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Uncontrolled manifold

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200629/trunk-lean-gait-decreases-multi-segmental-coordination-in-the-vertical-direction
#1
Kazuki Tokuda, Masaya Anan, Tomonori Sawada, Kenji Tanimoto, Takuya Takeda, Yuta Ogata, Makoto Takahashi, Nobuhiro Kito, Koichi Shinkoda
[Purpose] The strategy of trunk lean gait to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) may affect multi-segmental synergy control of center of mass (COM) displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index to understand motor variability. The purpose of this study was to investigate how motor variability is affected by using UCM analysis on adjustment of the trunk lean angle. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy young adults walked at their preferred speed under two conditions: normal and trunk lean gait...
November 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162977/perioperative-management-of-patients-with-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Vivien Leung, Kristal Ragbir-Toolsie
Hyperglycemia has long been recognized to have detrimental effects on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery. The manifestations of uncontrolled diabetes are manifold and can include risk of hyperglycemic crises, postoperative infection, poor wound healing, and increased mortality. There is substantial literature supporting the role of diligent glucose control in the prevention of adverse surgical outcomes, but considerable debate remains as to the optimal glucose targets. Hence, most organizations advocate the avoidance of hypoglycemia while striving for adequate glucose control in the perioperative period...
2017: Health Services Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150344/biomechanical-mechanism-of-lateral-trunk-lean-gait-for-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#3
Kazuki Tokuda, Masaya Anan, Makoto Takahashi, Tomonori Sawada, Kenji Tanimoto, Nobuhiro Kito, Koichi Shinkoda
The biomechanical mechanism of lateral trunk lean gait employed to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is not well known. This mechanism may relate to the center of mass (COM) motion. Moreover, lateral trunk lean gait may affect motor control of the COM displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index used to understand motor control and variability of the motor task. Here we aimed to clarify the biomechanical mechanism to reduce KAM during lateral trunk lean gait and how motor variability controls the COM displacement...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112886/uncontrolled-manifold-analysis-of-joint-angle-variability-during-table-tennis-forehand
#4
Yoichi Iino, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the variance structure of the trunk and racket arm joint angles in table tennis topspin forehand using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach, regarding racket orientation as the task variable. Nine advanced and eight intermediate male collegiate table tennis players performed the topspin strokes against backspin balls. The trunk, upper limb, and racket were modeled as six rigid-link segments with a total of 16 rotation degrees of freedom. The UCM analysis was conducted using 30 trial datasets per participant to quantify the degree of redundancy exploitation needed to stabilize the vertical and horizontal angles of the racket...
November 4, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103987/special-radiobiological-features-of-second-cancer-risk-after-particle-radiotherapy
#5
Klaus-Rüdiger Trott
In absolute terms: second cancer risks from radiotherapy of first cancers in adults are small compared to the benefits from radiotherapy but this is not so for radiotherapy of childhood cancers. Moreover, the radiation dose dependence of cancer induction differs between organs and tissues. The organ-specific dose dependence of second cancer risks may indicate the existence of different radiobiological mechanisms. As an inevitable consequence of the age dependence of organ sensitivity to second cancer induction, the organ/tissue weighting factors which have been proposed by ICRP for calculating effective dose (the dose unit Sv) and for risk estimation in the general population should not be used in medical radiation exposures...
October 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081743/the-propagation-of-movement-variability-in-time-a-methodological-approach-for-discrete-movements-with-multiple-degrees-of-freedom
#6
Melanie Krüger, Andreas Straube, Thomas Eggert
In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061556/impact-of-an-electronic-monitoring-intervention-to-improve-adherence-to-inhaled-medication-in-patients-with-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Claudia Gregoriano, Thomas Dieterle, Selina Dürr, Isabelle Arnet, Kurt E Hersberger, Jörg D Leuppi
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment in recent years, the burden of disease among patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is high and patients are frequently hospitalized due to exacerbations. Reasons for uncontrolled diseases are manifold, but are often associated with poor inhalation technique and non-adherence to the prescribed treatment plan. This causes substantial mortality, morbidity, and costs to the healthcare system...
