterize end-stage renal disease (ESRD)-free survival, the rate of thrombotic microangiopathy, organ involvement and the genetic background of 851 patients in the registry, prior to eculizumab treatment. A sex-specific difference was apparent according to age at initial disease onset as the ratio of males to females was 1...
June 12, 2018: Kidney International
Trevor Wood, Arash Azin, Fayez A Quereshy
BACKGROUND: Patients who undergo an emergency procedure have an increase in postoperative morbidity and mortality. Emergency procedures constitute 14.2% of all general surgery procedures and account for 53.5% of deaths. Among this population, time to surgery from arrival to the emergency department (ED) has not been evaluated as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients who underwent an emergency general surgery procedure from 2013 to 2015 were identified using a local American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP) database...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Steffen Höll, Andreas Blum, Georg Gosheger, Ralf Dieckmann, Corinna Winter, Dieter Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Subjective data and physical examinations of patients after total hip arthroplasty are used to assess the outcome. But regarding the physical activity, no objective data can be delivered by existing scores. The level of activity can be measured objectively by counting gait cycles. The aim of this study was to measure activity levels of patients before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Forty-six patients were included in this prospective study...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
John S Garrett, Steven Sonnamaker, Yahya Daoud, Hao Wang, Dion Graybeal
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the optimal set point for the critical event benchmarks described in stroke guidelines and validate the ability of these goals to predict successful administration of intravenous thrombolysis within 60 min of hospital arrival. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with acute ischemic stroke who received intravenous thrombolysis following presentation to the emergency department. The national benchmarks for time intervals associated with the completion of critical events required to determine candidacy for thrombolysis were evaluated for the ability to predict successful administration of thrombolysis within 60 min of hospital arrival...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Erika K S M Leenders, Harm Westdorp, Roger J Brüggemann, Jan Loeffen, Christian Kratz, John Burn, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Marjolijn C J Jongmans
Constitutional MisMatch Repair Deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MLH1). This syndrome results in early onset colorectal cancer, leukemia and lymphoma, brain tumors and other malignancies. Children with CMMRD are at high risk of developing multiple cancers and cancer surveillance does not guarantee detection of cancer at a curable stage. The development of a preventive treatment strategy would be a major step forward...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Antoine Gennari, Simon Mazas, Pierre Coudert, Olivier Gille, Jean-Marc Vital
INTRODUCTION: In France, surgery for lumbar disc herniation is now being done in the outpatient ambulatory setting at select facilities. However, surgery for the cervical spine in this setting is controversial because of the dangers of neck hematoma. We wanted to share our experience with performing ambulatory anterior cervical discectomy in 30 patients at our facility. RESULTS: Since 2014, 30 patients (16 men, 14 women; mean age of 47.2 years) with cervical radiculopathy due to single-level cervical disc disease (19 at C5-C6 and 11 at C6-C7) were operated at our ambulatory surgery center...
June 11, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Abhiraj D Bhimani, Ankit Indravadan Mehta
BACKGROUND: Intradural extramedullary (IDEM) spinal cord tumors account for two thirds of all intraspinal neoplasms. Surgery for IDEM tumors carries risk for many different complications, which to date have been poorly described and quantified. OBJECTIVE: To better characterize risk factors and complications for IDEM tumors, stratifying by spinal cord level and malignancy. METHODS: The ACS-NSQIP database was queried to determine 30-day outcomes following surgery for IDEM tumors between 2005 and 2016...
June 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Manjari Lal, Manshun Lai, Shweta Ugaonkar, Asa Wesenberg, Larisa Kizima, Aixa Rodriguez, Keith Levendosky, Olga Mizenina, José Fernández-Romero, Thomas Zydowsky
Precoital, on-demand topical microbicides to reduce a woman's risk of sexually transmitted infections have been in development for nearly three decades, but no product has been approved due to acceptability issues and poor adherence in clinical trials. We set out to develop a self-administered vaginal fast-dissolving insert (FDI) produced by freeze-drying that would deliver safe and effective amounts of the antiviral agents griffithsin (GRFT) and carrageenan (CG) and would have properties women and their partners find acceptable...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Regina H Mossotti, Eli A Baskir, Corinne P Kozlowski, Ashley D Franklin, George A Feldhamer, Cheryl S Asa
Understanding the factors used by female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to make mate choice decisions could benefit zoo breeding programs, which currently assign mates based primarily on genetic distance. Because transporting animals between institutions is costly and can be stressful, females are often limited in the number of males available for mating. One solution would be to determine if an easily transported substance could be used to gauge interest by a female to a potential mate. Here, we investigate female interest in urine samples from males of different genetic distances...
June 13, 2018: Zoo Biology
Åsa Alftberg, Gerd Ahlström, Per Nilsen, Lina Behm, Anna Sandgren, Eva Benzein, Birgitta Wallerstedt, Birgit H Rasmussen
Nursing homes are often places where older persons “come to die.” Despite this, death and dying are seldom articulated or talked about. The aim of this study was to explore assistant nurses’ experiences of conversations about death and dying with nursing home residents. This study is part of an implementation project through a knowledge-based educational intervention based on palliative care principles. An ethnographic study design was applied in seven nursing homes, where eight assistant nurses were interviewed and followed in their daily assignments through participant observations...