October 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057143/phytotherapy-of-high-blood-pressure-in-three-phytogeographic-regions-of-cameroon
#8
Nole Tsabang, Clement G Yedjou, Paul B Tchounwou
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a public health challenge worldwide. According to World Health Organization, 30% of men and 50% of women 65 to 75 years old are suffering from high blood pressure. The number of hypertensive patients in the world will attain 1.56 billion of people, with 60% increase in prevalence. The incidence of high blood pressure increases with age, but nowadays, is being noticed an increasing incidence in young people. The socio-cultural medicine may provide new solutions in the management of this pathology...
2017: Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939197/uncontrolled-manifold-hypothesis-organization-of-leg-joint-variance-in-humans-while-walking-in-a-wide-range-of-speeds
#9
Monaco Vito, Tropea Peppino, Lucio A Rinaldi, Micera Silvestro
This study aimed at investigating the organization of joint angle variability during walking by using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) theory. We tested two hypotheses: i. the coordinative mechanism underlying joint angle variance during the stance phase is compatible with a kinematic synergy that stabilizes the centre of mass (CoM) position; ii. the walking speed affects the variance components onto and orthogonal to the UCM. Eight healthy subjects (26.0±2.0years old) steadily walked on a treadmill at five normalised speeds (from 0...
September 19, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936720/development-of-finger-force-coordination-in-children
#10
Sharon Shaklai, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Moran Levin, Jason Friedman
Coordination is often observed as body parts moving together. However, when producing force with multiple fingers, the optimal coordination is not to produce similar forces with each finger, but rather for each finger to correct mistakes of other fingers. In this study, we aim to determine whether and how this skill develops in children aged 4-12 years. We measured this sort of coordination using the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis (UCM). We recorded finger forces produced by 60 typically developing children aged between 4 and 12 years in a finger-pressing task...
December 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931612/cue-induced-changes-in-the-stability-of-finger-force-production-tasks-revealed-by-the-uncontrolled-manifold-analysis
#11
Satyajit S Ambike, Mitchell Tillman
A motor system configured to maximize the stability of its current state cannot dexterously transition between states. Yet, we routinely resolve the stability-dexterity conflict and rapidly change our current behavior without allowing it to become unstable prior to the desired transition. The phenomenon called anticipatory synergy adjustment (ASA) partly describes how the central nervous system handles this conflict. ASA is a continuous decrease in the stability of the current motor state beginning 150-400 ms prior to a rapid state transition accomplished using redundant sets of motor inputs (more input variables than task-specific output variables)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924748/a-multi-joint-model-of-quiet-upright-stance-accounts-for-the-uncontrolled-manifold-structure-of-joint-variance
#12
Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
The upright body in quiet stance is usually modeled as a single-link inverted pendulum. This agrees with most of the relevant sensory organs being at the far end of the pendulum, i.e., the eyes and the vestibular system in the head. Movement of the body in quiet stance has often been explained in terms of the "ankle strategy," where most movement is generated by the ankle musculature, while more proximal muscle groups are only rarely activated for faster movements or in response to perturbations, for instance, by flexing at the hips in what has been called the "hip strategy...