June 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Yifat Manor, Yakir Anavi, Ron Gershonovich, Adi Lorean, Eithan Mijiritsky
The article describes complications following dental implant dislocation into the maxillary sinus and their management and attempts to elucidate the reasons for these complications and their prevention. This retrospective study presents 55 cases of dental implant migration into the maxillary sinus. Patients were 30 men and 25 women with average age of 58 years. Oroantral communication was found in 46 cases, primarily in cases without prior bone augmentation, in patients aged older than 60 years (mean), and medically compromised patients (ASA > 1)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Sarah E Rudasill, Jonathan R Dattilo, Jiabin Liu, Charles L Nelson, Atul F Kamath
Background: As procedure rates and expenditures for total hip arthroplasty (THA) rise, hospitals are developing models to predict discharge location, a major determinant of total cost. The predictive value of existing illness rating systems such as the American Society for Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Classification System, Severity of Illness (SOI) scoring system, or Mallampati (MP) rating scale on discharge location remains unclear. This study explored the predictive role of ASA, SOI, and MP scores on discharge location, lengths of stay, and total costs for THA patients...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Caroline M Hägerhäll, Åsa Ode Sang, Jan-Eric Englund, Felix Ahlner, Konrad Rybka, Juliette Huber, Niclas Burenhult
There is an assumption in current landscape preference theory of universal consensus in human preferences for moderate to high openness in a natural landscape. This premise is largely based on empirical studies of urban Western populations. Here we examine for the first time landscape preference across a number of geographically, ecologically and culturally diverse indigenous populations. Included in the study were two urban Western samples of university students (from southern Sweden) and five non-Western, indigenous and primarily rural communities: Jahai (Malay Peninsula), Lokono (Suriname), Makalero (Timor), Makasae (Timor), and Wayuu (Colombia)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Venkatesh Pilla Reddy, Barry C Jones, Nicola Colclough, Abhishek Srivastava, Joanne Wilson, Danxi Li
Our recent paper (Jones et al., 2017) demonstrated the ability to predict in vivo clearance of Flavin-containing Monooxygenases (FMO) drug substrates, using in vitro human hepatocyte and human liver microsomal intrinsic clearance (CLint) with standard scaling approaches. In this paper, we apply physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling & simulation approaches (M&S) to predict the clearance, AUC and Cmax together with the plasma profile of a range of drugs from the original study. The human physiological parameters for FMO, such as enzyme abundance in liver, kidney, gut were derived from in vitro data and clinical pharmacogenetics studies...
June 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
E I Tarlovskaya
The article presents a review of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) dosage forms. The review showed that efficacy and safety of ASA are determined by its systemic effects and do not depend on the dosage form. Issues of ASA resistance are discussed.
2018: Kardiologiia
Ågot Kirsten Watne, Magda Psichoudaki, Evert Ljungstrom, Michael Le Breton, Mattias Hallquist, Martin Jerksjö, Henrik Fallgren, Sara Jutterström, Åsa Marita Hallquist
The potential effect of changing to a non-fossil fuel vehicle fleet was investigated by measuring primary emissions (by extractive sampling of bus plumes) and secondary mass formation, using a Gothenburg Potential Aerosol Mass (Go:PAM) reactor, from 29 in-use transit buses. Regarding fresh emissions, diesel (DSL) buses without a diesel particulate filter (DPF) emitted the highest median mass of particles, whereas compressed natural gas (CNG) buses emitted the lowest (Md EFPM 514 and 11 [mg (kg fuel-1 )] , respectively)...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Therese Avallin, Åsa Muntlin Athlin, Erik Elgaard Sorensen, Alison Kitson, Martin Björck, Eva Jangland
AIMS: To explore and describe the impact of the organizational culture on and the patient-practitioner patterns of actions that contribute to or detract from successful pain management for the patient with acute abdominal pain across the acute care pathway. BACKGROUND: Although pain management is a recognised human right, unmanaged pain continues to cause suffering and prolong hospital care. Unanswered questions about how to successfully manage pain relate to both organizational culture and individual practitioners' performance...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Manish Bhagania, Wael Youseff, Pushkar Mehra, Ruben Figueroa
Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the efficacy for two commonly used antibiotic regimens in the management of severe odontogenic infections. Patients and Methods: Evaluation of records of patients admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery service at Boston University Medical Center from 2009 to 2014 with severe infections of odontogenic origin (SOI). Patients were divided into two groups based on the administered intravenous antibiotic: 1) Group I: Clindamycin only and 2) Group II: Penicillin and Metronidazole...
May 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Nguyen Toan Tran, Mary Eluned Gaffield, Armando Seuc, Sihem Landoulsi, Wambi Maurice E Yamaego, Asa Cuzin-Kihl, Seni Kouanda, Blandine Thieba, Désiré Mashinda, Rachel Yodi, James Kiarie, Suzanne Reier
BACKGROUND: Postpartum family planning (PPFP) information and services can prevent maternal and child morbidity and mortality in low-resource countries, where high unmet need for PPFP remains despite opportunities offered by routine postnatal care visits. This study aims to identify a package of PPFP interventions and determine its effectiveness on the uptake of contraceptive methods during the first year postpartum. We hypothesize that implementing a PPFP intervention package that is designed to strengthen existing antenatal and postnatal care services will result in an increase in contraceptive use...
June 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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