September 18, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915097/synergies-and-motor-equivalence-in-voluntary-sway-tasks-the-effects-of-visual-and-mechanical-constraints
#13
Mariusz P Furmanek, Stanisław Solnik, Daniele Piscitelli, Omid Rasouli, Ali Falaki, Mark L Latash
The authors used two analyses developed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify multimuscle synergies during voluntary body sway: analysis of intertrial variance and analysis of motor equivalence with respect to the center of pressure (COP) trajectory. Participants performed voluntary sway tasks in the anteroposterior direction at 0.33 and 0.66 Hz. Muscle groups were identified in the space of muscle activations and used as elemental variables in the synergy analyses. Changing mechanical and vision feedback-based constraints led to significant changes in indices of sway performance such as COP deviations in the uninstructed, mediolateral direction and indices of spontaneous postural sway...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904102/stability-of-hand-force-production-i-hand-level-control-variables-and-multi-finger-synergies
#14
Sasha Reschechtko, Mark L Latash
We combined the theory of neural control of movement with referent coordinates and the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore synergies stabilizing the hand action in accurate four-finger pressing tasks. In particular, we tested a hypothesis on two classes of synergies - those among the four fingers and those within a pair of control variables - stabilizing hand action under visual feedback and disappearing without visual feedback. Subjects performed four-finger total force and moment production tasks under visual feedback; the feedback was later partially or completely removed...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869185/gait-variability-and-motor-control-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-as-measured-by-the-uncontrolled-manifold-technique
#15
Gwenllian Fflur Tawy, Philip Rowe, Leela Biant
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain, reduced muscular strength and stiffness of the affected joint. In response, the motor control mechanism is altered, potentially compromising stability during acts of daily living. Reduced walking stability can be quantified in terms of gait variability. This study therefore aimed to identify and quantify the effects of knee arthritis on gait variability. Fifty adults (25 males/25 females) with end-stage OA of the knee sufficiently symptomatic to require joint replacement, walked on a self-paced treadmill for 2min...
August 18, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674489/multi-finger-interaction-and-synergies-in-finger-flexion-and-extension-force-production
#16
Jaebum Park, Dayuan Xu
The aim of this study was to discover finger interaction indices during single-finger ramp tasks and multi-finger coordination during a steady state force production in two directions, flexion, and extension. Furthermore, the indices of anticipatory adjustment of elemental variables (i.e., finger forces) prior to a quick pulse force production were quantified. It is currently unknown whether the organization and anticipatory modulation of stability properties are affected by force directions and strengths of in multi-finger actions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455740/motor-equivalence-and-structure-of-variance-multi-muscle-postural-synergies-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Ali Falaki, Xuemei Huang, Mechelle M Lewis, Mark L Latash
We explored posture-stabilizing multi-muscle synergies with two methods of analysis of multi-element, abundant systems: (1) Analysis of inter-cycle variance; and (2) Analysis of motor equivalence, both quantified within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis. Data collected in two earlier studies of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were re-analyzed. One study compared synergies in the space of muscle modes (muscle groups with parallel scaling of activation) during tasks performed by early-stage PD patients and controls...
July 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425057/quantifying-synergies-in-two-versus-one-situations-in-team-sports-an-example-from-rugby-union
#18
P Passos, J Milho, C Button
Collective behaviors in team sports result in players forming interpersonal synergies that contribute to performance goals. Because of the huge amount of variables that continuously constrain players' behavior during a game, the way that these synergies are formed remain unclear. Our aim was to quantify interpersonal synergies in the team sport of Rugby Union. For that purpose we used the Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis (UCM) to identify interpersonal synergies that are formed between ball carrier and support player in two-versus-one situations in Rugby Union...
April 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423977/age-associated-differences-in-motor-output-variability-and-coordination-during-the-simultaneous-dorsiflexion-of-both-feet
#19
Amanda Marchini, Rafael Pereira, Wellington Pedroso, Evangelos Christou, Osmar Pinto Neto
Older adults are more variable than young adults on tasks that demand the simultaneous control of more than one effector, and the difference between age groups may be related to their different capacity of coordinating the force output of the involved effectors. The goal of this study was to determine whether age-associated differences in motor output variability during tasks involving the simultaneous dorsiflexion of two feet can be partially explained by differences in coordination and possibly attenuated by physical training...
April 19, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293798/old-adults-preserve-motor-flexibility-during-rapid-reaching
#20
Christian Greve, Tibor Hortobágyi, Raoul M Bongers
PURPOSE: Our ability to flexibly coordinate the available degrees of freedom allows us to perform activities of daily living under various task constraints. Healthy old adults exhibit subclinical peripheral and central nervous system dysfunctions, possibly compromising the flexibility in inter-joint coordination during voluntary movements and the ability to adapt to varying task constraints. METHOD: We examined how healthy old (75.4 ± 5.2 years, n = 14) compared with young adults (24...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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